Article

Trophy Hunting and Conservation in Africa: Problems and One Potential Solution

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  • Wildlife Conservation Network
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Abstract

1 Tropical Resource Ecology Programme, University of Zimbabwe, Box 167, Mt. Pleasant, Zimbabwe

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... Yet despite widespread, and often vociferous opposition, hunting remains a popular sport in many countries (Griffin 2007). The hunting industry in South Africa is the largest across the African sub-continent; generating $100 million (US) per year in national revenue (Damm 2005;Lindsey et al. 2006). It is a multifaceted industry. ...
... It is a multifaceted industry. For example, citizens of the country tend to hunt for biltong 1 whereas foreign tourists tend to hunt animals as a form of trophy (Lindsey et al. 2006). In this paper we consider the importance of hunting for Indian men of Muslim faith (hereby named Indo-Muslims), who generally occupy a 'middle-man' position within South Africa's complex racial history. ...
... Such reactions are premised on romanticized and often anthropomorphic attitudes to wildlife, where identifiable animals such as Cecil are given an elevated status in comparison to the millions of animals slaughtered annually by humans within the meat industry. Game and trophy hunting can bring economic benefits to local communities, and has been linked to conservation efforts to preserve endangered species (Gibson 2014;Lindsey et al. 2006). Some communities living within game reserve areas may also support hunting as a means to control populations and the actions of large and dangerous animals, which pose a threat to human life and livestock safety (Sulle, Banka, and Ntalwila 2014). ...
Article
Indian migrants have been moving to South Africa for the last 150 years. Yet, amidst the predominant Black-White racial binary operating from within South Africa, pre- to post-apartheid, very little is actually known about this heterogeneous and complex community of people. In this paper, we particularly focus upon the subjective realities of 10 Indo-Muslim men, in and through their involvement in the sport of hunting. Through the use of semi-structured interviews, we grapple with their changing senses of national identity and belonging, from relatively invisible outsiders to sporting insiders. The pleasures and positions of these sporting Indo-Muslim men though do not necessarily alter their ‘middle-man’ citizenship status in South Africa more broadly.
... Similarly, hunting increased in Africa by the 1800s when early explorers arrived and found a continent abundant with wildlife. Wealthy Europeans followed in their wake for hunting expeditions, particularly in Kenya (Adams, 2004;Adams & Hulme 2001;Lindsey et al., 2007). Related, following the arrival of Arab traders in the 1700s, especially in the coastal areas (Stearman, 2000), Africa entered a new era of socio-economic development accompanied by technology changes in the hunting industry (Milner-Gulland et al., 2003). ...
... This was done through widespread demarcation of large areas of land in the name of wildlife protection (Adams, 2004;Dunlap, 1988;Lindsey et al., 2007). Furthermore, in order to secure the boundaries of the demarcated areas, rural Africans were forcefully removed from these areas, often to 'waterless sites' (Beinart & Coates, 1995;Jones, 2006), without any form of compensation. ...
... In this thesis, sport hunting (also known as safari hunting, trophy hunting and game hunting), is described as an activity where a tourist pays to hunt an animal with desired physical attributes (e.g. large horns, tusks, body size or skull length), usually in the company of a professional hunting guide Lindsey et al., 2007). The motivations for the hunt range from adventure, pleasure and attaining trophies to using tracking skills, being in remote bush areas and understanding the target species. ...
... 1,17 Legalised sport hunting, and its extreme form 'canned hunting', are increasingly becoming a contentious issue. 20 Arguments against the practice encourage non-consumptive use of wildlife resources, such as eco-tourism, as an alternative to cruel 'bloodsports'. 20 However, proponents of preserving sport hunting argue that funds realised are in turn used to reinforce wildlife conservation. ...
... 20 Arguments against the practice encourage non-consumptive use of wildlife resources, such as eco-tourism, as an alternative to cruel 'bloodsports'. 20 However, proponents of preserving sport hunting argue that funds realised are in turn used to reinforce wildlife conservation. 20 At community level, poaching is poverty driven, especially where formal employment opportunities are limited. ...
