Zyflamend, a Polyherbal Preparation, Inhibits Invasion, Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis, and Potentiates Apoptosis Through Down-Regulation of NF-κ B Activation and NF-κ B–Regulated Gene Products

Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
Nutrition and Cancer (Impact Factor: 2.32). 02/2007; 57(1):78-87. DOI: 10.1080/01635580701268295
Source: PubMed


Zyflamend, a polyherbal preparation, was designed based on constituents that exhibit antiproliferative, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiangiogenic, and apoptotic activities through a mechanism that is not well defined. Because the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB has been shown to regulate proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells, we postulated that Zyflamend modulates the activity of NF-kappa B. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of this preparation on NF-kappaB and NF-kappaB-regulated gene products. We found that Zyflamend inhibited receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis, suppressed tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced invasion, and potentiated the cytotoxicity induced by TNF and chemotherapeutic agents, all of which are known to require NF-kappa B activation. Zyflamend suppressed NF-kappa B activation induced by both TNF and cigarette smoke condensate. The expression of NF-kappa B-regulated gene products involved in antiapoptosis (inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein 1/2, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, FADD-like interleukin-1betaconverting enzyme/caspase-8 inhibitory protein, TNF receptor-associated factor-1, and survivin) and angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclooxygenase-2, intercellular adhesion molecule, and matrix metalloproteinase-9) was also down-regulated by Zyflamend. This correlated with potentiation of cell death induced by TNF and chemotherapeutic agents. Overall, our results indicate that Zyflamend suppresses osteoclastogenesis, inhibits invasion, and potentiates cytotoxicity through down-regulation of NF-kappa B activation and NF-kappa B-regulated gene products.

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Available from: Gautam Sethi
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    • "Zyflamend (New Chapter, Inc., Brattleboro, VT) is a combination of the extracts of ten herbs, many of which are used as nutrient supplements (ginger, rosemary, turmeric, Chinese goldthread, holy basil, Hu Zhang, barberry, oregano, green tea and basil skullcap) (Table 1). It has been shown that Zyflamend has anticancer properties in experimental models of cancers, i.e., bone, skin, mouth, pancreas and kidney [3-8]. In addition, Zyflamend has been shown to reduce proliferation in a variety of prostate cancer (PrC) cell lines by modulating genes that impact the cell cycle and apoptosis [9-14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Zyflamend, a mixture containing extracts of ten herbs, has shown promise in a variety of preclinical cancer models, including prostate cancer. The current experiments were designed to investigate the effects of Zyflamend on the expression of class I and II histone deacetylases, a family of enzymes known to be over expressed in a variety of cancers. CWR22Rv1 cells, a castrate-resistant prostate cancer cell line, were treated with Zyflamend and the expression of class I and II histone deacetylases, along with their downstream target the tumor suppressor gene p21, was investigated. Involvement of p21 was confirmed with siRNA knockdown and over expression experiments. Zyflamend down-regulated the expression of all class I and II histone deacetylases where Chinese goldthread and baikal skullcap (two of its components) appear to be primarily responsible for these results. In addition, Zyflamend up regulated the histone acetyl transferase complex CBP/p300, potentially contributing to the increase in histone 3 acetylation. Expression of the tumor suppressor gene p21, a known downstream target of histone deacetylases and CBP/p300, was increased by Zyflamend treatment and the effect on p21 was, in part, mediated through Erk1/2. Knockdown of p21 with siRNA technology attenuated Zyflamend-induced growth inhibition. Over expression of p21 inhibited cell growth and concomitant treatment with Zyflamend enhanced this effect. Our results suggest that the extracts of this polyherbal combination increase histone 3 acetylation, inhibit the expression of class I and class II histone deacetylases, increase the activation of CBP/p300 and inhibit cell proliferation, in part, by up regulating p21 expression.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The multiherb anti-inflammatory product Zyflamend was investigated for its antiproliferative effects on PC3 human prostate cancer cells and eicosanoid metabolism in this prostate cancer cell line. Zyflamend produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of cloned COX-1, COX-2, and 5-LOX enzyme activities, with inhibition of 5-HETE production being greater than that of PGE(2) formation. Applied to intact PC3 cells, Zyflamend was found to be most potent against 12-LOX, followed by 5-LOX and then COX activities. The concentration-dependent inhibition of PC3 cell proliferation was associated with a selective G(2)/M arrest of the cell cycle and induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by flow cytometric staining of PC3 cells with annexin V. Zyflamend also produced a concentration-dependent down-regulation of 5-LOX and 12-LOX expression. Determination of cell signal transduction proteins demonstrated that Zyflamend produced an increase in p21 phosphorylation but down-regulated phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. The decrease in pRb protein was shown to be due to 12-LOX inhibition and a decline in 12-HETE levels in the cells. Replenishing 12-HETE in Zyflamend-treated cells overcame the ability of this multiple herb product to inhibit cell proliferation, and concordantly, 12-HETE blocked Zyflamend's ability to down-regulate phosphorylation of Rb protein. We conclude that the effective control of human prostate cancer cell proliferation with Zyflamend is multi-mechanistic but, in part, involves regulation of aberrant tumor cell eicosanoid metabolism, especially on 5- and 12-LOX, as well as restoration of Rb tumor suppressor protein function through regulation of its phosphorylation status.
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    ABSTRACT: Aberrant arachidonic acid metabolism, especially altered cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, has been associated with chronic inflammation as well as carcinogenesis in human oral cavity tissues. Here, we examined the effect of Zyflamend, a product containing 10 concentrated herbal extracts, on development of 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene (DMBA)-induced inflammation and oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A hamster cheek pouch model was used in which 0.5% DMBA was applied topically onto the left cheek pouch of male Syrian golden hamsters either three times per week for 3 weeks (short term) or 6 weeks (long term). Zyflamend was then applied topically at one of three different doses (25, 50 and 100 microl) onto the left cheek pouch three times for 1 week (short-term study) or chronically for 18 weeks. Zyflamend significantly reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells, incidence of hyperplasia and dysplastic lesions, bromodeoxyuridine-labeling index as well as number of SCC in a concentration-dependent manner. Application of Zyflamend (100 microl) reduced formation of leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) by 50% compared with DMBA-treated tissues. The reduction of LTB(4) was concentration dependent. The effect of Zyflamend on inhibition of LTB(4) formation was further confirmed with in vitro cell-based assay. Adding LTB(4) to RBL-1 cells, a rat leukemia cell line expressing high levels of 5-LOX and LTA(4) hydrolase, partially blocked antiproliferative effect of Zyflamend. This study demonstrates that Zyflamend inhibited LTB(4) formation and modulated adverse histopathological changes in the DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch model. The study suggests that Zyflamend might prevent oral carcinogenesis at the post-initiation stage.
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