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Classroom interactions: Exploring the practices of high- and low-expectation teachers

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Early research exploring teacher expectations concentrated on the dyadic classroom interactions of teachers with individual students. More recent studies have shown whole class factors to have more significance in portraying teachers' expectations. Recently teachers having high or low expectations for all their students have been identified. The aim of the current investigation was to explore whether the classroom exchanges of high- and low-expectation teachers differed substantially and might be considered a mechanism for teachers' expectations. The participants were 12 primary school teachers from eight schools who had been identified as having expectations for their students' learning that were either significantly above or below the children's achievement level. The teachers formed three groups called high-expectation, low-expectation and average-progress teachers. The participants were observed twice in the academic year during half-hour reading lessons. Two people observed each lesson, one completing a structured observation protocol and the other a running record and audiotape. In contrast to the average progress and low expectation teachers, the high-expectation teachers spent more time providing a framework for students' learning, provided their students with more feedback, questioned their students using more higher-order questions, and managed their students' behaviour more positively. There appear to be important differences in the classroom environments for the students of high-expectation, average-progress and low-expectation teachers. The differences apply to both the instructional and socioemotional environments of the classroom. Such disparities may act as mechanisms for teacher expectation effects.

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... With regard to the meaning ascribed to track placement, both teachers and students make assumptions about youth based on their curricular track placement (Legette, 2018;Rubie-Davies, 2007). Namely, students in both honors and standard classes believe that students in honors classes have better academic abilities and behaviors than students in standard classes (Legette, 2018;Tyson, 2011). ...
... Our results might also have resulted from the social consequences of track placement if interactions with teachers and peers differed across the two tracks. Teachers hold more positive perceptions and higher academic expectations of students in advanced classes than in standard classes (Oakes, 2005), which in turn are associated with differences in teaching practices (Rubie-Davies, 2007). Teachers who hold high expectations for their classrooms provide students with more positive feedback, orient children to the lesson more, ask more open-ended questions, and manage students' behavior more positively than teachers who hold low expectations for their classrooms (Rubie-Davies, 2007). ...
... Teachers hold more positive perceptions and higher academic expectations of students in advanced classes than in standard classes (Oakes, 2005), which in turn are associated with differences in teaching practices (Rubie-Davies, 2007). Teachers who hold high expectations for their classrooms provide students with more positive feedback, orient children to the lesson more, ask more open-ended questions, and manage students' behavior more positively than teachers who hold low expectations for their classrooms (Rubie-Davies, 2007). Future research could substantiate that these track differences in teachers' behaviors lead to differences across time in the academic achievement and goals of early adolescents. ...
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Curricular tracking is common in many countries, yet this school practice might have unintended consequences for students’ attitudes toward school. We examined the changes in adolescents’ school belonging among sixth graders placed in honors versus regular math, with academic identity as a mediator in this relation. Early adolescents ( N = 322; 72% White; 164 girls) in the southeastern United States completed measures of school belonging and academic identity at the beginning and end of their sixth-grade year. With parent education, prior math achievement, and prior school belonging controlled, honors math placement predicted increases in school belonging from the beginning to the end of students’ sixth-grade year, and this association was positively mediated by academic identity. Results of this study are important for further understanding the influences of tracking on students’ motivational beliefs.
... However, it has been pointed out that teacher expectations are influenced by the environment they teach in (Agirdag et al., 2013;Rubie-Davies, 2007;Weinstein, 2002). Empirical studies indeed demonstrate that teacher expectations are influenced by the socioeconomic school composition, ethnic school composition and/or gender composition of the school (Agirdag, Van Avermaet, and Van Houtte, 2013;Brault, Janosz, and Archembault, 2014;Demanet, Van den Broeck, and Van Houtte, 2019). ...
... Given that teachers within the same school are confronted with the same school environment, it is likely that these teachers develop similar expectations regarding their students -thereby creating a teacher expectation culture (Agirdag, Van Avermaet, and Van Houtte, 2013;Demanet, and Van Houtte, 2012;Rumberger and Palardy, 2005;. It should be noted that research on group-level teacher expectations has mostly been carried out in elementary school settings (Agirdag, 2018;Rubie-Davies, 2007;Thys and Van Houtte, 2016). Nevertheless, it has been argued that such group-level expectations may be more pronounced at high schools where one-on-one, or dyadic, interactions between teachers and students occur less frequently (Brault, Janosz, and Archembault, 2014). ...
... We inspected whether students are enrolled in higher education three years after the expected graduation date from secondary education, and the kind of institution they attend, differentiating between high-status university programs versus other less prestigious institutes of higher education. The results seem to confirm that differentiation does occur between higher education institutions, rather than merely attending higher education versus not attending higher education (Davies and182 Hammack, 2005, Reay, Crozier andClayton, 2010), which underscores the importance for future research to distinguish between these different educational choices. We find that, for both outcomes, SES composition of the high school matters, regardless of individual SES, ability, and ability composition of the school. ...
... However, most of these studies used academic achievement (i.e., grade point averages) as an objective indicator of academic competence and few of them have incorporated other teacher ratings of academic functioning, such as subjective ratings of effort and interest in classroom activities [32]. In this study, we are interested in extending previous literature in this field, considering a broader definition of academic competence because it has been shown that teachers' subjective expectations about the performance of their students affect their interactions with them, influencing the classroom climate as a whole [35]. Moreover, it is well established that the quality of school and classroom climate is related to general antisocial behaviour [36] and, specifically, to violence and victimisation problems [11,12]. ...
... Considering teacher perceptions, the original research conducted by Harris and Rosenthal [50] showed that teacher expectations about their students were related to academic outcomes through a classroom factor such as a warm and affective climate more than through the quality of dyadic interactions. Subsequent studies [35,51] have shown that teachers with high expectations for their students created a different instructional and socioemotional environment, characterized by a better structuring of the teaching process, more feedback, a greater number of open questions and more positive and preventive management of disruptive behaviour in the classroom. However, most of the previous literature focused on teacher perceptions and classroom climate have focused on academic outcomes and not on behavioural outcomes such as school violence and victimisation. ...
... If the chisquare of the restricted model was significantly larger than the chi-square of the unrestricted model, the assumption of invariance would not be tenable. The results showed significant differences between boys and girls in the model (∆χ 2 (35,2399) = 103.432, p < 0.001). ...
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School violence is a serious social and public health problem prevalent worldwide. Although the relevance of teacher and classroom factors is well established in the literature, few studies have focused on the role of teacher perceptions in school violence and victimisation and the potential mediational role of classroom climate in this relationship. A total of 2399 adolescents (50% girls), aged between 11 and 18 years (M = 14.65, SD = 1.78) and enrolled in five Spanish Secondary Compulsory Education schools completed measures of classroom climate, school violence towards peers and perception of peer victimisation, and their teachers informed about their academic competence and the teacher–student relationship. Correlational analyses revealed that whereas academic competence perceived by the teacher was negatively related to overt violence and victimisation, its relationship with pure relational violence was positive. Structural equation modelling analyses showed that variables of classroom climate (involvement, affiliation, and teacher support) perceived by the students functioned as partial mediators between teacher perceptions of academic competence and of teacher–student relationship and violence and victimisation. In the mediational model, teacher perception of academic competence acted as a direct protective factor against violence and victimisation, and teacher perception of teacher–student relationship acted as a direct risk for violence, as well as an indirect protective factor through classroom climate for victimisation. The interpretation of these results points to the importance of the teacher’s subjective perceptions in the prevention of violence and victimisation problems and their practical implications for the classroom climate perceived by students.
... Previous research has shown that teachers are relatively accurate in their expectations (Jussim & Harber, 2005), but nevertheless favor some students over others in their expectations (e.g., De Boer, Bosker, & van der Werf, 2010;Glock & Krolak-Schwerdt, 2013;Tenenbaum & Ruck, 2007;Timmermans, Kuyper, & Van der Werf, 2015). Teachers' expectations affect subsequent teaching behaviors; for example, through asking richer questions, and providing learning-focused feedback to students for whom the teachers have high expectations (e.g., Brophy & Good, 1970;Good & Lavigne, 2018;Rubie-Davies, 2007;Weinstein, 2002). Teacher expectations work as a self-fulfilling prophecy (Merton, 1948) on subsequent student outcomes such as academic performance, intelligence, self-efficacy, and motivation (e.g., Agirdag, Van Avermaet, & Van Houtte, 2013;McKown & Weinstein, 2008;Tyler & Boelter, 2008;Zhu & Urhahne, 2015). ...
... Recent evidence has indicated that the previous findings are not universal, however, as some students, including low achievers, students from low-income families, and those from ethnic minority groups (e.g., Hinnant, O'Brien, & Ghazarian, 2009;McKown & Weinstein, 2002;, seem to be more susceptible to self-fulfilling prophecy effects of teacher expectations than other students. Moreover, some teachers place more credence in student differences than others (e.g., Rubie-Davies, 2007;Timmermans, de Boer, & van der Werf, 2016), and a small group of teachers seems to generate stronger self-fulfilling prophecy effects on students' academic achievement than the majority of teachers (e.g., Weinstein, 2002;Rubie-Davies, 2015;Timmermans & Rubie-Davies, 2018). ...
... In this study, we only analyzed teacher expectation stability within the domain of mathematics. It is not uncommon in teacher expectation research to study expectations in a particular domain and to generalize to teacher expectations as a general construct (e.g., Kuklinski & Weinstein, 2000;Rubie-Davies, 2007). However, to the best of our knowledge it remains unclear whether expectations behave similarly over different subject domains. ...
Article
The issue of teacher expectation stability is crucial in understanding the self-fulfilling prophecies generated by teacher expectations. However, currently there is a lack of empirical evidence related to teacher expectation stability. The aim of the current study was to assess the temporal stability of teacher expectations of their students’ mathematics achievement within the timeframe of one school year. Random-Intercept Cross-Lagged Panel Models were employed based on a sample of 2536 students taught by 89 teachers in New Zealand elementary and middle public schools. Strong rank order stability was found in teacher expectations at the between-student level. Expectation instability was present at the within-student level. Paths from student mathematics achievement to teacher expectations were stronger than the paths in the opposite direction, indicating that teachers adapted their expectations for students to fall in line with student performance and continued to do so throughout the year.
... In addition, almost all existing studies on teacher expectation effects have investigated teacher expectations from an individual perspective-teacher expectations for each of their individual students. It has been suggested, however, that teachers not only have expectations for individual students, but they also form expectations for their class/classes of students as a whole (e.g., Brophy, 1983;Rubie-Davies, 2006, 2007. Yet, so far, very few studies have looked at teacher expectations at the class level, or have investigated teacher expectations from the teachers' perspective in the Western and especially in the Chinese context (see Z. ...
