Prediction of anti-tumour effect of thermochemotherapy with in vitro thermochemosensitivity testing for non-small cell lung cancer
We investigated whether it is possible to predict the antitumour effects of thermochemotherapy from the results of anticancer agent sensitivity testing.
We produced a nude mouse cancer model using 4 lung cancer cell lines. Animals were divided into 4 groups: Thermotherapy (HT group), chemotherapy (CT group), thermochemotherapy (HT+CT group), and no therapy (NT group). Comparison of in vivo and in vitro effects were performed using cisplatin (CDDP), doxorubicin (ADR) and vinorelbine (NVB). In vivo thermotherapy was performed using the Thermotron RF IV, and radiofrequency (RF) capacitative hyperthermia device that induces a localised temperature of 42.0 degrees C for 45 min. The collagen gel embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) was used for in vitro chemosensitivity analysis of the anticancer agents. In vitro thermochemotherapy was performed using a modified CD-DST method, with the incubator set at 42.0 degrees for the first hour of the 24 hours drug exposure period.
A good correlation was seen between in vivo and in vitro treated/control ratios (T/C%) in the HT group (R = 0.91, p = 0.09). Good correlations were also seen between in vivo and in vitro T/C in all cell lines in the CT group (R = 0.759, p = 0.09) and the HT+CT group (R = 0.65, p = 0.02). True positive rate was 87.5% (7/8), and true negative rate was 100% (4/4). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 100% (7/7), 80% (4/5), and 91.7% (11/12) respectively.
A modified CD-DST using an exposure temperature of 42 degrees C can be used to predict the antitumour effect of thermochemotherapy.
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ABSTRACT: Notch1 belongs to the Notch family of transmembrane receptors and plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis. Notch1 affects chemosensitivity of tumors. However, its correlation to cisplatin (DDP)-sensitivity of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is unclear. This study was to identify the expression of Notch1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and investigate its influence on the DDP-sensitivity.
Twenty-five fresh specimens of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma were subjected to primary cell culture. DDP-sensitivity of tumor cells was detected using collagen gel droplet embedded culture-drug sensitivity test (CD-DST). The expression of Notch1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, normal squamous epithelium, and tongue squamous cell carcinoma Tb3.1 cells was detected by immunohistochemistry or immuocytochemistry. Tb3.1 cells were divided into four groups, and received treatment of DMSO, DAPT, DMSO plus DDP, DAPT plus DDP, respectively. The absorbance of the four groups was detected by CD-DST to evaluate DDP-sensitivity.
The positive rate of Notch1 was significantly higher in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma than in normal squamous epithelium (100% vs. 35%, p < 0.001), and it was negatively correlated to DDP-sensitivity (r = -0.705, p < 0.01). There was no difference in absorbance between DMSO group and DAPT group (155.4 +/- 2.3 vs. 154.7 +/- 1.2, p > 0.05), while the absorbance was significantly higher in DMSO plus DDP group than in DAPT plus DDP (33.9 +/- 1.3 vs. 26.6 +/- 1.1, p < 0.05).
Notch1 expression is negatively correlated to DDP-sensitivity of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and could be used to predict DDP-sensitivity. DAPT can enhance DDP-sensitivity of Tb3.1 cells via blocking Notch1 signaling.
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ABSTRACT: To observe the therapeutic efficacy of Danggui Buxue Decoction No.1 in treating patients of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at the peri-operational stage and its impact on the patients' immune function.
Eighty-two NSCLC patients were randomly assigned to two groups equally, the control group and the test group, they were given conventional treatment, while to the test group, DB1 were given additionally. The observation was conducted by testing the changes of T-lymphocyte subsets, natural killer (NK) cell activity, serum levels of immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, IgG), interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), cytokeratin fragment 19 (CYFRA21-1) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in NSCLC patients before and after administration of DB1, and analyzing the patients' general condition.
The level of CD3(+), CD4(+), the ratio of CD4 and CD8(+), IgA, IgM, IgG and IL-2 decreased in patients with NSCLC on day 1 after operation, and the level of CD8 and TNF-alpha increased compared to pre-operation. While the levels of CD3(+), CD4(+), CD4 /CD8(+), NK cell activity, serum IgA, IgM, IgG, IL-2 began to elevate, CD8 and TNF-alpha levels began to decline in patients administered with DB1 on day 3 after the operation, earlier than patients who did not use the decoction. The level of CYFRA21-1 and CEA, was immediately decreased after operation in both groups.
Applying DB1 to NSCLC patients at an early post-operational stage could alleviate the impairment and accelerate the recovery of immune function of patients to enhance their immunity. DB1 also shows an anti-tumor action to a certain degree.
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ABSTRACT: Recognition of the potent radiosensitizing effects of hyperthermia on cancer cells has led to extensive research aimed at identifying the effects of heat on a variety of cellular targets, including the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane is a highly complex structure, the phospholipid backbone of which is loaded with proteins that facilitate the exchange of information between a cell and its environment. While most cancer research investigating the effects of hyperthermia on cellular functions has focused on “heat shock” temperatures of 42°C and above, there is increasing recognition of the fact that in actual clinical situations in which hyperthermia has proven to be beneficial, the temperatures achieved within tumors can be considerably lower. In some instances, these are within the range which is achievable during high fever or vigorous exercise (39–40°C). Thus, there is now a great need for additional research (particularly on membrane function and structure) to identify cellular mechanisms by which mild (fever-range) thermal stress could be sensitizing tumor cells to cancer therapies. Moreover, recognition of the potential for the addition of hyperthermia to improve overall survival in patients treated with radiation has led to the hypothesis that cells of the immune system (which may have evolutionarily conserved enhanced plasma membrane-dependent effector activity in response to fever-like conditions) could be among the cellular targets that are affected in the hyperthermic field of treatment. The objective of this chapter is to summarize examples of the literature on these topics, including recent publications that describe the effects of hyperthermia on immune effector and target cells, as well as research pertaining to how mild, fever-range temperatures affect the plasma membrane. The chapter will conclude by discussing current questions that remain to be answered within the field.
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