Long-term outcome associated with intratumoral chemotherapy with cisplatin for cutaneous tumors in equidae: 573 Cases (1995-2004)
To determine outcome associated with cutaneous tumors treated via intratumoral chemotherapy with cisplatin and identify risk factors affecting local tumor control and complications in equidae. Retrospective case series. 573 equidae with 630 cutaneous tumors. Medical records of horses, mules, donkeys, and ponies with cutaneous tumors treated via intratumoral chemotherapy with cisplatin were analyzed. 549 horses, 13 mules, 8 donkeys, and 3 ponies with 630 histologically confirmed cutaneous tumors were included. Tumors included sarcoids (n = 409), squamous cell carcinomas (151), soft tissue sarcomas (28), cutaneous lymphomas (26), and melanomas (16). Overall cure rate, defined as local control at 4 years, was 93.3%. For all tumor stages combined, cure rates after 1 course of treatment were 96.3% for sarcoids, 96% for lymphomas, 88% for squamous cell carcinomas, 85% for soft tissue sarcomas, and 81% for melanomas. Treatment protocol, tumor stage, and prior treatment were significant prognostic factors for tumor control. Treatment efficacy was lower for large tumors, those with gross postoperative residual disease, and those that had been treated previously with other modalities. Treatment was well tolerated. Local reactions were more likely to occur and to be more severe after the third and fourth treatment sessions. Results confirmed the value of intratumoral chemotherapy with cisplatin for treatment of cutaneous tumors in equidae. The results cannot be extrapolated to other formulations of cisplatin or other protocols that might be used.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Equine melanoma has a high incidence in grey horses. Xenogenic DNA vaccination may represent a promising therapeutic approach against equine melanoma as it successfully induced an immunological response in other species suffering from melanoma and in healthy horses. In a clinical study, twenty-seven, grey, melanoma-bearing, horses were assigned to three groups (n = 9) and vaccinated on days 1, 22, and 78 with DNA vectors encoding for equine (eq) IL-12 and IL-18 alone or in combination with either human glycoprotein (hgp) 100 or human tyrosinase (htyr). Horses were vaccinated intramuscularly, and one selected melanoma was locally treated by intradermal peritumoral injection. Prior to each injection and on day 120, the sizes of up to nine melanoma lesions per horse were measured by caliper and ultrasound. Specific serum antibodies against hgp100 and htyr were measured using cell based flow-cytometric assays. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for repeated measurements was performed to identify statistically significant influences on the relative tumor volume. For post-hoc testing a Tukey-Kramer Multiple-Comparison Test was performed to compare the relative volumes on the different examination days. An ANOVA for repeated measurements was performed to analyse changes in body temperature over time. A one-way ANOVA was used to evaluate differences in body temperature between the groups. A p–value < 0.05 was considered significant for all statistical tests applied. Results In all groups, the relative tumor volume decreased significantly to 79.1 ± 26.91% by day 120 (p < 0.0001, Tukey-Kramer Multiple-Comparison Test). Affiliation to treatment group, local treatment and examination modality had no significant influence on the results (ANOVA for repeated measurements). Neither a cellular nor a humoral immune response directed against htyr or hgp100 was detected. Horses had an increased body temperature on the day after vaccination. Conclusions This is the first clinical report on a systemic effect against equine melanoma following treatment with DNA vectors encoding eqIL12 and eqIL18 and formulated with a transfection reagent. Addition of DNA vectors encoding hgp100 respectively htyr did not potentiate this effect. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12917-015-0414-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
- "Equine melanoma, a tumor of pigment producing cells, is the most common skin tumor in aging grey horses with a prevalence of up to 95% . So far, conventional therapies such as surgical excision , cryosurgery , radiotherapy , or chemotherapy with cisplatin  or cimetidine  have not been curative in advanced cases. Obviously, there is need for innovative approaches to treat equine melanoma lesions of later stages. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laser resection for the treatment of sarcoids is an established part of equine practice; however few studies have provided long-term follow-up results. Additionally many previous reports have evaluated several treatments concurrently or have not been able to provide definitive histological diagnosis of sarcoid. To establish the success rate following laser resection as a sole treatment for histologically-confirmed sarcoids and evaluate risk factors for recurrence. Retrospective time-to-event analysis. Horses included had laser surgery to remove ≥1 sarcoid between 1 July 2005 and 1 September 2012. No previous known/concurrent veterinary treatment was administered. Diagnosis was confirmed by histology in all cases. Clinical data were retrieved from the hospital database. Follow-up information was obtained by telephone questionnaire. Ninety-nine horses, with a total of 235 sarcoids, were included in the analysis. 82 (83%) had no recurrence of the sarcoid removed and 71 (72%) had no occurrence of any sarcoids following surgery. Horses with sarcoids on the head and neck and those with verrucose sarcoids were at increased risk of recurrence (hazard ratio of 1.61. 95% CI 1.02-2.56; and 4.03, 95%CI 1.11-14.7 respectively). Laser resection of sarcoids in the horse has a positive postoperative prognosis. Further work is required to evaluate risk factors for recurrence fully. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- "Despite being so widespread, there is no clear consensus as to their aetiology, or a universal method of treatment, owing in part to their diverse phenotypic appearance. A range of treatment modalities, including various topical applications2345, immunotherapy6789101112, radiation therapy [2,1314151617, chemotherapy18192021, cryosurgery [12,22], 'traditional' sharp surgery [2,9,12,23] and laser surgery [12,24252627, have all been reported in the veterinary literature (Fig 1) and an even wider variety of nonprescription treatments are used by the horse-owning public. Success rates with respect to recurrence vary widely; however, no single treatment has been shown to be suitable for all sarcoids in all locations. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exenteration of an eye may be necessary in clinical practice for a variety of disease processes. Specifically, neoplastic processes may require wide excision margins that may not allow primary closure of the surgical site. This report describes a series of horses undergoing unilateral radical eye exenteration for which primary closure was not possible due the extent of tissue excised. For each case the underlying pathology, surgical technique, perioperative treatments and outcome are described. Six cases were treated of which 3 survive at this time, 2 were euthanized because of recurrence, 1 was euthanized from unrelated problem. Radical exenteration of the eye with wide margins and second intention healing is easy to perform and well tolerated in horses. It should be considered when extensive resection is required for instance in neoplastic processes. Aftercare is required as for all wounds that heal by second intention; time from surgery to epithelialization is approximately 4 months.
- "Immunotherapy and intralesional chemotherapy usually require serial treatments. The latter can also cause localized necrosis and suppuration [25,54,65]. Side effects of photodynamic therapy include marked eyelid swelling for up to 10 days after treatment, permanent scarring, and alopecia . "