... Very few studies, however, have examined teacher expectations from a teacher-centred perspective (i.e., whether or not particular teachers have high or low expectations for all their students), and their possible influences on student learning and achievement. Rubie-Davies (2006, 2007, 2015 conducted a series of studies to explore teachers' overall expectations for their students. By comparing the end-of-year achievement gains of students with their beginning-of-year achievement, it was found that whereas students with high expectation teachers made large statistically significant gains in their reading achievement across the year, students in the classes of low expectation teachers made small or no gains . ...
... Based on her research findings of class-level teacher expectation effects in the New Zealand primary school context, Rubie-Davies (2007, 2015 suggested that class-level teacher expectations could function as self-fulfilling prophecies and affect learning outcomes in two main ways: (1) by influencing the socioemotional environment that the teacher creates in classrooms which can either promote or restrain student learning, and (2) by affecting the instructional environment-how and what teachers teach and, thus, what students ultimately learn. ...
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This study aimed to explore and compare individual student-level and teacher-level teacher expectation effects on student academic achievement in the Chinese junior high school context. The participants were 50 teachers and their 1199 students from 10 junior high schools. With differences in student baseline achievement controlled, hierarchical linear modelling was employed to see if early-year teacher expectations predicted student year-end achievement. Results showed that both student- and teacher-level expectations (relative to achievement) positively predicted student academic achievement. Teacher expectations at the student level showed a stronger influence on student-achievement outcomes. The results also indicated that teachers tended to hold higher expectations for girls than for boys and were more likely to underestimate students who were children of migrant workers.
... Since Rosenthal and Jacobsen's (1968) 'Pygmalion', a literature has built on the impacts of teacher perceptions and judgements, as well as on error and bias in judgements. This includes evidence of a pervasive, disproportionate tendency of teachers to more often rate boys as good at maths, compared to girls (Campbell, 2015;Heyder et al., 2019;Riegle-Crumb & Humphries, 2012;Tiedemann, 2002;Wang, Rubie-Davies, & Meissel, 2018), and indications that judgements to some extent convey individual teachers' own cognitive frameworks and tendencies -rather than simply reflecting children's performance (Rubie-Davies, 2007. Heyder et al.'s (2019) recent research into teachers' beliefs suggests that they 'directly affect students' beliefs such as their stereotypes and ability self-concepts', while Timmermans, Rubie-Davies, and Rjosk's (2018) review illustrates that this phenomenon manifests internationally. ...
... Moreover, given that attenuated models in the current paper control for children's maths skills -as proxied by the cognitive test -and for skills in other domains, as well as for background characteristics, this again suggests that patterns of ratings are at least to some extent situated at the level of the teacher: because variation in judgement remains after attenuation, and apparently similar children are judged differently. Rubie-Davies (2007 shows a tendency of individual teachers to default to 'high' or 'low-expectation' thinking, and that 'high-expectation teachers spent more time providing a framework for students' learning, provided their students with more feedback, questioned their students using more higher-order questions, and managed their students' behaviour more positively' (p. 289). ...
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This paper analyses English Millennium Cohort Study data (N = 4463). It examines two respective predictors of children’s maths self-concept at age 11: earlier in-class maths ‘ability’ group and earlier teacher judgements of children’s maths ‘ability/attainment’ (both at age seven). It also investigates differential associations by maths cognitive test score at seven (which proxies maths skill), and by gender. In the sample overall, controlling for numerous potential confounders including maths score, bottom-grouped children and children judged ‘below average’ are much more likely to have later negative maths self-concept. Beneath this aggregate lies variation by gender. All highest ‘ability’-grouped boys have very low chances of negative self-concept, regardless of maths score – but low-scoring girls placed in the highest group have heightened chances of thinking subsequently they are not good at maths. Additionally, the association between negative teacher judgement and negative self-concept is more pervasive for girls.
... Teachers, for instance, often perceive lowtrack students as more inattentive, disruptive, and withdrawn and place an excessive emphasis on discipline (Kelly and Carbonaro, 2012). In contrast, teachers tend to provide more feedback, praise, and challenging instruction for high-expectation students (Cooper, 1979;Rubie-Davies, 2007). Importantly, even young children are able to identify teachers with different expectations (Peterson et al., 2016), and how teachers perceive students affects student academic performance via the many teacher-student interactions in daily class (Rubie-Davies, 2007;Hattie, 2009;Rubie-Davies et al., 2015). ...
... In contrast, teachers tend to provide more feedback, praise, and challenging instruction for high-expectation students (Cooper, 1979;Rubie-Davies, 2007). Importantly, even young children are able to identify teachers with different expectations (Peterson et al., 2016), and how teachers perceive students affects student academic performance via the many teacher-student interactions in daily class (Rubie-Davies, 2007;Hattie, 2009;Rubie-Davies et al., 2015). For instance, Rubie-Davies et al. (2015), based on an RCT, show that students in classrooms of teachers with high expectations tend to have higher math scores. ...
Article
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This study draws the attention towards the importance of reducing weight discrimination against children for their educational success, as an issue of social justice. We investigate the consequences of early-onset obesity identifying the mediating mechanisms in the relationship between childhood obesity and academic achievement. To do so, we employ the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (kindergarten to fifth grade) in the US (ECLS-K: 2011) and apply a parallel process latent growth model with a combination of quasi-experiments and econometrics. The results of this study suggest that teachers may serve as a significant source of weight bias, especially for girls (B = −0.09, 95% BC CI [−2.37 to −0.46]).
... Past research has emphasized the relevance of teacher judgments for student learning, as these judgments inform teachers' educational decisions, such as the amount and complexity of the material that they teach or the kind of feedback they provide (Gentrup, Lorenz, Kristen, & Kogan, 2020;Harris & Rosenthal, 1985;Rubie-Davies, 2007). But what judgments are most beneficial: accurate or (overly) positive ones? ...
... Going back to Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) seminal Pygmalion in the Classroom Study and the concept of self-fulfilling prophecies, many researchers have concluded that students will learn better if their teachers make positive judgments of their performance (e.g., Friedrich et al., 2015;Jussim, 1989;Jussim & Eccles, 1992;Madon et al., 1997;Muntoni & Retelsdorf, 2018;Rubie-Davies et al., 2006;Rubie-Davies et al., 2014). According to this view, teachers' prophecies are self-fulfilling because teachers show more supportive behavior (e.g., give more feedback or teach more challenging concepts) to students for whom they have high expectations (Gentrup et al., 2020;Rubie-Davies, 2007). ...
Article
Previous findings on effects of teachers' judgments on student learning have been contradictory leading to the question of what kinds of judgments are most beneficial: accurate or (overly) positive ones? In this study, we provide the first competitive test of prominent but contradictory hypotheses regarding the consequences of teachers' judgments in the context of reading proficiency using reading fluency and reading comprehension performance judgments from 145 teachers and measures of real performance and learning progress across eight points of measurement from 2,880 students. Response Surface Analyses combined with an information-theoretic approach for model comparison revealed no evidence of positive effects of judgment accuracy or overestimation of student performance by teachers. Instead, progress in reading fluency and reading comprehension was best predicted by students' prior achievement. For reading comprehension, the positivity of teachers' judgments was additionally beneficial: The higher a teacher judged a student's performance, the more the student learned.
... The effects of teacher expectations on student academic outcomes can be explained by mechanisms of self-fulfilling prophecy (Brophy and Good, 1970). Furthermore, teacher expectations have been investigated on a classroom level (Rubie-Davies, 2007;Wang et al., 2019). Studies have shown that students enrolled in classrooms with high expectations from their teachers receive a large number of instructions, explanations, scaffolding, and feedback (e.g., Rubie-Davies, 2007). ...
... Furthermore, teacher expectations have been investigated on a classroom level (Rubie-Davies, 2007;Wang et al., 2019). Studies have shown that students enrolled in classrooms with high expectations from their teachers receive a large number of instructions, explanations, scaffolding, and feedback (e.g., Rubie-Davies, 2007). These teaching practices facilitate learning processes in classroom instruction and have a positive impact on gains in student academic achievement (Rubie-Davies et al., 2006;Hattie and Timperley, 2007). ...
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School closures in spring 2020 caused by the COVID-19 pandemic were an unprecedented and drastic event for students, parents, and teachers. The unplanned adaptation of classroom instruction to emergency distance learning was necessary to ensure continued education. In this new learning environment, teachers formed expectations for student academic achievement gains, which in turn affected the opportunities for students to learn. Parents faced new challenges in supporting their children's learning. According to parenting stress models, such drastic events can be a stress factor for parents, which in turn affects their children's adjustment. This study analyzed the extent to which parents and teachers affected the perceptions of students in compulsory school toward distance learning through processes at home (individual level) and at the class level with data from multiple informants. On an individual level, the relationship between parents' perceived threat of COVID-19 and their stress due to distance learning and students' perceived threat of COVID-19 and their perception of distance learning were examined. Students' learning behavior was accounted for as a variable related to their perception of distance learning. At the class level, the explanatory character of teacher expectations and class-aggregated achievement gains were examined. Data on students in grades 4 to 8, parents, and teachers in Switzerland were collected with standardized online questionnaires after the period of school closures. A subsample of 539 students, 539 parents, and 83 teachers was analyzed. The results of multilevel structural equation modeling suggested that students had a more positive perception of distance learning if they were able to learn more autonomously (i.e., more motivated and concentrated than in regular classroom instruction) and if their parents felt less stressed in the distance learning setting. Parents were more stressed if they perceived COVID-19 as a threat. Students' perception of the COVID-19 threat was related to their parents' perception but did not explain students' learning behavior. At the class level, if teachers expected high academic achievement gains in distance learning, the average academic achievement gains of a class were greater. The greater the achievement gains were, the more positive the collective student perception of distance learning was.
... Teachers who use more of these differential behaviours when interacting with students have greater expectation effects on their students than teachers who use fewer differentiating behaviours (Kuklinski & Weinstein, 2001;Rubie-Davies, 2007). Differential behaviour is to be distinguished from Tomlinson's (2003) notion of differentiation, which is a philosophical approach to teaching and learning that provides variety in learning experiences in appreciation of student diversity (Tomlinson, 2003(Tomlinson, , 2014. ...