... 20 However, proponents of preserving sport hunting argue that funds realised are in turn used to reinforce wildlife conservation. 20 At community level, poaching is poverty driven, especially where formal employment opportunities are limited. At a higher level, poaching is a high capital undertaking by international syndicates, and often finances political instability and terrorism, and thrives on corruption. ...
... 10 In Southern Africa, a diversity of wildlife species are explored and utilized for trophy hunting and tourism purposes. 11 In the past, overexploitation by hunters threatened wildlife numbers but, due to improved wildlife management strategies, populations have become established and culling and harvesting practices put in place. 7,8,11 Most farms in South Africa and Namibia practice integrated farming with different livestock and game species for diversification, increasing economic advantage and improving productive performance. ...
... 11 In the past, overexploitation by hunters threatened wildlife numbers but, due to improved wildlife management strategies, populations have become established and culling and harvesting practices put in place. 7,8,11 Most farms in South Africa and Namibia practice integrated farming with different livestock and game species for diversification, increasing economic advantage and improving productive performance. 7,12 Namibia has an estimated 2 million head of game, of which 80% of the larger game species are found on privately owned farms. ...
Article
An increase in the acceptance, demand and production of game meat and venison has been experienced globally. Game meat and venison fit into consumers’ ideology of healthy and environmentally friendly meat when compared to domesticated animals. Opportunity exists to explore the use of these meat sources in developing new products; particularly as game meat and venison in their fresh state are sometimes perceived as being tough. Consumers have shown a trend for trying exciting new products with different organoleptic qualities and fermented sausages occupy a special niche in the gastro‐economic trade. In this review, the production potential of game meat and venison and its prospective use in the development of fermented sausages is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the importance of meat characteristics in textural and sensorial development as well as the safety of fermented sausages. Additionally consumers’ perception of venison and game meat is discussed. Possible areas of research and knowledge gaps are highlighted, particularly the potential use of meat with high pH and microbial load.
... As a consequence, large herbivore communities are often a focal point for ecosystem conservation and management, and are flagship species for many PAs (Sinclair and Norton-Griffiths 1979, Sinclair and Arcese 1995, Bowen-Jones and Entwistle 2002. Second, large herbivores provide significant economic and societal value to rural communities, particularly through wildlife-based economies utilizing tourism, trophy hunting, and game ranching (Gordon et al. 2004, Krüger 2005, Lindsey et al. 2007. ...
... Declines in ecotourism would further limit tourism-based employment, negatively impacting local communities (Lindsey et al. 2013). Sustainable trophy hunting is another conservation tool with the potential to provide benefits to local communities (Lindsey et al. 2007, Di Minin et al. 2016, but this industry is often financially unviable in areas with high rates of bushmeat poaching (Lindsey et al. 2012). Second, the decline of large herbivores will likely alter density and demography of large carnivores. ...
Article
Full-text available
Large herbivore communities around the world have declined steeply in recent decades. Although excessive bushmeat harvesting is thought to be the primary cause of herbivore declines in many ecosystems, the direct effects of anthropogenic pressures on large herbivore populations remain poorly described in most of the systems experiencing decline. To test the extent to which large herbivores are impacted by ecological and anthropogenic factors in a protected area (PA) thought to be experiencing human-caused decline, we fit distance sampling models to seven years of data from systematic ground-based surveys in Kafue National Park (KNP) to estimate the population densities and distributions of 10 species of large herbivores, and to test what factors affect these parameters. Population densities of the ten most abundant large herbivores in KNP were substantially lower than those reported for an ecologically similar PA with less poaching pressure. Low densities were consistent across species and areas, though there was ecologically important variation among species and size classes. Densities of larger-bodied herbi-vores were greatly depressed relative to smaller species. This pattern has direct and indirect effects on large carnivore populations, with broad implications for the ecotourism and trophy hunting industries. Statistically and methodologically rigorous methods to test the effects of anthropogenic and environmental variables on density and distribution exist, but are rarely applied to large herbivores. To quantify trends in herbivore populations and evaluate the effectiveness of conservation actions, our results show that distance sampling with stratified ground-based monitoring is an efficient and effective method. In the Greater Kafue Ecosystem (GKE), continued increases in resource protection are needed to facilitate the recovery of an economically and ecologically important large herbivore guild. More broadly, our results confirm that anthropogenic effects on large herbivore distribution and abundance can be strong over wide areas for all species (particularly the larger members of the guild), even in very large PAs.
