Natural killer cells, killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leucocyte antigen class I in disease. Clin Exp Immunol

Lung Immunology Group, National Heart & Lung Institute, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, South Kensington Campus, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, UK.
Clinical & Experimental Immunology (Impact Factor: 3.04). 08/2007; 149(1):1-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2007.03424.x
Source: PubMed


Natural killer cells constitute a potent, rapid part of the innate immune response to infection or transformation, and also generate a link to priming of adaptive immunity. Their function can encompass direct cytotoxicity as well as the release of cytokines and chemokines. In humans, a major component of natural killer (NK) cell target recognition depends mainly on the surveillance of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules by killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). Different KIR can transmit inhibitory or activatory signals to the cell, and effector function is considered to result from the balance of these contributing signals. The regulation of NK cell responses depends on a number of variables: KIR genotype, HLA genotype, heterozygosity versus homozygosity for these, whether there is cognate recognition between the HLA and KIR products carried by an individual, clonal variation between individual NK cells in KIR expression, and the specific modulation of HLA expression by infection, transformation or peptide binding. Different HLA/KIR genotypes can impart different thresholds of activation to the NK cell repertoire and such genotypic variation has been found to confer altered risk in a number of diseases including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) susceptibility and progression, hepatitis C virus clearance, idiopathic bronchiectasis, autoimmunity and cancer.

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Available from: Daniel Altmann, Mar 12, 2014
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    • "The effector function of NK cells is regulated by a fine balance between the inhibitory and activating signals transduced by the cascade of natural killer cell receptors (NKR) found on their cell surface. NKRs are structurally categorized into two superfamilies: the immunoglobulin super family which includes the killer cell immunoglobulinlike receptors (KIR) and natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR) and the C-type lectin family including NKG2 receptors [8] [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are a group of natural killer cell receptors (NKRs) that regulate NK-cell-mediated production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in response to infection. These receptors have recently been suggested to influence the severity of clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection. We examined the KIR locus in relation to malaria in children from southwest Nigeria. Sequence specific priming (SSP)-PCR was used to detect the KIR genes. The presence or absence of fifteen different KIR genes was determined in each individual and the proportions compared across 3 clinical groups; asymptomatic malaria, uncomplicated clinical malaria and severe clinical malaria. The genes KIR2DL5, KIR2DS3 and KIR2DS5 were present in a significantly higher proportion of individuals in the asymptomatic control group than in the malaria cases. Furthermore, KIR2DS3 and KIR2DS5 were present in a higher proportion of uncomplicated malaria cases than severe malaria cases. Carriage c-AB2 genotype (which comprises all centromeric KIR genes including KIR2DL5, KIR2DS3 and KIR2DS5) decreases with severity of the disease suggesting that the KIR AB profile might be associated with protection from severe malaria infection in this population in Nigeria.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Human Immunology
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    • "The inhibitory KIRs recognize distinct HLA class I molecules and stop the effector function of NK cells, thus offering protections to healthy cells. Expression of HLA class I molecules protect healthy cells from surveillance of NK cells [[78]]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease is a systemic autoimmune disorder against melanocytes. Recent studies have identified multiple genetic factors that might be associated with the pathogenesis of VKH disease. We performed an electronic database search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, and all relevant papers published up to 13 June 2014 were reviewed. A total of 1,031 publications including articles relevant to the genetics of VKH disease and the references of these articles were reviewed. The review identified a number of genetic factors which might be involved in the pathogenesis of VKH disease, some of which may alter the clinical course of VKH disease. Genes which might be involved in the pathogenesis of VKH disease included genes expressing HLA, complement factor H, interleukins, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1), protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22), osteopontin, tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and other immune response genes. Further studies to explore the correlation among different genotypes and phenotypes of VKH disease will be useful to shed light on the pathogenesis of uveitis in VKH disease and may facilitate the development of new treatment modalities of uveitis in VKH disease.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
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    • "But the lack of expression of HLA on the cancer cells also may decrease the inhibiting function of inhibiting KIR on NK cells. There have been several reports concerning the relationship of KIR genes and disease, including autoimmune disease, infectious disease, transplantation, stem cell disease, and malignant diseases [10] [13]. In terms of the malignant diseases, there have been studies of colon cancer, renal cancer, lung cancer, laryngeal cancer, malignant melanoma, and cervical cancer [14e18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Natural killer cells (NK cells) play important roles in protecting the patient from the early development of cancers, and are activated or inhibited by killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), which bind to HLA class I. In the present study, we investigated the KIR genotype of Korean colorectal cancer patients. Methods: DNA samples were extracted from peripheral blood cell samples taken from Korean colorectal cancer patients and a control group. KIR genes were amplified using PCR-SSP methods, and HLA-Cw genes were characterized using PCR methods. The results were analyzed to assess the difference between colorectal cancer patients and the normal control group. Results: In the present study, the frequency of KIR2DS5 (33.2% vs. 20.8%, p-value < 0.007) was higher in the colorectal cancer group, and in the rectal cancer subgroup, the frequencies of KIR3DL1 (93.2%, vs. 98.1%, p-value < 0.05), KIR2DS2 (7.8% vs. 19.5%, p-value < 0.01), and KIR2DS4 (93.2% vs. 98.1%, p-value < 0.05) were lower significantly. The frequencies of HLA-Cw6 (9.1% vs. 15.7%, p-value < 0.05) and HLA-Cw7 (17.4% vs. 27.7%, p-value < 0.02) were lower in the colorectal cancer group. Of the patients with HLA-C1 homozygote, the frequency of KIR2DS2 was decreased significantly (5.8% vs. 14.5%, p-value < 0.004). Conclusions: The frequency of KIR2DS5 is higher in Korean colorectal cancer patients, and in the rectal cancer subgroup, the frequencies of KIR3DL1, KIR2DS2 and KIR2DS4 are lower. Among the patients with HLA-C1 homozygote, the frequency of KIR2DS2 is decreased. Therefore, KIR2DS2 in presence of its ligand (HLA-C1 group) may have a protective effect against colorectal cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · International Journal of Surgery (London, England)
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