... High expectation teachers tend to use differential behaviours less frequently, communicating high expectations to their students by using a facilitative approach, continually monitoring students' progress, giving all students the same opportunities to learn, and encouraging student autonomy (Rubie-Davies et al., 2015;Weinstein, 2002). On the other hand, low expectations teachers ask closed questions, group students inflexibly by ability, use more direct instruction and offer less choice (Rubie-Davies, 2007). Surveys of students have confirmed that students associate these behaviours with teachers' expectations (Rio, 2017;Segedin et al., 2012) and that these teacher behaviours can influence student academic self-concepts (Bohlmann & Weinstein, 2013;Chen et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Teacher expectation research has continued to establish an association between what teachers expect of their students and what students accomplish academically. These expectations affect students when they are communicated by teachers through differential treatment in the class, but no qualitative research has sought adolescent students’ points of view about how they experience teacher expectation effects. This paper presents new research findings that explain how Grade 10 students experienced their teachers’ expectations in ways that they reflected impacted their academic outcomes. Classic grounded theory methods were used to develop this new knowledge, which has implications for how teachers are educated for, and practice, interacting with secondary school students. The findings are grounded in data from more than 100 interviews with students and 175 classroom observations in three Western Australian metropolitan public secondary schools. Students’ voices are projected, explaining how their teachers convey high academic expectations through classroom interactions that instil confidence in students. The discussion invokes a connection to Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory and its enduring tenants of self-efficacy beliefs and mastery learning experiences.
... Self-efficacy has a positive effect on other areas of teaching: stress reduction in the case of challenging behaviour of students with ASD (Leblanc, Richardson, & Burns, 2009;Lepper, & Probst, 2005), and reduction of the risk of professional burnout (Boujut, Dean, Grouselle, & Cappe, 2016;Boujut et al., 2017;Corona, Christodulu, & Rinaldi, 2016;Jennett, Harris, & Mesibov, 2003;Ruble, User, & McGrew, 2011). A sense of self-efficacy affects the formulation of appropriate expectations for students regardless of the type of school (special vs mainstream) (Rubie-Davies, 2007); it also improves the quality of work with students with ASD by increasing the effectiveness of appropriate educational strategies (McGregor, & Campbell, 2001;Park, & Chitiyo, 2011;Sanini, & Bosa, 2015), and it increases the likelihood of students with ASD experiencing educational success through effective inclusion (Jennett, Harris, & Mesibov, 2003;Busby et al., 2012;Rodriguez, Saladan, & Moreno, 2012;Park, Chitiyo, & Choi, 2010;Sanini, & Bosa, 2015). The use of a non-standardised tool to measure teachers' confidence in their competencies (self-efficacy) resulted from the nature of the ASD-EAST project and the need to carry out intercultural comparisons, which otherwise would not have been possible due to the lack of adaptation of standardised tools in the countries being compared. ...
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Due to the shortage of autism-specific professional development, the in-ternational ASD-EAST project was implemented. This article presents the findings of a quantitative survey undertaken among Polish teachers (in two school settings: special, N=60; mainstream/inclusive, N=30) who attended ASD-EAST workshops. The aim was to identify the post-autism-specific pro-fessional development increase of teachers’ knowledge concerning the charac-teristics of students with ASD and teachers’ subjective confidence regarding their professional competencies. The results showed that the training oppor-tunity was considered by teachers to be important and effective. The results provide grounds for concluding that the programme may be recommended for practical use in order to train teachers who will work with students with ASD.
... Eventually, the researchers concluded and verified the conclusion. The framework for this research was based on teachers' expectations viewed from teacher's feedback (Rubie-Davies, 2007;Wang et al., 2019) and possible factors that influence university teachers in forming expectations (Li & Rubie-Davies, 2018). ...
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This research was designed to investigate which factors influenced the formation of lecturers’ expectations amid online learning during the COVID-19 outbreak in an Indonesian Islamic university. The recent study employed an exploratory case study by observing online EFL writing learning activities, interviewing the three lecturers, and collecting documents. The data was then analyzed qualitatively using an interactive model. Lecturers' expectations in this study were viewed from the key focus of expectation: feedback provided by lecturers. They established class-level expectations, not individual ones as primary and secondary levels. This study elucidates Islamic university lecturers' factors contributing to form expectations: lecturers’ past teaching experiences and teaching self-efficacy. Lecturers have not highly adjusted to any change that emerged in online learning. Accordingly, they have not shown firm belief in grouping students and assuring students’ originality in composing essays. At the same time, the students' demographic factors were motivation and gender. Female students showed higher motivation through participating more often during discussions. It yielded more learning feedback they received. Implications of this study were noted for self-reflection among lecturers to establish high expectations for students to enhance their learning.
... They are also inclined to evaluate these students' work more positively, present more praises and positive reinforcements, and behave in a more encouraging way (Babad, 1992;Madon, Jussim, & Eccles, 1997). Moreover, Rubie-Davies (2007) asserted that teachers with high expectations for their students have a tendency to provide more feedback, ask cognitively demanding questions more, and demonstrate more constructive behavior management techniques in their classes when compared to teachers with low expectations. ...
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The aim of the present study was to scrutinize how teacher expectations are shaped and reflected in teachers' classroom behaviors by presenting a holistic picture of teacher expectation literature that has significantly developed since 1968. To achieve this, a systematic review design was utilized in the study, and different academic databases, which were namely EBSCOhost, ERIC, Science Direct, Journal Park Academic, and HEC Theses Centre, were examined. Among 1.227 of the studies conducted, 32 research studies were included in the current review based on a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria after the identification, screening, and eligibility processes. After the content analysis carried out on the included studies, the review extracted certain factors shaping teachers' expectations of students' academic achievement, which were grouped as students' readiness, skills and abilities, teacher-and family-related factors, and school policies. In classes, teachers differentiated their instructional methods according to students' ability levels, presented more group work opportunities, established more eye-contact, assigned cognitively harder tasks, and expected more quality work from high-expectancy students. Teachers also tended to decrease their interaction time by turning to another student when a low-expectancy student could not answer a question, and to know personal or academic strengths of high-expectancy students more than low-expectancy ones.
... Learning through biology-based research papers may be one way to provide a stimulus for question-asking and higher thinking levels by students [53]. In contrast to the average-progress and low-expectation teachers, the high-expectation teachers provided more time for students' learning and more feedback for students and used more open-inquiry questions in the classroom [54]. Further, Oliveira [22] found that student teachers' student-centered questions enabled longer and more articulated student responses, promoted a higher level of student thinking, enabled students toward tentative responses, and encouraged students toward authentic investigations. ...
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Prior research has shown that both teacher-led and recitation questions dominate in classrooms; teachers ask closed-ended questions more than open-ended questions. Even though classroom questioning has been studied in many previous studies there has been very limited research addressing the questioning of student teachers during inquiry-based biology lessons focusing on the inquiry stages: introduction, examination, and conclusion. In this study, a total of 21 lessons by twelve student teachers in primary and secondary schools were video- and audio-recorded. The recorded discussions were transcribed and the qualities of the questions were analyzed using content analysis, and the questions of student teachers were categorized into 10 different question categories. The findings revealed that primary school student teachers asked mainly for factual knowledge, concepts, and basic knowledge of species in all inquiry stages. Secondary school student teachers also asked mainly for concepts and basic knowledge of species. They also asked students to generate ideas and explain their answers, especially in the examination and conclusion stages. The present study indicates that student teachers’ questioning needs to be developed more towards higher-order questioning such as analyzing, synthetizing, and evaluating to scaffold students in inquiries and develop future teachers’ questioning skills in teacher education.
... To establish a basis for a positive relationship and raise their expectations of those students, teachers were asked to focus on the students' strengths and resources (Rubie-Davies, 2015). In addition, teachers learned typical practices of teachers with high expectations such as (a) establishing a positive classroom climate (rules and rituals), (b) adapting the feedback culture (focusing on students' strengths), (c) reacting to individual students' needs, (d) including more teachersupportive teaching content (enrichment), and (e) including effort and emotion (Rubie-Davies, 2007). Teachers were asked to implement the first two practices (i.e., classroom climate and feedback culture) in their classrooms. ...
Article
Students' migration backgrounds and low socioeconomic status can bias teacher expectations of student achievement in mathematics and German. The main goal of this intervention study was to inform, raise awareness, and provide opportunities to implement behaviors to modify primary school teachers' biased achievement expectations. Before and after the implementation of the teacher training, data were collected using teacher, student, and parent questionnaires and student achievement tests in mathematics and German. Regression analyses using a sample of 860 students from Grades 4 to 6 from 75 classes showed that students' migration backgrounds and socioeconomic status biased teacher expectations for pretests in mathematics and German. After the intervention, expectations in mathematics were unbiased by students' migration background among teachers in the test group, in contrast to the control group. This study provides evidence for strategies to modify biased teacher expectations through teacher training.
... Our second hypothesis seeks to answer whether (H2) professors with previous experience of teaching online courses have higher expectations than inexperienced professors; concerning linking professor expectations to their students. This hypothesis arises from research that posits how different teacher characteristics such as background and beliefs, play a role in the construction of their expectations (Rubie-Davies, 2007;Garcia-Martin and Garcia-Sanchez, 2017;De Boer et al., 2018). In examining the links between teacher expectations and their students, (H3) a positive relationship is expected to be found between professor expectations and student performance during the COVID-19 pandemic, controlling for high school (GPA), college entrance exam (PSU) scores, and the prior career performance of students in higher education. ...
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Due to COVID-19, universities have been facing challenges in generating the best possible experience for students with online academic training programs. To analyze professors' expectations about online education and relate them to student academic performance during the COVID-19 pandemic, and considering the socio-demographic, entry, and prior university performance variables of students. A prospective longitudinal design was used to analyze the expectations of 546 professors (54.8% male) in T1. In T2, the impact of the expectations of 382 of these professors (57.6% men) was analyzed, who taught courses during the first semester to a total of 14,838 university students (44.6% men). Professors' expectations and their previous experience of online courses were obtained during T1, and the students' academic information was obtained in T2. A questionnaire examining the Expectations toward Virtual Education in Higher Education for Professors was used. 84.9% of the professors were considered to have moderate to high skills for online courses. Differences in expectations were found according to the professors' training level. The professors' self-efficacy for online education, institutional engagement, and academic planning had the highest scores. The expectations of professors did not directly change the academic performance of students; however, a moderating effect of professor's expectations was identified in the previous student academic performance relationship on their current academic performance.
... Research has shown that teachers' expectations of their students play a crucial role in influencing the quality of instruction (for an overview, see Wang et al., 2018). One study found that teachers with high expectations challenged their students with questions that required higher-order thinking and provided more feedback to support their learning (Rubie-Davies, 2007). Teachers interact with their students in certain ways that align with their expectations, and these interactions, in turn, could shape how students perceive teachers' instruction in the classrooms (Wang et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Teachers implement different types of instruction, and the quality of their instruction is crucial for enhancing student outcomes. However, studies examining various patterns of teachers’ instructional quality are scarce, particularly in science teaching. Even fewer studies have investigated the nature of instructional quality in primary and secondary education. This study analysed the Norwegian data from the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2015, using Grades 5 and 9 from primary and secondary education. Using multi-level latent class analysis, we identified distinct profiles of instructional quality that focused on four aspects of instructional clarity: clarity of instruction and teacher support (i.e., engaging teaching, social and emotional support, and subject domain support) at the student and classroom levels. The findings showed that the patterns of these profiles varied across different aspects of instructional quality in both grades. Further analyses revealed that student characteristics, particularly language at home and socioeconomic status, predicted the profile memberships at the student level, whereas teacher competence (i.e., self-efficacy in science teaching) predicted the profile memberships at the classroom level. In addition, different profiles of instructional quality were significantly related to motivation and, to a certain extent, achievement in science. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on instructional quality and for the design of personalized professional development programmes that aim to improve teacher instruction in primary and secondary science classrooms.
