Is There a Role for Tamsulosin in Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Renal and Ureteral Calculi?
Departments of Urology and Biostatistics, Christian Medical College, Ida Scudder Road, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632004, India. The Journal of Urology
(Impact Factor: 4.47).
07/2007; 177(6):2185-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2007.01.160
We evaluated the effect of the alpha-blocker tamsulosin on stone clearance, analgesic requirements and steinstrasse in shock wave lithotripsy for solitary renal and ureteral calculus.
A prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo controlled study was performed during 1 year involving 60 patients with a solitary renal or ureteral calculus undergoing shock wave lithotripsy. The control group (30) received 0.4 mg tamsulosin and the study group (30) received placebo daily until stone clearance or for a maximum of 30 days. An oral preparation of dextropropoxyphene hydrochloride and acetaminophen was the analgesic used on an on-demand basis. The parameters assessed were stone size, position, clearance time, effect on steinstrasse and analgesic requirement.
The overall clearance rate was 96.6% (28 of 29) in the study group and 79.3% (23 of 29) in the control group (p = 0.04). With larger stones 11 to 24 mm the difference in the clearance rate was significant (p = 0.03) but not so with the smaller stones 6 to 10 mm (p = 0.35). The average dose of analgesic used was lower with tamsulosin than with controls, without statistical significance. Steinstrasse resolved spontaneously in the tamsulosin group whereas 25% (2 of 8) required intervention in the placebo group. There was no difference between the 2 groups with regard to age, stone size or location.
The alpha-blocker tamsulosin seemed to facilitate stone clearance, particularly with larger stones during shock wave lithotripsy for renal and ureteral calculus. It also appeared to improve the outcome of steinstrasse. Tamsulosin may have a potential role in routine shock wave lithotripsy.
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- "In the ureter, tamsulosin is presumed to inhibit the uncontrolled contraction of ureteric smooth muscle, thereby facilitating the spontaneous passage of stones . Several studies investigated the efficacy of tamsulosin with ESWL in clearing renal and lower ureteric stones        . However, few studies have reported its efficacy for upper ureteric stones  . "
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To evaluate whether tamsulosin hydrochloride is effective as an adjunctive medical therapy to increase the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for treating ureteric stones, and minimises the use of analgesic drugs after the procedure.
Patients and methods
To treat single ureteric stones of 5–15 mm in diameter, 130 patients were treated with ESWL. After treatment, equal numbers of patients were randomly assigned to receive either the standard medical therapy alone (controls) or combined with 0.4 mg tamsulosin daily for ⩽12 weeks. All patients were followed up for 3 months or until an alternative treatment was offered.
At 3 months the treatment was considered to be clinically successful in 55/65 (85%) of those receiving tamsulosin and in 58/65 (89%) of the controls (P = 0.34). When patients were classified according to stone size the success rate was similar in both groups (P = 0.22) for those with a stone of >10 mm. However, ureteric colic was reported in 12% of patients treated with standard therapy but in only 5% of those treated with tamsulosin (P = 0.006). The mean cumulative diclofenac dose was 380 mg/patient in the tamsulosin group and 750 mg/patient in the control group (P = 0.004).
This study showed the effectiveness of tamsulosin as an adjunctive medical therapy after ESWL for ureteric stones, but it did not improve stone clearance when treating ureteric stones. However, it decreased the use of analgesics and reduced the complication rate, especially for steinstrasse.