... Trophy hunting can generate good amount of revenue where limited alternative sources exist whilst conserving large areas (Lindsey et al., 2007b) or in areas which are not suitable for other sustainable uses, such as photo tourism (GOeSSLING, 2000). Trophy hunting may also be more resilient than tourism to outside market forces such as political instability, as hunters continue to visit politically unstable countries (Lindsey et al., 2007a;Bond, 2013). The revenues that can be accrued from trophy hunting can increase incentives to protect habitats (Dickson et al., 2009). ...
... In some cases trophy hunting of less threatened species has contributed to the recovery and conservation threatened and endangered species. (Lindsey et al., 2007a). ...
Article
Northern regions of Pakistan support a relatively large population of wild ungulates, the preferred prey of sympatric carnivores. The Asiatic ibex (Capra Ibex Sibirica) is one such an ungulate species which also serves as an important trophy animal. The maintenance of trophy hunting programs rely on estimates of harvestable population sizes derived from rigorous methods. The present study successfully used the double observer-based Capture-Mark-Recapture (CMR) method to produce a reliable and accurate estimate of the Asiatic ibex population in the Community Control Hunting Areas (CCHAs) of Socterabad, Gojal watershed and Khunjerab National Park (KNP). Surveys were conducted from February to March 2018 and from March to April 2019. The total ibex population was calculated to be 1075 individuals (95%CI ± 670) with a density of 1.43 ibex/km2 in Gojal watershed, followed by Socterabad with 856 individuals (95%CI ± 680) and a density of 6.24ibex/km2, and lastly KNP with 463 individuals (95%CI ± 93.5) and a density of 0.14ibex/km2. A total of 52 herds were sighted in Gojal watershed with mean size of 19 ibex/herd (SE ± 3.2). In Socterabad, 28 herds were sighted with mean size of 16.07 ibex/herd (SE ± 2.4) and in KNP 28 herds were sighted with average recorded size of 16.5 ibex/herd (SE ± 3.4). In KNP Sex ratios of female to young, female to yearling and female to male were 1:0.7, 1:0.4, and 1:0.5 respectively. The detection probability of observer two was less than observer one. Ibex biomass recorded is insufficient for current recorded snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and wolf (Canis lupus) population in the area. Our study validates the use of Capture Mark Recapture as a viable tool in discerning ungulate populations, and shows that the population of the Asiatic ibex is viable in the study area, making it suitable for trophy hunting programs but need to modify the hunting law. Keywords: Trophy hunting, Double observer, Himalaya, Conservation, Distribution, Abundance and population
... 122,129 Largely unique to sub-Saharan Africa, there is also a body of literature assessing the revenue accrued to local communities via hunting on community land or payments to communities residing within or adjacent to state hunting areas. [130][131][132] By contrast, few studies have assessed the economic contributions of hunting in Asia or Central and South America (but see Aryal et al. 115 and Baur et al. 133 ). ...
... 138 Where wildlife authorities depend heavily on hunting income to fund strict protected areas, the revenue can be insufficient to manage hunting blocks or to provide meaningful contributions to local communities. 132,139 The limited viability of trophy hunting in some regions relates to the few remaining trophy species, European Union bans on imports of trophies, as well as increased costs of mitigating threats related to poaching, agricultural encroachment, and growing climate insecurity. 131,140 Elsewhere, while wildlife-based tourism (the primary alternative wildlife land use) is limited to areas that combine good infrastructure and abundant wildlife or spectacular scenery, 141 trophy hunting can enable biodiversity conservation to be a viable land use across many community conservancies 130 and private ranches. ...