... Teachers' perception of their own self-efficacy is also related to how they meet obstacles and challenges (Pajares, 1996;Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998;Woolfolk Hoy et al., 2005). Instructors who feel more efficient and competent themselves set higher expectations for their students (Midgley et al., 1995;Wolters and Daugherty, 2007;Cho and Shim, 2013), but simultaneously are more positive and responsive to them (Gibson and Dembo, 1984) and tend to provide them with more support promoting a good learning atmosphere (Bru et al., 2002;Rubie-Davies, 2007Sakiz et al., 2012;Holzberger et al., 2013Holzberger et al., , 2014Guo et al., 2014). ...
Article
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The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has upended lives and thrown the taken for granted into disarray. One of the most affected groups were teachers and students, faced with the necessity of school closures and—where logistically feasible—an urgent shift to emergency remote instruction, often with little prior notice. In this contribution, based on an online survey involving participants from 91 countries, we offer a perspective bridging the two groups, by investigating the role of teachers' demographics and professional adaptation to emergency remote teaching in their perception of how their students were coping with the novel situation. The resultant model explains 51% of variance, and highlights the relative weights of the predictor variables. Given the importance of teacher perceptions in the effectiveness of their instruction, the findings may offer valuable guidelines for future training and intervention programs.
... Ein Erklärungsansatz, weshalb geringere Schulniveauerwartungen von Lehrpersonen im Vergleich zu Eltern negativ auf die Leistungen von Kindern wirken, ist, dass Lehrpersonen als Akteure der Schule die schulischen Inhalte festlegen. Bei niedrigen Schulniveauerwartungen vergeben Lehrpersonen Kindern weniger anspruchsvolle Aufgaben, was sich nachteilig auf Leistungen auswirkt(Rubie-Davies, 2007). Möglicherweise können hier Eltern, auch bei höheren Erwartungen, kaum kompensatorisch wirken. ...
Article
Schulniveauerwartungen von Eltern und Lehrpersonen sind Prädiktoren für Leistungen von Schüler*innen. In der vorliegenden Studie wird der Zusammenhang zwischen Herkunftsmerkmalen von Kindern (Familiensprache und Ausbildungsniveau der Eltern) und Schulniveauerwartungen von Eltern und Lehrpersonen, vermittelt über Überzeugungen von Eltern (Selbstwirksamkeitsüberzeugungen zur Hausaufgabenunterstützung) und von Lehrpersonen (Überzeugung zur Lernförderlichkeit der Familie), überprüft. Im Weiteren werden Effekte von Diskrepanzen in Schulniveauerwartungen zwischen Eltern und Lehrpersonen, bei welchen Lehrpersonen ein weniger anspruchsvolles Schulniveau erwarten als Eltern, auf Leistungen von Schüler*innen in Deutsch und Mathematik analysiert. Datengrundlage ist eine Schweizer Stichprobe von 752 Primarschüler*innen der 4. und 5. Klasse. Ergebnisse von Pfadmodellen zeigen, dass Selbstwirksamkeitsüberzeugungen von Eltern und die Überzeugung von Lehrpersonen zur Lernförderlichkeit der Familie relevante Mediatorvariablen sind, die mehrheitlich Zusammenhänge zwischen Herkunftsmerkmalen und Schulniveauerwartungen von Eltern und Lehrpersonen erklären. Ergebnisse von Regressionsanalysen weisen darauf hin, dass sich Erwartungsdiskrepanzen zwischen Eltern und Lehrpersonen nachteilig auf die Leistungen in Deutsch und Mathematik auswirken. Diese Befunde zeigen Benachteiligungsprozesse für gewisse Schüler*innen aufgrund deren familiären Herkunft auf. - Zeitschrift: Empirische Pädagogik - Open Access - Beitrag kostenlos verfügbar unter: https://www.vep-landau.de/produkt/empirische-paedagogik-2020-35-2-kap-2-digital/
... The existence of such a correlation is confi rmed by numerous studies on the so-called Pygmalion effect (or Loew effect), i.e. the effect of a self-fulfi lling prophecy (see e.g. Babiuch, 1990;Jussim, 1989;Jussim, Harber, 2005;Konarzewski, 1992;Rosenthal, Jacobson, 1968;Rubie-Davis, 2007). Those studies showed that a teacher's positive expectations towards pupils are accompanied by behaviour that actually fosters good school performance (Pygmalion), or conversely, that negative expectations cause the teacher to behave in a way that results in worse student performance. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The book presents the authorial model of the psychologist's work at school which assumes that this work should include monitoring of the educational process taking place at school, followed by extensive promotional activities, prevention and, in the event of problems, intervention. The model allows holistic approaches to the psychologist's activity in the school environment, including planning and checking the effectiveness of his/her actions, which were described with reference to school realities.
... Research documents the relationship between student achievement and teacher expectations (e.g., Archambault et al., 2012;Rubie-Davies, 2007). Studies demonstrate it is possible to both raise teacher expectations and student achievement (de Boer et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Policy shifts in the United States are beginning to reduce the emphasis on using statewide assessment results primarily for accountability and teacher evaluation. Increasingly, there are calls for and interest in innovative and flexible assessments that shift the purposes of assessment and use of results toward instructional planning and student learning. Under the Innovative Assessment Demonstration Authority, some states are exploring options for replacing traditional large-scale summative assessments with innovative measures. However, many of these programs are still in early phases of planning and research and have not yet fully articulated how the innovative system achieves desired outcomes. This conceptual paper presents an argument in the form of a theory of action for a flexible and innovative assessment system already in operational use. The system replaces traditional summative assessments with large-scale through-year Instructionally Embedded assessments. We describe the components of the theory of action, detailing the theoretical model and supporting literature that illustrate how system design, delivery, and scoring contribute to the intended outcomes of teachers using assessment results to inform instruction and having higher expectations for student achievement, in addition to accountability uses. We share considerations for others developing innovative assessment systems to meet stakeholders’ needs.
... Respecto de las expectativas del profesorado, se han hecho múltiples estudios sobre el efecto que estas tienen sobre el aprendizaje de sus estudiantes, observándose que los y las docentes con altas expectativas contextualizan con mayor profundidad los contenidos y entregan mayor retroalimentación a las y los estudiantes, en comparación a las y los docentes con menores expectativas sobre sus estudiantes. Con todo, es escasa la información respecto de la incidencia que esta variable tiene en el proceso de cambio de las prácticas pedagógicas (Arancibia et al., 2013;Rubie-Davies, 2007). ...
... The existence of such a correlation is confi rmed by numerous studies on the so-called Pygmalion effect (or Loew effect), i.e. the effect of a self-fulfi lling prophecy (see e.g. Babiuch, 1990;Jussim, 1989;Jussim, Harber, 2005;Konarzewski, 1992;Rosenthal, Jacobson, 1968;Rubie-Davis, 2007). Those studies showed that a teacher's positive expectations towards pupils are accompanied by behaviour that actually fosters good school performance (Pygmalion), or conversely, that negative expectations cause the teacher to behave in a way that results in worse student performance. ...
Chapter
The book presents the authorial model of the psychologist's work at school which assumes that this work should include monitoring of the educational process taking place at school, followed by extensive promotional activities, prevention and, in the event of problems, intervention. The model allows holistic approaches to the psychologist's activity in the school environment, including planning and checking the effectiveness of his/her actions, which were described with reference to school realities.
... The existence of such a correlation is confi rmed by numerous studies on the so-called Pygmalion effect (or Loew effect), i.e. the effect of a self-fulfi lling prophecy (see e.g. Babiuch, 1990;Jussim, 1989;Jussim, Harber, 2005;Konarzewski, 1992;Rosenthal, Jacobson, 1968;Rubie-Davis, 2007). Those studies showed that a teacher's positive expectations towards pupils are accompanied by behaviour that actually fosters good school performance (Pygmalion), or conversely, that negative expectations cause the teacher to behave in a way that results in worse student performance. ...
Chapter
The book presents the authorial model of the psychologist's work at school which assumes that this work should include monitoring of the educational process taking place at school, followed by extensive promotional activities, prevention and, in the event of problems, intervention. The model allows holistic approaches to the psychologist's activity in the school environment, including planning and checking the effectiveness of his/her actions, which were described with reference to school realities.
... The existence of such a correlation is confi rmed by numerous studies on the so-called Pygmalion effect (or Loew effect), i.e. the effect of a self-fulfi lling prophecy (see e.g. Babiuch, 1990;Jussim, 1989;Jussim, Harber, 2005;Konarzewski, 1992;Rosenthal, Jacobson, 1968;Rubie-Davis, 2007). Those studies showed that a teacher's positive expectations towards pupils are accompanied by behaviour that actually fosters good school performance (Pygmalion), or conversely, that negative expectations cause the teacher to behave in a way that results in worse student performance. ...
Chapter
The book presents the authorial model of the psychologist's work at school which assumes that this work should include monitoring of the educational process taking place at school, followed by extensive promotional activities, prevention and, in the event of problems, intervention. The model allows holistic approaches to the psychologist's activity in the school environment, including planning and checking the effectiveness of his/her actions, which were described with reference to school realities.
... The existence of such a correlation is confi rmed by numerous studies on the so-called Pygmalion effect (or Loew effect), i.e. the effect of a self-fulfi lling prophecy (see e.g. Babiuch, 1990;Jussim, 1989;Jussim, Harber, 2005;Konarzewski, 1992;Rosenthal, Jacobson, 1968;Rubie-Davis, 2007). Those studies showed that a teacher's positive expectations towards pupils are accompanied by behaviour that actually fosters good school performance (Pygmalion), or conversely, that negative expectations cause the teacher to behave in a way that results in worse student performance. ...
Chapter
The book presents the authorial model of the psychologist's work at school which assumes that this work should include monitoring of the educational process taking place at school, followed by extensive promotional activities, prevention and, in the event of problems, intervention. The model allows holistic approaches to the psychologist's activity in the school environment, including planning and checking the effectiveness of his/her actions, which were described with reference to school realities.
... The existence of such a correlation is confi rmed by numerous studies on the so-called Pygmalion effect (or Loew effect), i.e. the effect of a self-fulfi lling prophecy (see e.g. Babiuch, 1990;Jussim, 1989;Jussim, Harber, 2005;Konarzewski, 1992;Rosenthal, Jacobson, 1968;Rubie-Davis, 2007). Those studies showed that a teacher's positive expectations towards pupils are accompanied by behaviour that actually fosters good school performance (Pygmalion), or conversely, that negative expectations cause the teacher to behave in a way that results in worse student performance. ...
