Core Components of Cardiac Rehabilitation/Secondary Prevention Programs: 2007 Update: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Exercise, Cardiac Rehabilitation, and Prevention Committee, the Council on Clinical Cardiology; the Councils on Cardiovascular Nursing, Epidemiology and Prevention, and Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism; and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation

ArticleinCirculation 115(20):2675-82 · June 2007with246 Reads
DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.180945 · Source: PubMed
The American Heart Association and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation recognize that all cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention programs should contain specific core components that aim to optimize cardiovascular risk reduction, foster healthy behaviors and compliance to these behaviors, reduce disability, and promote an active lifestyle for patients with cardiovascular disease. This update to the previous statement presents current information on the evaluation, interventions, and expected outcomes in each of the core components of cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention programs, in agreement with the 2006 update of the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Secondary Prevention Guidelines, including baseline patient assessment, nutritional counseling, risk factor management (lipids, blood pressure, weight, diabetes mellitus, and smoking), psychosocial interventions, and physical activity counseling and exercise training.
    • "In the recently published Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 [5], physical inactivity and low physical activity accounted for 3.2 million (2.7 million to 3.7 million) deaths and 2.8% (2.4 to 3.2) of disability-adjusted life years in 2010. Furthermore, cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has been shown to be an effective intervention and is considered as an essential element in the continuum of care for patients with CVD [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]. A recent Cochrane review confirmed a 26% (RR = 0.74 (95% CI 0.63, 0.87%)) reduction in cardiovascular mortality with exercisebased CR [11]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Physical activity is associated with reduced mortality and morbidity. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an effective intervention for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Unfortunately, women are less likely to engage in, or sustain, regular physical activity. Objectives were to (1) describe women's guidelines-based levels of physical activity during and after CR and (2) determine the physical activity trajectories of women from entry to CR to one year after CR. Methods and results: A prospective, longitudinal study of 203 women with CVD enrolled in a 6-month CR program. Physical activity was measured using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (LSI), focusing on moderate-strenuous activity. Data were analyzed using latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and logistic regression. Mean scores on the LSI showed women to be "active" at all follow-up points. LCGA revealed a two-class model, respectively, called "inactive relapsers" and "moderately active relapsers." Predictors of the "moderately active relapsers" class were employment status and diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Conclusions: Women achieved the recommended physical activity levels by the end of CR and sustained them until one year after CR. LCGA allowed us to determine the class trajectories associated with moderate-strenuous activity and, from these, to identify implications for targeted intervention.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013
    • "This has led Ades [3] to argue that the primary goal of medical care for older adults who have CVD should be to improve physical functioning and to extend disability-free survival. Although aerobic exercise training (AT) has been the cornerstone of rehabilitation for patients with CVD or MetS, experts agree [4] [5] [6] that, with the escalating problem of "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A complication of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among older adults is loss of mobility. The American Heart Association has identified weight management as a core component of secondary prevention programs for CVD and is an important risk factor for physical disability. The American Society for Nutrition and the Obesity Society have highlighted the need for long-term randomized clinical trials to evaluate the independent and additive effects of diet-induced weight loss (WL) and physical activity in older persons on outcomes such as mobility, muscle function, and obesity related diseases. Here we describe the rationale, design, and methods of a translational study, the Cooperative Lifestyle Intervention Program-II (CLIP-II). CLIP-II will randomize 252 obese, older adults with CVD or MetS to a weight loss only treatment (WL), aerobic exercise training (AT)+WL, or resistance exercise training (RT)+WL for 18months. The dual primary outcomes are mobility and knee extensor strength. The interventions will be delivered by YMCA community partners with our staff as trainers and advisers. This study will provide the first large scale trial to evaluate the effects of diet-induced WL on mobility in obese, older adults with CVD or MetS as compared to WL combined with two different modes of physical activity (AT and RT). Because uncertainty exists about the best approach for promoting WL in older adults due to concerns with the loss of lean mass, the design also permits a contrast between AT+WL and RT+WL on muscle strength.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013
    • "Exercise-driven outcomes collectively diminish the likelihood and severity of ischemic events. Given the millions of IR events annually [1], rehabilitative exercise following IR injury is also a well-accepted therapeutic intervention in those with a variety of cardiac diseases [36-38]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized nations. Ongoing research is aimed at uncovering therapeutic interventions against IR injury. Regular exercise participation is recognized as an important lifestyle intervention in the prevention and treatment of CVD and IR injury. More recent understanding reveals that moderate intensity aerobic exercise is also an important experimental model for understanding the cellular mechanisms of cardioprotection against IR injury. An important discovery in this regard was the observation that one-to-several days of exercise will attenuate IR injury. This phenomenon has been observed in young and old hearts of both sexes. Due to the short time course of exercise induced protection, IR injury prevention must be mediated by acute biochemical alterations within the myocardium. Research over the last decade reveals that redundant mechanisms account for exercise induced cardioprotection against IR. While much is now known about exercise preconditioning against IR injury, many questions remain. Perhaps most pressing, is what mechanisms mediate cardioprotection in aged hearts and what sex-dependent differences exist. Given that that exercise preconditioning is a polygenic effect, it is likely that multiple mediators of exercise induced cardioprotection have yet to be uncovered. Also unknown, is whether post translational modifications due to exercise are responsible for IR injury prevention. This review will provide an overview the major mechanisms of IR injury and exercise preconditioning. The discussion highlights many promising avenues for further research and describes how exercise preconditioning may continue to be an important scientific paradigm in the translation of cardioprotection research to the clinic.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013
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