Article
Full-text available
The widespread activity of recreational hunting is proposed as a means of conserving nature and supporting livelihoods. However, recreational hunting-especially trophy hunting-has come under increasing scrutiny based on ethical concerns and the arguments that it can threaten species and fail to contribute meaningfully to local livelihoods. We provide an overview of the peer-reviewed literature on recreational hunting of terrestrial birds and mammals between 1953 and 2020 (>1,000 papers). The most-studied species are large mammals from North America, Europe, and Africa. While there is extensive research on spe-cies' ecology to inform sustainable hunting practices, there is comparably little research on the role of local perceptions and institutions in determining socioeconomic and conservation outcomes. Evidence is lacking to answer the pressing questions of where and how hunting contributes to just and sustainable conservation efforts. We outline an agenda to build this evidence base through research that recognizes diverse social-ecological contexts.
... In Uganda, the colonial administration demarcated areas abundant with wildlife for protection, hunting, and centralised control over wildlife by the 1926 game ordinance, which also limited all forms of hunting. Sport hunting (also known as 'trophy' or 'safari' hunting) is an activity where a tourist pays to hunt and kill an animal with desired physical attributes, such as large horns, tusks or a certain body size (Lindsey et al. 2007;Booth 2017). Although sport hunting has many forms (Lindsey et al. 2016), we particularly refer to trophy hunting (found in Uganda): hunting particular animals to keep the animal or certain body parts (e.g., entire head or hides, but this may also include scrotum, tail, hooves, or teeth) as souvenirs or mementos (trophies). ...
... Currently, sport hunting advocates (e.g., Yasuda 2011;Booth 2017) argue that local communities around protected areas are willing and able to sustainably manage and use wildlife, especially when they share in the income and meat from legally hunted animals (Muposhi et al. 2016). They say that hunting operators can promote anti-poaching campaigns by integrating (former) poachers in conservation programmes as village scouts (Lindsey et al. 2007). Recent studies (e.g., Di Minin et al. 2016 andMuposhi et al. 2016) show that Zimbabwe's trophy hunting industry generates approximately USD 16 million/year. ...
Article
After having banned sport hunting in 1979, Uganda reintroduced it in 2001 around Lake Mburo National Park, and in 2006 in the Kabwoya and Kaiso-Tonya Game Management Area, with the aim to reduce human-wildlife conflicts, especially poaching, by providing incentives for the local inhabitants in order to positively change residents' attitudes towards wildlife. We conducted interviews and reviewed documents to analyse and evaluate the impacts of reintroduction of sport hunting. The income generated from sport hunting was used to provide social services and implement social development projects. There was no proof of hunting income being used for conservation purposes. Although the local perceptions of the sport hunting benefits varied, the benefits did initially help to improve local residents' attitudes towards wildlife and poaching temporarily stopped—but resumed later. Hence, this study shows that the common underlying assumption of sport hunting policies and other market- and community-based approaches to conservation—that when local residents receive benefits, they will appreciate wildlife—is debatable.
... Such arguments rest on the premise that trophy hunting's harmful biological and socio-economic consequences can be minimized or avoided (e.g. Dickman et al., 2019;Lindsey, Frank, et al., 2007), and that trophy hunting creates net economic benefits and conservation incentives (e.g. Gunn, 2001;Naidoo et al., 2016). ...
... For example, in a study of communal conservancies in Namibia, a simulated ban on trophy hunting reduced the number of conservancies that could cover their operating costs (Naidoo et al., 2016). Others have suggested that well-regulated hunting frameworks and effective governance could minimize trophy hunting's negative impacts on wildlife populations and bring benefits to local communities (Begg et al., 2018;Lindsey, Frank, et al., 2007). ...