Chapter
The book presents the authorial model of the psychologist's work at school which assumes that this work should include monitoring of the educational process taking place at school, followed by extensive promotional activities, prevention and, in the event of problems, intervention. The model allows holistic approaches to the psychologist's activity in the school environment, including planning and checking the effectiveness of his/her actions, which were described with reference to school realities.
... The existence of such a correlation is confi rmed by numerous studies on the so-called Pygmalion effect (or Loew effect), i.e. the effect of a self-fulfi lling prophecy (see e.g. Babiuch, 1990;Jussim, 1989;Jussim, Harber, 2005;Konarzewski, 1992;Rosenthal, Jacobson, 1968;Rubie-Davis, 2007). Those studies showed that a teacher's positive expectations towards pupils are accompanied by behaviour that actually fosters good school performance (Pygmalion), or conversely, that negative expectations cause the teacher to behave in a way that results in worse student performance. ...
Chapter
The book presents the authorial model of the psychologist's work at school which assumes that this work should include monitoring of the educational process taking place at school, followed by extensive promotional activities, prevention and, in the event of problems, intervention. The model allows holistic approaches to the psychologist's activity in the school environment, including planning and checking the effectiveness of his/her actions, which were described with reference to school realities.
... The existence of such a correlation is confi rmed by numerous studies on the so-called Pygmalion effect (or Loew effect), i.e. the effect of a self-fulfi lling prophecy (see e.g. Babiuch, 1990;Jussim, 1989;Jussim, Harber, 2005;Konarzewski, 1992;Rosenthal, Jacobson, 1968;Rubie-Davis, 2007). Those studies showed that a teacher's positive expectations towards pupils are accompanied by behaviour that actually fosters good school performance (Pygmalion), or conversely, that negative expectations cause the teacher to behave in a way that results in worse student performance. ...
Chapter
The book presents the authorial model of the psychologist's work at school which assumes that this work should include monitoring of the educational process taking place at school, followed by extensive promotional activities, prevention and, in the event of problems, intervention. The model allows holistic approaches to the psychologist's activity in the school environment, including planning and checking the effectiveness of his/her actions, which were described with reference to school realities.
... The existence of such a correlation is confi rmed by numerous studies on the so-called Pygmalion effect (or Loew effect), i.e. the effect of a self-fulfi lling prophecy (see e.g. Babiuch, 1990;Jussim, 1989;Jussim, Harber, 2005;Konarzewski, 1992;Rosenthal, Jacobson, 1968;Rubie-Davis, 2007). Those studies showed that a teacher's positive expectations towards pupils are accompanied by behaviour that actually fosters good school performance (Pygmalion), or conversely, that negative expectations cause the teacher to behave in a way that results in worse student performance. ...
Chapter
The book presents the authorial model of the psychologist's work at school which assumes that this work should include monitoring of the educational process taking place at school, followed by extensive promotional activities, prevention and, in the event of problems, intervention. The model allows holistic approaches to the psychologist's activity in the school environment, including planning and checking the effectiveness of his/her actions, which were described with reference to school realities.
... The existence of such a correlation is confi rmed by numerous studies on the so-called Pygmalion effect (or Loew effect), i.e. the effect of a self-fulfi lling prophecy (see e.g. Babiuch, 1990;Jussim, 1989;Jussim, Harber, 2005;Konarzewski, 1992;Rosenthal, Jacobson, 1968;Rubie-Davis, 2007). Those studies showed that a teacher's positive expectations towards pupils are accompanied by behaviour that actually fosters good school performance (Pygmalion), or conversely, that negative expectations cause the teacher to behave in a way that results in worse student performance. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The book presents the authorial model of the psychologist's work at school which assumes that this work should include monitoring of the educational process taking place at school, followed by extensive promotional activities, prevention and, in the event of problems, intervention. The model allows holistic approaches to the psychologist's activity in the school environment, including planning and checking the effectiveness of his/her actions, which were described with reference to school realities.
... The existence of such a correlation is confi rmed by numerous studies on the so-called Pygmalion effect (or Loew effect), i.e. the effect of a self-fulfi lling prophecy (see e.g. Babiuch, 1990;Jussim, 1989;Jussim, Harber, 2005;Konarzewski, 1992;Rosenthal, Jacobson, 1968;Rubie-Davis, 2007). Those studies showed that a teacher's positive expectations towards pupils are accompanied by behaviour that actually fosters good school performance (Pygmalion), or conversely, that negative expectations cause the teacher to behave in a way that results in worse student performance. ...
Chapter
The book presents the authorial model of the psychologist's work at school which assumes that this work should include monitoring of the educational process taking place at school, followed by extensive promotional activities, prevention and, in the event of problems, intervention. The model allows holistic approaches to the psychologist's activity in the school environment, including planning and checking the effectiveness of his/her actions, which were described with reference to school realities.
... The existence of such a correlation is confi rmed by numerous studies on the so-called Pygmalion effect (or Loew effect), i.e. the effect of a self-fulfi lling prophecy (see e.g. Babiuch, 1990;Jussim, 1989;Jussim, Harber, 2005;Konarzewski, 1992;Rosenthal, Jacobson, 1968;Rubie-Davis, 2007). Those studies showed that a teacher's positive expectations towards pupils are accompanied by behaviour that actually fosters good school performance (Pygmalion), or conversely, that negative expectations cause the teacher to behave in a way that results in worse student performance. ...
Chapter
The book presents the authorial model of the psychologist's work at school which assumes that this work should include monitoring of the educational process taking place at school, followed by extensive promotional activities, prevention and, in the event of problems, intervention. The model allows holistic approaches to the psychologist's activity in the school environment, including planning and checking the effectiveness of his/her actions, which were described with reference to school realities.
Article
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The total excellence of university teaching largely depends on pedagogical and didactical­methodical competencies of university professors. The development and promotion of academic teaching is enabled by the modernization of the teaching process which does not encompass only modernization of curriculum but the entire didactical­methodical organization of teaching. Pleasure and requirements of students are to be accentuated accordingly, as well as competencies of teachers and expectations of labor market. The purpose of this paper is to establish which element of didactical­methodical organization of university teaching is the most important dimension of excellence of teaching as well as in what way university professors perform self­evaluation of the excellence of didactical­methodical organization of teaching at the University of Tuzla. The analytical­descriptive survey method was used as a variant of analytical­descriptive method as well as procedures of analysis of contents and polling. It is supposed that there is statistically significant difference in self­evaluation of the importance of elements of excellence in didactical­methodical organization of teaching at the University of Tuzla and that self­evaluations of the importance of individual elements of excellence of university teaching differ with regard to age, sex, teaching/academic title, years of experience in academic institutions and scientific field the faculty belongs to. The results of this research show that the excellence of planning and preparation and excellence in choice of teaching methods are the most important elements of excellence in the organization of university teaching, and that 90% of teaching personnel evaluates that the classes they organize are at very high level of excellence.
Book
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This timely volume presents powerful stories told by Black families and students who have successfully negotiated a racially fraught, affluent, and diverse suburban school district in America, to illustrate how they have successfully overcome and strategically contested sanctioned racist practices in order to forge a path for students to achieve a high-quality education. Drawing on rich qualitative data collected through interviews and interactions with parents and kin, students, community activists, and educators, Family Engagement in Black Students’ Academic Success chronicles how pride in Black American family history and values, students’ personal capabilities, and their often collective, pro-active challenges to systemic and personal racism shape students’ academic engagement. Familial and collective cultural wealth of the Black community emerges as a central driver in students’ successful achievement. Finally, the text puts forward key recommendations to demonstrate how incorporating the knowledge and voices of Black families in school decision making, remaining critically conscious of race and racial history in every-day actions and longer term policy, and pursuing collective strategies for social justice in education, will eliminate current opportunity gaps, and counteract the master-narrative of underachievement ever-present in America. This volume will be of interest to students, scholars, and academics with an interest in matters of social justice, equity, and equality of opportunity in education for Black Americans. In addition, the text offers key insights for school authorities in building effective working relationships with Black American families to support the high achievement of Black students in K-12 education. https://www.routledge.com/Family-Engagement-in-Black-Students-Academic-Success-Achievement-and/Seeberg/p/book/9780367721770 Reviews: Returning to the research site of Shaker Heights High School and District, Vilma Seeberg inverts John Ogbu’s questions about Black underperformance to inquire into Black resilience despite formidable challenges. Armed with Critical Race Theory as their chosen lens, Seeberg and the Shaker Research and Parent Team draw our attention to Black folks’ discourses of defiance against despair and deficit orientations. Educational success for their children is precisely a form of acting Black while navigating a social system, including its schools, that does not have their best interests at heart. Family Engagement is a counter-story about education as an arc of hope for everyday people who refuse the long shadow of injustice. One can’t help rooting for them after reading the book. Zeus Leonardo Professor and Associate Dean of Education University of California, Berkeley Author of Edward Said and Education This volume offers powerful counter narratives to prevailing deficit assumptions about Black students’ school achievement and levels of parental engagement, with nuanced stories of ways Black families used cultural funds of knowledge and demonstrated agency in actively challenging systemic racism while supporting students’ academic success. Seeberg and collaborators provide rich examples of ways Black students contested racist practices in an affluent and diverse suburban district and how community organizing for educational justice was persistent and in part successful over the long term. Blending sociology and anthropology of education in accessible and compelling ways, this book is a must read for all who are committed to building strong school-community relations with families of color and addressing persistent opportunity gaps in US educational contexts. - Beth Blue Swadener, Professor, Justice & Social Inquiry and Social & Cultural Pedagogy, Arizona State University
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This integrative review aims to render a systematic account of the role that teachers’ psychological characteristics, such as their motivation and personality, play for critical outcomes in terms of teacher effectiveness, teachers’ well-being, retention, and positive interpersonal relations with multiple stakeholders (e.g., students, parents, principals, colleagues). We first summarize and evaluate the available evidence on relations between psychological characteristics and these outcomes derived in existing research syntheses (meta-analyses, systematic reviews). We then discuss implications of the findings regarding the eight identified psychological characteristics —self-efficacy, causal attributions, expectations, personality, enthusiasm, emotional intelligence, emotional labor, and mindfulness—for research and educational practice. In terms of practical recommendations, we focus on teacher selection and the design of future professional development activities as areas that particularly profit from a profound understanding of the relative importance of different psychological teacher characteristics in facilitating adaptive outcomes.
