A retrospective study of the relationship between tracheal collapse and bronchiectasis in dogs
Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Veterinary Medical Center, University of Florida, 2015 SW 16th Avenue, PO Box 100102, Gainesville, USA.Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound (Impact Factor: 1.45). 05/2007; 48(3):199-203. DOI: 10.1111/j.1740-8261.2007.00229.x
Tracheal collapse is common in middle age toy and miniature breed dogs. Cartilaginous defects have been identified histologically and are considered a form of chondromalacia. In addition to tracheal cartilaginous changes, concurrent lower airway histologic changes indicative of inflammation have been noted in dogs with tracheal collapse and these changes may lead t o concurrent bronchiectasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of bronchiectasis in dogs with a previous radiographic diagnosis of tracheal collapse. The thoracic radiographs of 60 dogs with tracheal collapse were evaluated for evidence of concurrent bronchiectasis. Eighteen of 60 (30%) dogs had evidence of bronchiectasis, and all were cylindrical in morphology. The signalment of affected dogs was similar to that previously reported. The occurrence of bronchiectasis in this group of dogs with tracheal collapse (18 dogs) was six times higher (P < 0.05) than the expected prevalence within a random sample population (three dogs). The results of this study provide evidence of a link between tracheal collapse and bronchiectasis. A finding of bronchiectasis with tracheal collapse should encourage further evaluation for chronic lower airway disease in these patients.
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ABSTRACT: To describe the clinical and laboratory findings, diagnostic features, and outcome of tracheal collapse in American Miniature Horses at a referral institution. Retrospective case series. 13 American Miniature Horses with tracheal collapse. Medical records of American Miniature Horses with tracheal collapse at a referral hospital were reviewed. Data extracted included signalment, history, clinical signs, laboratory data, diagnostic procedures, outcome, and histologic findings. Tracheal collapse was documented in 5.6% of American Miniature Horses admitted to this referral hospital. Median age at onset of clinical signs was 11 years with a range of 2 to 15 years. Common complaints and clinical signs included respiratory distress, tachypnea, inspiratory honking noises, and increased abdominal expiratory effort, which were exacerbated by stressful events, pregnancy, exercise, a dusty environment, and eating. Tracheal collapse was confirmed by use of radiography, endoscopy, fluoroscopy, or postmortem examination. Dorsoventral flattening of the extra- or intrathoracic trachea, or both, was more common than lateral collapse. Tracheal chondromalacia was identified histologically in 4 cases, and mortality rate for affected horses was 10 of 13. Tracheal collapse was relatively common in this study of American Miniature Horses, and outcome was poor. The etiopathogenesis of the disease remains unknown.
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ABSTRACT: Tracheobronchomalacia is diagnosed in people by documentation of a reduction in airway diameter during bronchoscopy. While tracheal collapse in the dog has been well described in the literature, little information is available on bronchomalacia in the dog. Bronchomalacia is common in dogs with tracheal collapse, is associated with inflammatory airway disease, and is poorly documented radiographically. One hundred and fifteen dogs admitted for evaluation for respiratory disease and examined by bronchoscopy. Case-controlled, observational study. Dogs examined and having a bronchoscopic procedure performed by a single operator were separated into groups with and without visually identified airway collapse. Clinical parameters and bronchoalveolar lavage findings were compared between groups. Radiographs were reviewed in masked fashion to assess the sensitivity and specificity for detection of bronchomalacia. Tracheobronchomalacia was documented in 50% of dogs examined, with tracheal collapse in 21% and bronchomalacia in 47%. In dogs with bronchomalacia, collapse of the right middle (59%) and left cranial (52%) lung lobes was identified most commonly. Dogs with bronchomalacia were significantly more likely to display normal airway cytology and to have mitral regurgitation and cardiomegaly than dogs without airway collapse (P < .05). Radiographs were insensitive for detection of airway collapse. Bronchomalacia was identified more commonly than tracheal collapse in this population of dogs, and documentation required bronchoscopy. This study could not confirm a role for airway inflammation in bronchomalacia, and further studies are required to determine the role of cardiomegaly in the disorder.
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