Article
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1. Ethical concerns are at the heart of the ongoing debate on trophy hunting; however, so far, most studies have addressed the issue from a single ethical perspective. These studies, approaching the subject from different ethical perspectives, have reached different conclusions. For instance, those who support trophy hunting as a conservation strategy usually adopt a utilitarian perspective, while those who adopt a deontological perspective usually oppose it. 2. The analysis presented in this paper challenges the ethical justification of trophy hunting based on a utilitarian perspective, and it also suggests that trophy hunting is problematic from the perspectives of both deontology and virtue theory. 3. This paper supports a version of Bryan Norton's ‘convergence hypothesis’ (Norton, 1991). Although holism and anthropocentrism in environmental ethics are usually presented as fundamentally opposed views, Norton argued that their conclusions for policy converge, at least when a sufficiently broad and long-range view of human interests are considered. 4. Analogously, this paper proposes that, regarding trophy hunting, the implications of three major traditional perspectives in ethics (i.e. utilitarianism, deontology and virtue theory) may converge in opposition to the practice of trophy hunting. 5. The final section of this paper recommends some ways authorities and policymakers can address these ethical concerns and presents a view of the future.
... An observation from Africa verified that trophy hunting has a negative impact on animal populations and that ecotourism is preferable for wildlife conservation (Hariohay et al., 2018). However, other researches (Baker, 1997;Lindsey et al., 2007) are convinced that ecotourism can also cause damage to the wildness of nature to the extent as sport hunting, because ecotourism demands much more construction of roads and other facilities and more cars and fuels. Trophy hunting, which accounts for only 2%-5% of male wildlife populations, cannot damage the population as a whole, but it can supply substantial income for those in need (ranging from 0.5 Â 10 6 to 100.0 Â 10 6 USD per year for different countries), as well as provide funds that can be used for conservation efforts (Lindsey et al., 2007). ...
... However, other researches (Baker, 1997;Lindsey et al., 2007) are convinced that ecotourism can also cause damage to the wildness of nature to the extent as sport hunting, because ecotourism demands much more construction of roads and other facilities and more cars and fuels. Trophy hunting, which accounts for only 2%-5% of male wildlife populations, cannot damage the population as a whole, but it can supply substantial income for those in need (ranging from 0.5 Â 10 6 to 100.0 Â 10 6 USD per year for different countries), as well as provide funds that can be used for conservation efforts (Lindsey et al., 2007). Trophy hunting was banned in Kenya and Tanzania for several years, but each of the bans led to an accelerated loss of wildlife because of a loss of incentives for conservation (Baker, 1997;Minin et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Initially, hunting was the primary means for getting food for the survival of ancient people. As time passed, people started to breed livestock and develop agriculture, gradually reducing their reliance on unpredictability of hunting. People, however, continued to hunt and, even though their survival did not depend on hunting. During the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) period, attitudes toward the use of natural resources fluctuated significantly, and after the establishment of new reserves for wildlife protection, the government soon weakened protections it had introduced. In the current, the organizations in dependent countries of the USSR that are chartered to protect areas with wildlife diversity are very weak and have no sufficient material resources to provide any real control of poaching, especially when hunting weapons and ammunition are easily available. Trophy hunting companies exploit wildlife resources but do not make protecting wildlife from poaching as a priority in their work; they just use whatever resources are available as if they are unlimited. To help solve this problem, we suggest to organize the local people to join the wildlife protection societies and give them official rights to benefit from the development of hunting tourism in the future. There are numerous examples of successful and very profitable hunting businesses in different countries in the world. In Central Asia, all the prerequisites exist for organizing highly effective trophy hunting tourism, maintaining the richness of biodiversity, and at the same time providing a sustainable and significant income for local communities as the country as a whole. The sustainable use of wildlife resources is a very tangible challenge in the countries of Central Asia, and the most important consideration is to establish and enforce hunting laws equally, irrespective of a person’s social status or financial assets, otherwise no laws will work.
... Some of the rural communities consider trophy hunting an effective conservation tool to protect rare and unique wildlife species in remote areas ( Harris and Pletscher, 2002 ;Lindsey et al., 2006Lindsey et al., , 2007Damm 2008 ) unlike the others who regard trophy hunting as an extension of colonialism ( Mkono, 2019 ;Nowak et al., Argali, Bighorn sheep, and many African ungulates ( Funk, 2015 ;Khan et al., 2019 ;Roe and Cremona, 2016 ), while providing income for marginal and disadvantaged rural communities ( Dickman et al., 2019 ;Funk, 2015 ). In such cases, trophy hunting has been used purely as a conservation tool for achieving overall biodiversity conservation goals inside a Community Conservation Area (CCA) . ...