Article
Play-based learning is an approach used in early childhood education that is well supported by research on its varieties and effectiveness for young children’s learning. Play-based learning meets the developmental needs of young children, but new research presented in this paper suggests that teenagers learn through play too. The experience of 25 Year 10 students in three Western Australian government schools was drawn upon to generate grounded theory about how students experience their teachers’ expectations of them, which included findings that playful learning approaches communicated high teacher expectations. The students were shadow-studied in their classrooms and interviewed at the end of each day. Teachers were appraised as having high expectations when they included a playful learning approach, characterised as creative, exploratory, hands-on, fun and non-didactic . The students reflected that this led to increased motivation and academic success. A foundation for conceptualising play in teenagers’ education is provided, suggesting how secondary school educators can harness play and communicate high expectations for learning through their pedagogical approach.
Chapter
School violence prevention has been discussed from many different perspectives, yet there is an agreement that school violence is prevented not by one factor but multiple factors with the multilevel prevention strategies.
Article
Purpose This conceptual paper, framed as a letter to educators, explores what the theory of culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) offers us as we reimagine our approaches to teaching and learning amidst a pandemic and during a time of physical distancing. Design/methodology/approach To make my argument that CRP is a frame for teaching that is based in a particular set of beliefs and ideologies, I draw on my experience as a K-12 educator, teacher educator, and education researcher. In addition, I ground my argument in the extant research on the intimate interrelationship between teachers’ beliefs about teaching, learning, themselves, and their students and the actions they take in the classroom. Findings In my discussion, I invite teachers to examine their beliefs, with the end goal of aligning these beliefs with those shared across the extensive scholarship on CRP. I argue that once educators have examined their beliefs with regard to teaching, learning and their students and aligned them with those presented in the literature on CRP, they will be in a better position to engage in online teaching that works toward achieving the seemingly elusive goal of educational equity. Furthermore, I make the argument that if we do not engage in this belief work prior to our transition to online instruction, we risk falling into online assimilationist practices that we know do not work and that reinscribe inequitable schooling experiences for our most marginalized students. Originality/value This paper will be useful for teachers and teacher educators who are committed to engaging in teaching (virtual, in-person, hybrid) during a time of collective crisis that is committed to bringing about educational equity. I present a new way of thinking about CRP as a set of beliefs and guiding questions to help educators align their beliefs with those presented in the literature on CRP.
Article
Purpose-This conceptual paper, framed as a letter to educators, explores what the theory of culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) offers us as we reimagine our approaches to teaching and learning amidst a pandemic and during a time of physical distancing. Design/methodology/approach-To make my argument that CRP is a frame for teaching that is based in a particular set of beliefs and ideologies, I draw on my experience as a K-12 educator, teacher educator, and education researcher. In addition, I ground my argument in the extant research on the intimate interrelationship between teachers' beliefs about teaching, learning, themselves, and their students and the actions they take in the classroom. Findings-In my discussion, I invite teachers to examine their beliefs, with the end goal of aligning these beliefs with those shared across the extensive scholarship on CRP. I argue that once educators have examined their beliefs with regard to teaching, learning and their students and aligned them with those presented in the literature on CRP, they will be in a better position to engage in online teaching that works toward achieving the seemingly elusive goal of educational equity. Furthermore, I make the argument that if we do not engage in this belief work prior to our transition to online instruction, we risk falling into online assimilationist practices that we know do not work and that reinscribe inequitable schooling experiences for our most marginalized students. Originality/value-This paper will be useful for teachers and teacher educators who are committed to engaging in teaching (virtual, in-person, hybrid) during a time of collective crisis that is committed to bringing about educational equity. I present a new way of thinking about CRP as a set of beliefs and guiding questions to help educators align their beliefs with those presented in the literature on CRP.
Thesis
The current ethnographic study focuses on classroom discourse in an elementary school in an Israeli city in the center of the country, characterized by a medium-low socio- economic status. The school population is highly diverse along the fault-lines of nationality, religion, language, ethnicity, socio-economic status and gender. The case studies cover a home class of students aged 11, with about 25% Arab students, a unique variety in the otherwise monolithic Hebrew vs. Arabic-speaking schooling sectors in Israel. The research aimed to answer the following questions: (1) What is the relationship between students' background characteristics and their learning abilities as perceived by the teacher? (2) What is the relationship between the frequency of participation and the manner in which permission to speak is obtained and the characteristics of the background and the perceived learning abilities of the students? (3) What is the relationship between the background characteristics and the perceived learning abilities of the students and the way in which the teacher develops their answers? (4) What are the implications of recurring discourse patterns, if any are found, on their learning opportunities? To answer these questions, classroom interactions were audio- and video-recorded, and interviews were conducted with the students and their teacher. Data analysis combines statistical analyses and micro-analyses of episodes of student-teacher interaction. The results of the study present a complex picture of power relations in the classroom: students' background characteristics and their learning abilities as perceived by the teacher were found to be significantly related to various variables of classroom interaction, including frequency of student participation in classroom discourse, patterns of receiving permission to speak and teaching patterns directed at students, with emphasis on the development of their answers. For example, it was found that students from dominant backgrounds (boys, Jews) and students perceived as having higher learning abilities participate more compared to their peers from non-dominant backgrounds (girls, Arabs) and students perceived as having low academic abilities. These dominant students do so in outbursts and pleas that allow them to achieve more discourse rights compared to their less dominant peers who persist in raising their hands and do not show a sense of entitlement to participate in the discourse. It was also found that through uptake and probe questions, the teacher developed answers offered by boys and students who were perceived as having high academic abilities more than she developed answers offered by girls and students who were perceived as having low academic abilities. Exposing these patterns and power relations enhances our understanding of existing mechanisms in classroom discourse that promote or hinder learning opportunities, advancing us towards their rectification.
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Teacher expectations are associated with student academic achievement, but no research has generated new theory that explains how teacher expectation effects occur from students' perspectives. A substantive theory explaining the process through which students reconcile with their teachers' expectations is presented in this paper, emphasising the role of caring student-teacher relationships in teacher expectation effects on academic achievement. The theory was constructed with 25 grade 10 participants across three Western Australian secondary schools, with data including 100 interviews and 175 classroom observations. The analysis and synthesis of the data confirmed that the students acted in ways that they reflected improved their academic attainment when their teachers communicated high expectations of them. Noddings' enduring philosophy of the ‘ethic of care’ is used as a discussion framework, emphasising implications for how teachers practise and learn to interact with their students so that they can initiate positive teacher expectation effects on student learning.
Book
Teaching languages to adolescents can be a challenge. . . but one that is most rewarding! What works? What doesn't work? This book provides a reader friendly overview on teaching modern languages to adolescents (Years 7–13). Each chapter takes an aspect of language teaching and learning, and explains the underlying theory of instructed language acquisition and its application through examples from real language classrooms. The book explores teachers' practices and the reasoning behind their pedagogic choices through the voices of both the teachers themselves and their students. At the same time, it highlights the needs of the adolescent language learner and makes the case that adolescence is a prime time for language learning. Written in an accessible, engaging way, yet comprehensive in its scope, this will be essential reading for language teachers wishing to integrate cutting-edge research into their teaching. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core at 10.1017/9781108869812
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Teaching languages to adolescents can be a challenge. . . but one that is most rewarding! What works? What doesn't work? This book provides a reader friendly overview on teaching modern languages to adolescents (Years 7–13). Each chapter takes an aspect of language teaching and learning, and explains the underlying theory of instructed language acquisition and its application through examples from real language classrooms. The book explores teachers' practices and the reasoning behind their pedagogic choices through the voices of both the teachers themselves and their students. At the same time, it highlights the needs of the adolescent language learner and makes the case that adolescence is a prime time for language learning. Written in an accessible, engaging way, yet comprehensive in its scope, this will be essential reading for language teachers wishing to integrate cutting-edge research into their teaching. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core at 10.1017/9781108869812
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Previous research documents the positive impacts that teacher praise can have on students' behavior in the classroom; positive praise is a reinforcer that improves and maintains appropriate classroom behavior. Identifying current trends in natural rates of praise—praise that occurs in the absence of specific intervention or training—may help teachers become mindful of their own practices. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate characteristics of published observational studies of teacher‐delivered praise and identify the rate at which teachers delivered praise. We conducted a systematic search of the literature, and included studies published after 2004; 14 studies met our inclusion criteria. The results of this study illustrate that researchers use several different measures to observe and report the frequency of teacher praise. Teachers also delivered general praise (range = 0.04 per min to 67.9 per hour) and behavior‐specific praise (range = 5.9–23.14 per hour) at widely variable rates. Teachers commonly used more general praise compared with behavior‐specific praise. Across studies, we also found inconsistent rates of teacher praise versus reprimands, with some studies reporting higher rates of praise while other studies reported higher rates of reprimands. We discuss implications for teachers and provide recommendations for future research.
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Shifts in special education over the last 25 years have increased the pressure on special education teacher preparation programs to improve the quality of opportunities to learn provided to teacher candidates. One aspect of quality that has not been extensively explored in the literature is the interaction between the individual candidate – the learner – and preparation experiences. Using survey and interview data from special education teacher candidates across six teacher preparation programs, we explore how candidates with differing levels of teacher self-efficacy (TSE) experience preparation. Findings suggest that TSE shaped how candidates made sense of preparation and what they took up from their opportunities to learn. Across phases, candidates with low- and high-TSE differed in how they reported on their learning opportunities and then how they interpreted these opportunities as shaping their future practice. We end with implications for research, policy, and practice in special education teacher preparation.
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A pesar de que la interacción en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje es un fenómeno muy investigado, en el ámbito universitario no existen instrumentos para medirla. Teniendo esto en cuenta, este artículo tiene como objetivo validar el cuestionario "Instrumento de Medición de la Interacción en la Educación Superior (cuestionario IMIES)", que consta de 35 ítems tipo Likert. La validación se ha realizado con una muestra de 2.170 estudiantes universitarios de diferentes Grados y Másteres Oficiales de todos los cursos académicos en una Universidad del norte de España Según nuestros resultados, el cuestionario ha mostrado buenas propiedades y buenas medidas de fiabilidad en siete factores clave. Se puede concluir que el IMIES es una herramienta que contribuye a iniciar y mejorar la evaluación de los procesos de interacción en la enseñanza universitaria. Consideramos que es un instrumento útil tanto para el profesorado, como herramienta de autoevaluación, como para las universidades en su conjunto como herramienta de diagnóstico general para fomentar la interacción en sus aulas.