Available from: Basri Cakiroglu
- "Another study reported an improved success rate with tamsulosin in 60 patients with renal and ureteral stones undergoing SWL (96.6% vs 79.3%; P < 0.04).9 In contrast to these reports, a study with 64 patients receiving SWL for lower ureteral stones found a statistically similar success rate in patients with or without tamsulosin (66.6% vs 58.1%; P > 0.05).13 "
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Medical expulsion therapy has shown encouraging results in facilitating spontaneous clearance of ureteral stones after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. However, no other study has yet determined the benefit of medical expulsion therapy for stones in different ureteral locations.Objective
The aim of the study was to evaluate tamsulosin as adjunctive therapy to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in terms of pain clearance of stones in the upper, middle, and lower ureter.Methods
Between June 2008 and July 2011, patients with a solitary ureteral stone that was ≥6 mm up to 15 mm and located in the upper, middle, or lower ureter undergoing SWL were evaluated. The patients were randomly allocated to a conservative treatment (group 1) and a tamsulosin treatment group (group 2). Administration of the drug was started immediately after SWL and was continued for a maximum of 28 days. Patients were evaluated for stone clearance, time to stone clearance, and number of SWL sessions. The pain intensity was evaluated by visual analog scale.ResultsThere were 64 patients in the control group and 59 in the tamsulosin group. The average stone sizes were 10.70 (3.20) mm and 11.40 (3.01) mm (P = 0.24). Group 1 and group 2 received 2507 (984) and 2759 (775) shock waves (P = 0.86), 1.53 (0.8) and 1.49 (0.75) sessions (P = 0.85), respectively. Mean visual analog scale scores and times to clearance were 3.81 (2.74) and 2.73 (2.28) (P = 0.00) and 12.59 (8.63) days and 8.34 (7.60) days (P = 0.00), respectively, for all stones in groups 1 and 2. Only the clearance time of upper ureteral stones between groups showed statistical significance (13.54 [8.32] days vs 7.10 [6.40] days; P = 0.00).Conclusions
Tamsulosin may help in the treatment of all ureteral stones after SWL, particularly stones in the upper ureter, with a shorter time to clearance and less need for analgesic drugs.
Available from: Mohamed A Elkoushy
- "Patients receiving tamsulosin in the present trial were found to have a lower chance to develop steinstrasse after SWL, and if they did, the steinstrasse would resolve spontaneously before developing complications , as was previously reported . Rasim et al. found that tamsulosin used after SWL was beneficial in terms of reducing the number of ureteral colic episodes and the severity of pain in the patients who developed steinstrasse. "
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To evaluate the effects of tamsulosin on stone clearance and analgesic requirements after shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for solitary renal and upper ureteral calculi.Patients and methodsA prospective randomized placebo controlled study was carried out on 126 patients who underwent SWL for solitary radio-opaque renal or upper ureteral calculi ≤20 mm. Patients were randomized into two groups receiving either 0.4 mg of tamsulosin (GT) or placebo (GP). SWL was performed 3-weekly until patients became stone-free or for a maximum of 3 months. Analgesics were used on demand and pain was evaluated by a visual pain scale.ResultsRenal stones represented 55.6% and 66.7% for GT and GP, respectively (p = 0.27). Mean renal and ureteral stone size were (12.3 ± 1.8 mm vs. 11.5 ± 2.3 mm, p = 0.14) and (9.7 ± 2.6 mm vs. 8.6 ± 1.7 mm, p = 0.1) for the GT and GP, respectively. GT required fewer SWL sessions for ureteral (1.2 vs. 1.6, p = 0.02) and renal stones (1.8 vs. 2.3, p = 0.08). Stone-free rate (SFR) was higher in GT for upper ureteral stones (96.4% vs. 66.7%, p = 0.01) and renal pelvis stones at a cutoff size >10 mm (p = 0.01). The mean time of stone clearance was significantly lower in GT (4.2 ± 1.9 weeks vs. 7.5 ± 2.3 weeks, p = 0.001) for ureteral stones. Attacks of renal colic were more frequent in GP (82.5% vs. 44.4%, p = 0.04) with increased demand for analgesia (p = 0.04). Steinstrasse was recorded in 3 and 7 patients of the GT and GP, respectively (p = 0.32).Conclusion
Tamsulosin facilitates clearance of upper ureteral stone fragments after SWL and decreases the analgesic requirements. These effects were not similarly evident for renal stones.
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