... Carbon and development footprints of trophy hunting programmes had also been lower than that of tourism ( Di Minin et al., 2016a ). It is a growing industry with a revenue of at least US$201 million per year in South Africa ( Harris and Pletscher, 2002 ;Lindsey et al., 2007Lindsey et al., , 2006. Trophy hunting accounted for about 89% of the total revenue compared to 2% for ecotourism in Zimbabwe ( Frost and Bond, 2008 ). ...
Article
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The benefits for biodiversity and human wellbeing are debated for many countries. Some communities in rural mountain areas of the world consider trophy hunting as an integrated conservation and development strategy to protect biodiversity and sustain livelihood. This review will provide the evidence that has been gathered to discuss the benefits of CHTP in the HKPL landscape focusing on Pakistan and Tajikistan”. Trophy hunting, which is intensely debated these days, is perhaps confused with the underlying philosophy of community-based trophy hunting programs. This paper seeks to inform these discussions with a fresh perspective on CTHP based on first-hand experience and learning from the high mountain landscapes and communities of Asia - Pakistan and Tajikistan. The article essentially reviews the effectiveness of CTHP model for conserving rare and threatened wildlife populations, protected and conserved areas, and community welfare and economic uplift. Results reveal that CTHP has been instrumental in halting illegal hunting and poaching wildlife and eventually increasing their populations in many important yet isolated habitats while improving community livelihood and local economy. The CTHP forms a vital part of the rural socio-ecological resilience for remote and isolated mountain communities. It has offered economic incentives for an integrated conservation and development paradigm to combat wildlife poaching and illegal trade and diversify livelihoods harness vital biodiversity conservation values. The paper also elaborates on the societal impact of financial flows and their use for improved lives and enterprises. There are however, some significant problems related to trophy hunting programmes, including the lack of accurate information to understand the effect of trophy hunting on herd structure and size, weak policy implementation, lack of transparency and corruption. Regular monitoring of wildlife, understanding population dynamics, appropriate allocation of hunting quotas, hunting revenue, proper evaluation, and careful documentation of CTHP processes and their impacts are urgently required to make CTHP more effective and sustainable.
... The critical aspect, regardless of population size, is to ensure that sufficient mature males are left for normal reproduction rates to be achieved and that the long-term survival of the population is not jeopardized [14]. Trophy hunting is sustainable and fully supports the conservation and minimizes the risk for the population, if well managed [15][16][17]. In 1973 Markhor was a place in appendix II of CITES then in 1992 it is shifted to appendix [18], due to legal hunting the population subsequently increased worldwide finally in 1997 the Pakistan taken the permit of 6 trophies export in a year, now this permit increased and annually Pakistan exporting 12 trophies. ...
... Male population was less than that female population in each Vantage point, in Kiagah valley while yearlings and kid"s population was increasing, the Male and female ratio were 1:5 analyzed in the valley. Trophy hunting is sustainable and fully supports the conservation and minimizes the risk for the population, if well managed [15][16][17]. In 1973 Markhor was places in appendix II of CITES then in 1992 it is shifted to appendix I [18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Markhor Capra falconeri, the national animal of Pakistan, is globally recognized as endangered. The current study was conducted to find the population size, structure and the contribution of trophy hunting in conservation and development of Kashmir Markhor (Capra falconeri cashmiriensis) in Kiagah valley Kohistan. Point count method was used to collect data during February 2016 and 2018. The population recorded was 213 and 291 individuals in 2016 and 2018 respectively. Out of 213 individuals, 12 were adult male, 57 were female, while Young males (between age of 3 to 7 years) were 28, Yearlings (both male and female between 1 to 3 year) were 59, Kids (less than 1 year) were 33 and 40 were unknown (Markhor could not be classified by age and sex). The total density/Km 2 area in 2016 was 4.438 individuals/km 2 and average sex and age wise ratios; male to female ratio (M*: F**) was 1:4.75 and kids to female (K*****: F**) ratio was 1:1.727. While out of 291 individuals, 19 were adult male, 95 were female, while Yong males (between age of 3 to 7 years) were 51, Yearlings (both male and female between 1 to 3 year) were 64, kids (less than 1 year) were 50 and 12 were unknown (Markhor could not be classified by age and sex) individuals. The total density/Km 2 area in 2018 was 6.063 individuals/km 2 and Average sex and age wise ratios; male to female ratio
... Trophy hunting, the use of charismatic species for hunting activities, has been argued to be good for conservation when revenues are reinvested properly into nature protection and redistributed across local communities, but faces criticisms for moral reasons (Lindsey et al. 2007b;Di Minin et al. 2016). The action of killing some individuals to save others might be incompatible with a deontological perspective, but, assuming a consequentialist perspective, the framework can be applied to formalise the assessment of different management options. ...