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The major argument of this presentation is to move the discussion away from data towards interpretations, from student outcomes to teaching successes and improvements, and from accountability models located about schools to located first in the classroom to support such evidence-based teaching and learning.The asTTle model, which has been developed in New Zealand, will be used in the Keynote presentation to demonstrate such a model. By locating evidence in the classroom we can improve the quality of information and interpretations sent to students, parents, Ministries, Ministers, and thence the community.We can influence the major agent that influences student and learning – the teacher, can highlight the debate about what is worth teaching, and, most importantly, can begin to establish a teacher-shared language about the achievement progression. The model is based on target setting, on ensuring the implementation of the curricula, and by comparisons to appropriate national and local standards of performance.The major sources of evidence relate to diagnosis and formative assessment models and are centred on three major questions: Where are we going? How are we going? and Where to next? All analyses can be conducted at the individual as well as at the cohort, class, and school levels.The evidence can also be used to contest deeply held beliefs about what should be undertaken in the name of curriculum reform, and can lead to asking direct questions about where the curriculum needs to be reformed, and where it should be left alone.
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My journey this morning takes me from identifying the relative power of the teacher, to a reflection on the qualities of excellence among teachers, and dwells mainly on a study undertaken in the classroom of America’s very best teachers. My search is driven by the goal of ascertaining the attributes of excellence – because if we can discover the location of these goal posts, if we can understand the height of the bar of the goal posts, we then have the basis for developing appropriate professional development, the basis for teacher education programs to highlight that which truly makes the difference, the basis for extolling that our profession truly does have recognisable excellence which can be identified in defensible ways, and the basis for a renewed focus on the success of our teachers to make the difference.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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Propositions about the nature of expertise, in general, and expertise in pedagogy, in particular, are discussed. The time needed to develop expertise in teaching and the highly contextual nature of teachers’ knowledge are also discussed. Four theories of teacher development are presented, with an elaboration on the heuristic value of the theory of Dreyfus and Dreyfus (1986). Examples from the pedagogical literature are used to illustrate this theory. The recent research establishing causal relationships between those identified as experts in teaching and their students’ academic achievement is also presented. This research allows those who study expertise in teaching to have a more objective measure for identifying and studying expert pedagogues.
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Observations of 780 third-grade classrooms described classroom activities, child-teacher interactions, and dimensions of the global classroom environment, which were examined in relation to structural aspects of the classroom and child behavior. 1 child per classroom was targeted for observation in relation to classroom quality and teacher and child behavior. These children were enrolled in the ongoing NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development: 80% of the sample was Caucasian, 22% had a family income-to-needs ratio of 2.0 or less, and 26% of mothers had a high school education or less. Classrooms were observed for a minimum of eight, 30-minute cycles over the course of the day, beginning at the start of the school day, with an intention of observing during academic instruction time. Time samplings of activities, teacher behaviors, and child behaviors as well as global ratings of the classroom environment were obtained. The most frequently observed forms of activity were whole-group instruction or individual seatwork. As expected, the largest portion of time was allocated to literacy-related activities. By a ratio of nearly 11:1, instructional activities (across any content area) were basic-skill-focused versus focused on analysis/inference or synthesis of information. There was wide variation in the frequency of most activities across classrooms. Global ratings also demonstrated significant variability across classrooms. Global and time-sampled codes of teacher behavior and classroom climate were only slightly related to a range of structural factors, such as class size, child-teacher ratio, or teacher experience. Students' engagement in academic activities was higher when classrooms provided more instructional and emotional support. From first to third grade, global aspects of the classroom, such as positive climate or teacher sensitivity, had significant but low stability; time devoted to literacy or math activities was uncorrelated across the two grade levels. These findings suggest that third grade is a highly variable context for children in the United States with a strong emphasis on learning basic skills and that structural factors, such as class size and teacher education and experience, show little relation to the experiences of children in classrooms.
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The nature of effective teaching has been widely explored in the past, using a number of methodologies. There have, however, been few studies which have specifically attempted to apply the insights from effectiveness research to an understanding of the nature of effective teaching of literacy. This article reports some of the results of research, commissioned by the Teacher Training Agency, into the characteristics of teachers who could be shown to be effective in teaching literacy to primary pupils. The findings are based on a close study of a sample of teachers whose pupils make effective learning gains in literacy and of a sample of teachers who were less effective in literacy teaching.
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This study examined the effect of 3rd-grade language arts instruction on growth in children's reading comprehension skills and the degree to which the impact of instruction depended on the language and reading skills children brought to the classroom. Classrooms were observed in the fall, winter, and spring, and language arts activities were coded using multiple dimensions of instruction. Overall, the effect of instruction depended on children's fall reading comprehension scores. Children with average to low fall reading comprehension scores achieved greater growth in classrooms with more time spent on teacher-managed reading comprehension instructional activities but demonstrated less growth in classrooms with more time spent on child-managed reading comprehension activities. Research and classroom instruction implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated the processes by which teachers communicate differential performance expectations to different children through observational study of dyadic contacts between teachers and individual students in 4 1st grade classrooms. Differential teacher expectations for different children were associated with a variety of interaction measures, although many of these relationships are attributable to objective differences. However, other differential teacher behavior was observed which is not attributable to objective differences among the children and which is consistent with the hypothesis that differential teacher expectations function as self-fulfilling prophecies. Teachers demanded better performance from those children for whom they had higher expectations and were more likely to praise such performance when it was elicited. In contrast, they were more likely to accept poor performance from students for whom they held low expectations and were less likely to praise good performance from these students when it occurred, even though it occurred less frequently. Findings support the hypotheses of R. Rosenthal and L. Jacobson concerning teacher-expectation effects and as indicative of the behavioral mechanisms involved when teacher expectations function as self-fulfilling prophecies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Literacy instruction in first-grade classrooms in five U.S. locales was observed. Based on academic engagement and classroom literacy performances, the most-effective-for-locale and least-effective-for-locale teachers were selected. The teaching of the most-effective-for-locale teachers was then analyzed, including in relation to the teaching of the least-effective-for-locale teachers. The classrooms headed by most-effective-for-locale teachers were characterized by excellent classroom management based on positive reinforcement and cooperation; balanced teaching of skills, literature, and writing; scaffolding and matching of task demands to student competence; encouragement of student self-regulation; and strong cross-curricular connections. In general, these outcomes did not support any theory that emphasizes just one particular component (e.g., skills instruction, whole language emphasis) as the key to effective Grade 1 literacy; rather, excellent Grade 1 instruction involves multiple instructional components articulated with one another.
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This research examined moderators of naturally occurring self-fulfilling prophecies. The authors assessed whether positive or negative self-fulfilling prophecies were more powerful and whether some targets were more susceptible to self-fulfilling prophecies because of their self-concepts in a particular achievement domain and previous academic records. Participants were 98 teachers and 1,539 students in sixth-grade public school math classes. Results yielded a strong pattern showing that teacher perceptions predicted achievement more strongly for low achievers than for high achievers. Results also yielded a much weaker pattern showing that teacher overestimates predicted achievement more strongly than teacher underestimates. Implications for social perceptual accuracy, self-enhancement theory, and understanding when self-fulfilling prophecies are stronger are discussed.
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The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of disability type on exercise response during power wheelchair competition. The secondary purpose was to determine the extent to which heart rate responses during competition meet cardiorespiratory fitness training intensities for the general population. Forty-eight athletes who had cerebral palsy (CP, N = 31), spinal cord injury (SCI, N = 10), or muscular dystrophy (MD, N = 7), and were competing in the 2003 Power Soccer National Tournament, volunteered to participate. Heart rate was recorded every 5 s throughout pre-game and game conditions by Polar S610 monitors. Average heart rate (HR) values were determined for GAME and RESPONSE (change score between GAME HR and pre-game HR). The Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test was used to determine whether a significant difference among group medians existed on the dependent measure, RESPONSE (P < 0.05). A significant difference on RESPONSE (P < 0.05) existed among athletes with CP (29 bpm), SCI (17 bpm), and MD (26 bpm). The median RESPONSE for athletes with CP was 12 bpm higher than athletes with SCI, and this difference was significant (P < 0.01). Further, 22 athletes with CP (71%), 5 athletes with MD (71%), and 1 athlete with SCI (10%) exceeded 55% of estimated HR(max) for at least 30 min during competition. Disability type influences the heart rate response to power wheelchair sport, and may affect the ability to sustain training intensities associated with fitness improvement.
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Research has demonstrated that teaching expertise makes a significant difference in the rate and depth of students' literacy growth, and that highly effective educators share similar characteristics (Block, 2001a; Bond & Dykstra, 1967/1997; International Reading Association, 2000 Pressley, Allington, Wharton-McDonald, Block, Morrow, 2001; Ruddell, 1997). The National Reading Research Panel (NRRP, 1999) and IRA (2000) recommended that "educators seek out teachers, who best exemplify solid teaching, support their work, and consider their successes' (NRRP, p. 20). The purpose of this study was to identify the qualities of teaching expertise that distinguished highly effective instruction at different grade levels, The study occurred in four phases. In Phase I, 647 directors of literacy instruction, in K-12 institutions from seven English-speaking countries, analyzed highly effective instruction in action from preschool to Grade 5 through case study point-by-point Delphi procedures. In Phase II, the resultant 1,294 characteristics of teaching expertise were dimensionalized into 475 categories and interrater reliabilities were computed. In Phase III, 11 prominent researchers from the U,S,, Canada, and Australia cross-validated the data. In Phase IV, the authors summarized the five most distinctive qualities per grade level, compared characteristics across grades, and analyzed commonalities and differences between literacy directors' and researchers' rankings. Preschool to Grade 5 literacy teachers were distinguished from one another by 44 indices of teaching expertise. Applications of these data for research, policy, and practice were described.
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We observed 6 primary-grades teachers in public and private schools in this study. Based on midyear observations, 2 of these teachers were much more effective compared to the other 4 in producing greater student engagement and literacy progress, as determined by video and observation data of multiple content areas and as rated by the Classroom AIMS instrument. These 2 more effective teachers began the school year differently than the other teachers, again documented through observation of their teaching. Consistent with previous studies, the 2 more effective teachers did more to establish routines and procedures at the beginning of the year. In addition, compared to the less effective teachers, on the first days of school the more effective teachers offered more engaging activities, more enthusiastically introduced reading and writing, indicated higher expectations, praised specific accomplishments of students, pointed out when specific students were behaving in a praiseworthy fashion, and encouraged student self-regulation. In short, the first days of school were very different in the classes taught by the more effective teachers from those taught by the less effective teachers.
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Kindergarten (N = 23), grade 1 (N = 34), and grade 2 (N = 26) teachers, who were nominated by their supervisors (N = 45) as effective in educating their students to be readers and writers, responded to 2 questionnaires about their practice. As expected, there were shifts in reported practices between kindergarten and grade 2, although there was much more similarity than difference in the reports of kindergarten, grade 1, and grade 2 teachers. The teachers claimed commitments to (a) qualitatively similar instruction for students of all abilities, along with additional support for weaker readers; (b) literate classroom environments; (c) modeling and teaching of both lower-order (e.g., decoding) skills and higher-order (e.g., comprehension) processes; (d) extensive and diverse types of reading by students; (e) teaching students to plan, draft, and revise as part of writing; (f) engaging literacy instruction (i.e., instruction motivating literate activities); and (g) monitoring of students' progress in literacy.
