Article

Animal models in type 2 diabetes research: an overview. Indian J Med Res

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Mohali, India.
The Indian Journal of Medical Research (Impact Factor: 1.4). 04/2007; 125(3):451-72.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes is a complex and heterogeneous disorder presently affecting more than 100 million people worldwide and causing serious socio-economic problems. Appropriate experimental models are essential tools for understanding the pathogenesis, complications, and genetic or environmental influences that increase the risks of type 2 diabetes and testing of various therapeutic agents. The animal models of type 2 diabetes can be obtained either spontaneously or induced by chemicals or dietary or surgical manipulations and/or by combination thereof. In recent years, large number of new genetically modified animal models including transgenic, generalized knock-out and tissue-specific knockout mice have been engineered for the study of diabetes. This review gives an overview on the animal models of type 2 diabetes with reference to their origin/source, characteristic features, underlying causes/mechanism(s), advantages and disadvantages to the investigators in diabetes research. In addition, it especially describes the appropriate selection and usefulness of different animal models in preclinical testing of various new chemical entities (NCEs) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

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    • "Forty two days of high carbohydrate diet intake[21]was performed, then insulin tolerance test was done. Then to develop obese diabetic mice, the second stage induction was performed by administering aloxan 50 mg/kg bw intravenously[22]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This research was to investigate the activity of Andrographis paniculata extract (APE) and Guazuma ulmifolia extract (GUE) in treating obesity integrated diabetic conditions. Methods: There were two stages of inductions: the first stage was a 42 d of high carbohydrate intake (obese with insulin resistance mice model), followed by second stage induction by giving of alloxan 50 mg/kg bw intravenously (obese diabetic mice model). Animals with glucose level>200 mg/dl were then treated with metformin 195 mg/kg bw, glibenclamide 0.65 mg/kg bw, APE 2 g/kg bw, GUE 0.5 g/kg bw, combination of APE 1 g/kg bw and GUE 0.25 g/kg bw, or combination of APE 2 g/kg bw and GUE 0.5 g/kg bw for 14 d. Results: The results showed that APE alone, GUE alone, and the combination of APE 2 g/kg bw and GUE 0.5 g/kg bw could improve insulin sensitivity in obese with insulin resistance mice model. Whereas the combination of APE 2 g/kg bw and GUE 0.5 g/kg bw could significantly decrease blood glucose level and body weight (p<0.05) in obese diabetic mice model compare to APE alone, GUE alone, or a combination of APE 1 g/kg bw and GUE 0.25 g/kg bw. Conclusion: It is concluded that APE 2 g/kg bw, GUE 0.5 g/kg bw, and combination of APE 2 g/kg bw and GUE 0.5 g/kg bw can improve insulin resistance conditions caused by obesity, while combination of APE 2 g/kg bw and GUE 0.5 g/kg bw has the best activity in treating obese diabetic conditions. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Innovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    • " Animals were divided into four groups, six rats in each. Food and water were provided to the animals. The dose was calculated by extrapolating the human dose to animal based on the body surface area ratio by referring to the table of Paget and Barnes (1969). [22,23] The grouping is as follows."
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook.f. & Thomson) is used abundantly for Madhumeha (~diabetes mellitus) in traditional Ayurvedic medicines. The different dosage forms are mentioned in Ayurvedic classics like Churna, Kwatha, Ghana etc. So present study is planned to assess its anti-diabetic activity. Materials and Methods: In the present study, aqueous extract of T. cordifolia was prepared by a traditional procedure of Ayurveda and assessed for its anti-diabetic activity. Diabetes was induced in Wistar strain albino rats by injecting streptozotocin in dose 40 mg/kg body weight. Aqueous extract of T. cordifolia Linn in a dose of 42.34 mg/kg was mixed with honey and administered orally. Different biochemical parameters like Blood Glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, blood urea, Creatinine, SGPT, SGOT, Total protein, albumin, globumin were assessed. Results: 24.93-percentage reduction in Blood Glucose level and 28.96 percentage reduction in glycated hemoglobin was observed in test drug treated group in comparison to diabetic control rats. Conclusion: Mild reduction of blood glucose level was observed in the analysis. Key words: Anti-diabetic activity, dried extract of T. cordifolia, Guduchi Ghana, Honey.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · International Journal of Green Pharmacy
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    • "Genetically induced mouse models are of two types generated by knocking in or out a particular gene, or by breeding different strains. Most commonly used rodent models for diabetes are ob/ob mice, NOD (non-obese diabetic mice), Zucker fatty rats (ZFR), KK mouse and corpulent (cp) rats etc. (Plum et al., 2005; Srinivasan and Ramarao, 2007; Lee and Cox, 2011). There is a long list of mouse strains which are generated by outbreeding and inbreeding of already available different strains (Clee and Attie, 2007). "

    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology
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Questions & Answers about this publication

  • Hossein Babaei added an answer in Alloxan:
    What's the best method to induce type II diabetes in rabbits?

    Is Alloxan or Streptozotocine better, and what's the method?

    Hossein Babaei

    Dear Ahmed

    Diabetes type II studies is widely done in rats, and only few studies are carried out in rabbits. However, I hope the following publications would help you.

    Good Luck

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      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is a complex and heterogeneous disorder presently affecting more than 100 million people worldwide and causing serious socio-economic problems. Appropriate experimental models are essential tools for understanding the pathogenesis, complications, and genetic or environmental influences that increase the risks of type 2 diabetes and testing of various therapeutic agents. The animal models of type 2 diabetes can be obtained either spontaneously or induced by chemicals or dietary or surgical manipulations and/or by combination thereof. In recent years, large number of new genetically modified animal models including transgenic, generalized knock-out and tissue-specific knockout mice have been engineered for the study of diabetes. This review gives an overview on the animal models of type 2 diabetes with reference to their origin/source, characteristic features, underlying causes/mechanism(s), advantages and disadvantages to the investigators in diabetes research. In addition, it especially describes the appropriate selection and usefulness of different animal models in preclinical testing of various new chemical entities (NCEs) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
      Full-text · Article · Apr 2007 · The Indian Journal of Medical Research

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