Apolipoprotein E4 Allele Presence and Functional Outcome after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
Presence of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) 4 allele has been associated with increased incidence and faster progression of neurodegenerative diseases, poorer recovery from neurologic insult, and decreased cognitive function in the well-elderly. The specific association between APOE genotype and recovery from severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is conflicting with many groups finding the APOE 4 allele to be associated with poorer outcome while others have found no association. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between APOE 4 allele presence and recovery during the two years after injury from severe TBI in light of other potential covariates, such as age, race, gender, hypotension or hypoxia before hospital admission and severity of injury. APOE genotype was determined for 123 subjects with severe TBI. Glasgow outcome score (GOS) and mortality were collected at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after injury. Results showed individuals improved over the two year period following injury and those with the 4 allele had a slower recovery rate than those without the APOE 4 allele over the two year period. We did not however find significant differences in GOS at individual time points when controlling for other covariates. Our findings suggest that APOE 4 allele presence influences recovery rate from severe TBI independent of other covariates. The findings of this study are unique in that they address not only the relationship between APOE 4 allele presence and outcome from severe TBI, but also describe differences in trajectory of recovery by APOE 4 allele presence.
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