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Systematic observation was carried out in 12 classrooms (six in an innovative literacy programme which was a precursor to the Literacy Hour and six comparison classes) to explore teaching and learning which occurred after an intensive in‐service programme for reception teachers. Altogether 216 children were observed in an inner‐city authority, each for 15 minutes according to a schedule of time‐sampled and event‐sampled categories. Teaching behaviours were included in the observations as well as pupils’ learning activities related to curriculum areas and also to play or ‘domestic classroom’ routines. Results showed that children devoted about equal amounts of time to English in the two types of classrooms and that staff‐pupil ratios were also similar. There were no differences in the amount of whole class, group or individual learning observed. However, teachers in the intervention classrooms (Focused Literacy Teaching) were more likely to use ‘direct teaching’ methods which included managing children's activities and using questions to instruct. Teachers in the comparison classes spent more time in ‘physical caring’. There were also differences in pupil learning activities. Although there were no differences in the amount of time children read to a teacher in the two types of classroom, children in the literacy programme spent more time reading to one other child, to a small group and on their own. Moreover, children in the literacy programme spent more time in shared reading and writing. In contrast, children in the comparison classrooms spent more time drawing, colouring and playing. Thus, a striking finding was the greater amount of peer literacy learning in the innovative classrooms. Teachers spent time setting up and managing the literacy activities of the groups, although often the groups continued under their own steam once the learning activity had been started. This led to a greater focus on reading, not only as a result of the teacher's direct teaching, but also through collaborative group work and children learning on their own.
Article
Describes research on interpersonal expectancy effects, concentrating on classroom settings. Results of a meta-analysis of 448 studies of interpersonal expectancy effects are summarized. A 10-point model for the study of such effects and evidence supporting a 4-factor theory of the mediation of teacher expectancy effects are presented. (SLD)
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Reports a meta-analysis of research on the bases of teacher expectancies. 77 pertinent studies were reviewed using S. Stouffer's (1949) method of adding z scores. The following conclusions were drawn: Student attractiveness, conduct, cumulative folder information, race, and social class were related to teacher expectancies. Student gender and the number of parents at home were student characteristics not related to teacher expectancies; equivocal relations existed between teacher expectancies and student sex role behavior, name stereotypes, and teachers having previously taught a sibling. The findings are discussed in the context of the importance of doing such research with intact classrooms. Methodological difficulties and deficiencies in existing research are pointed out. Questions in need of research and directions for future research are noted. (118 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reviews 135 studies on mediation and classifies results into 31 behavior categories (e.g., praise, climate, asks questions). Separate meta-analyses for each mediating variable were conducted. Results were also analyzed separately for studies that examined the relation between expectations and emitted behaviors and between mediating behaviors and outcome measures. Additional analyses focused on the influence of internal validity and type of publication on effect sizes. Meta-analyses supported the importance of 16 behaviors in the mediation of expectancy effects (e.g., creating a less negative climate, having longer interactions). The 2nd author's (1973) 4 factor (climate, feedback, input, and output) theory of the mediation of interpersonal expectancy effects proved to be a useful framework for conceptualizing broad classes of behaviors involved in the mediation of teacher-expectancy effects. Mediation references are appended. (38 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Tested, in 2 studies, a student mediation model of teacher expectation effects that proposes that students acquire information about their abilities by observing the differential teacher treatment accorded high and low achievers. They then revise their own achievement expectations and subsequently perform according to the expectations perceived. Student perceptions of teacher treatment toward hypothetical high and low achievers were used to distinguish high from low-differential-treatment classrooms. In the 1st study, 101 3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-grade students were also asked to report teacher treatment toward themselves. Only in high-differential-treatment classrooms did recipients of high and low teacher expectations perceive teacher treatment toward themselves that was consistent with the patterns of differential teacher treatment reported. In the 2nd study, in which 234 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-graders served as Ss, hierarchical regression analyses showed that teacher expectations contributed more to the prediction of student expectations and achievement in high- than in low-differential-treatment classrooms. Findings support a student mediation model of teacher expectation effects. (21 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reviews a series of studies on variables which affect relationships between teachers and students, particularly individual differences in students and teacher expectations and attitudes based on these differences. The resulting patterns of teacher-student interaction are described. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
For 40 years, researchers have been exploring the teacher-expectation phenomenon. Few have examined the possibility that teacher expectations may be class centered rather than individually centered. The current study aimed to track the self-perception outcomes of students (N = 256) whose teachers had high or low class-level expectations. Students completed the Reading, Mathematics, Physical Abilities, and Peer Relations subscales of the Self Description Questionnaire-1 (SDQ-1; Marsh, 1990) at the beginning and end of 1 year. A subscale related to student perception of how the teacher viewed their abilities was added. At the beginning of the year, there were no statistically significant differences between the expectation groups in any of the academic or teacher opinion scales. By the end of the year, statistically significant differences were found in academic and teacher opinion areas due mainly to a decline in the self-perceptions of students with low-expectation teachers. Implications for teacher practice are discussed. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 43: 537–552, 2006.
Article
There is much current interest in the identification of effective programmes for raising literacy standards. However, the effectiveness of such programmes might vary greatly according to implementation integrity and the preferred teaching styles or behaviours of teachers. This research explored whether highly effective teachers of literacy used teaching behaviours that were independent of any specific programme, whether these were consistent between teachers and different literacy teaching contexts, and whether teacher perceptions corresponded with observations of their behaviour. Five teachers were selected on the basis of high pupil literacy attainment and expert nomination, and observed during shared reading and general literacy teaching contexts. These highly effective literacy teachers tended to utilise similar teaching behaviours, but they did not utilise all behaviours thought to be associated with pupil achievement. Additionally, they utilised effective behaviours more in shared reading sessions than in general literacy sessions. Thus even these highly effective literacy teachers had room for improvement. To some extent the teachers were actually using more complex behaviours than they reported perceiving. They did not appear to perceive their behavioural variation between contexts, nor any under-use of other effective teaching behaviours. The implications for professional practice, professional development and future research are explored.
Article
The current study explored whether there are more pervasive teacher-centred expectations than the typical studies that find specific teacher-student expectation effects. Groups of teachers who had uniformly high or low expectations for their students were identified, and their instructional practices, beliefs and effects on the academic and social outcomes for their students were explored in four studies. Study One explored the academic outcomes for students in the high and low expectation teachers' classrooms over a year. Students in the classes of teachers with uniformly high expectations for their students made significantly greater progress in reading than their counterparts in the classes of teachers who had low expectations for their students. Study Two involved observations of the instructional and interactional practices of the different groups of teachers. Those with high expectations for all their students spent more time instructing their students, more frequently provided their students with a framework for their learning, questioned their students more and provided them with more feedback on their learning than the teachers who had uniformly low expectations. It also appeared from the observational data that the teachers who had uniformly high expectations for their students' learning provided a more positive socioemotional climate in which instruction took place. In Study Three the different groups of teachers were interviewed regarding their beliefs about how learning should be provided to students with high or low ability. It was found that the high expectation teachers believed there should be less differentiation in the learning opportunities provided to their low and high ability students than did the low expectation teachers. The former group of teachers also reported providing their students with more choice in their learning than did the latter group of teachers. Study Four focused on the academic and social self-perceptions of the students. The academic self-perceptions of the students who were in the classes with teachers who had high iii expectations for their learning increased across the school year while those in classrooms with teachers who had low expectations for their learning decreased. A model is built whereby it is suggested that teachers' expectations for their classes can have major effects on opportunities to learn, instructional practices, interactional patterns, student self-perceptions and academic outcomes.
Article
In 1965 the authors conducted an experiment in a public elementary school, telling teachers that certain children could be expected to be “growth spurters,” based on the students' results on the Harvard Test of Inflected Acquisition. In point of fact, the test was nonexistent and those children designated as “spurters” were chosen at random. What Rosenthal and Jacobson hoped to determine by this experiment was the degree (if any) to which changes in teacher expectation produce changes in student achievement.
Expecting the best: Instructional practices, teacher beliefs and student outcomes (Doctoral dissertation Digital Dissertations, AAT 3129406 Teacher expectations and student self-perceptions: Exploring relationships
  • C M Rubie
Rubie, C. M. (2004). Expecting the best: Instructional practices, teacher beliefs and student outcomes (Doctoral dissertation, University of Auckland, New Zealand, 2004). Digital Dissertations, AAT 3129406. Rubie-Davies, C. M. (2006). Teacher expectations and student self-perceptions: Exploring relationships. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 537–552.
A systematic review of effective literacy teaching in the 4 to 14 age range of mainstream schooling
  • K Hall
  • A Harding
Hall, K., & Harding, A. (2003). A systematic review of effective literacy teaching in the 4 to 14 age range of mainstream schooling. In Research evidence in education library. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education.
Models of teacher expectation communication
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Cooper,H.M.(1985). Models of teacher expectation communication. In J. B. Dusek (Ed.), Teacher expectancies (pp. 135-158). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Certification system of the national board for professional teaching standards: A construct and consequential validity study Student perceptions of differential teacher treatment as moderators of teacher expectation effects
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Bond, L., Smith, R., Baker, W. K., & Hattie, J. A. (2000). Certification system of the national board for professional teaching standards: A construct and consequential validity study. Washington, DC: National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. Brattesani, K. A., Weinstein, R. S., & Marshall, H. H. (1984). Student perceptions of differential teacher treatment as moderators of teacher expectation effects. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 236–247.
What are the attributes of excellent teachers?InB.W ebber Teachers makeadifference: What is the research evidence?
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Hattie, J. A. C. (2002). What are the attributes of excellent teachers?InB.W ebber (Ed.), Teachers makeadifference: What is the research evidence? (pp. 3–26). Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Council forE ducational Research.
Preferential affect: The crux of the teacher expectancy issue
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Babad, E. (1998). Preferential affect: The crux of the teacher expectancy issue. In J. Brophy (Ed.), Advances in research on teaching. Expectations in the classroom (Vol. 7, pp. 183-214). Greenwich, CT: JAIP ress.
What is the natureo fe vidence that makes ad ifference to learning? Keynote presentation to "Using Data to SupportL earning
  • J Hattie
Hattie, J. (2005, August). What is the natureo fe vidence that makes ad ifference to learning? Keynote presentation to "Using Data to SupportL earning" ACER Annual Conference, Melbourne, Australia.
Ad ay in third grade: Al arges cale study of classroom quality and teachera nd student behavior
  • Nichd Early Child Care Researchn Etwork
NICHD Early Child Care ResearchN etwork. (2005). Ad ay in third grade: Al arges cale study of classroom quality and teachera nd student behavior. ElementaryS chool Journal, 105, 305-323.