... In other words, a decrease in the anthropocentric Equation 2 leads to a decrease in the ecocentric Equation 3, but the causal link (Equation 4) is still supposed to be valid. In addition, trophy hunting can lead to unexpected evolutionary consequences (Coltman et al. 2003), overharvesting of young males (Lindsey et al. 2007b), and disproportionate pressure on threatened species (Palazy et al. 2011(Palazy et al. , 2012(Palazy et al. , 2013 and therefore to population declines and potential detrimental effects on biodiversity. That means that I(C humans ) in Equation 4 should be carefully examined. ...
Article
Full-text available
Perspectives in conservation are based on a variety of value systems. Such differences in how people value nature and its components lead to different evaluations of the morality of conservation goals and approaches, and often underlie disagreements in the formulation and implementation of environmental management policies. Specifically, whether a conservation action (e.g. killing feral cats to reduce predation on bird species threatened with extinction) is viewed as appropriate or not can vary among people with different value systems. Here, we present a conceptual, mathematical framework intended as a tool to systematically explore and clarify core value statements in conservation approaches. Its purpose is to highlight how fundamental differences between these value systems can lead to different prioritizations of available management options and offer a common ground for discourse. The proposed equations decompose the question underlying many controversies around management decisions in conservation: what or who is valued, how, and to what extent? We compare how management decisions would likely be viewed under three idealised value systems: ecocentric conservation, which aims to preserve biodiversity; new conservation, which considers that biodiversity can only be preserved if it benefits humans; and sentientist conservation, which aims at minimising suffering for sentient beings. We illustrate the utility of the framework by applying it to case studies involving invasive alien species, rewilding, and trophy hunting. By making value systems and their consequences in practice explicit, the framework facilitates debates on contested conservation issues, and complements philosophical discursive approaches about moral reasoning. We believe dissecting the core value statements on which conservation decisions are based will provide an additional tool to understand and address conservation conflicts.
... The critical aspect, regardless of population size, is to ensure that sufficient mature males are left for normal reproduction rates to be achieved and that the long-term survival of the population is not jeopardized [14]. Trophy hunting is sustainable and fully supports the conservation and minimizes the risk for the population, if well managed [15][16][17]. In 1973 Markhor was a place in appendix II of CITES then in 1992 it is shifted to appendix [18], due to legal hunting the population subsequently increased worldwide finally in 1997 the Pakistan taken the permit of 6 trophies export in a year, now this permit increased and annually Pakistan exporting 12 trophies. ...
... Male population was less than that female population in each Vantage point, in Kiagah valley while yearlings and kid's population was increasing, the Male and female ratio were 1:5 analyzed in the valley. Trophy hunting is sustainable and fully supports the conservation and minimizes the risk for the population, if well managed [15][16][17]. In 1973 Markhor was places in appendix II of CITES then in 1992 it is shifted to appendix I [18]. ...
Article
Markhor Capra falconeri, the national animal of Pakistan, is globally recognized as endangered. The current study was conducted to find the population size, structure and the contribution of trophy hunting in conservation and development of Kashmir Markhor (Capra falconeri cashmiriensis) in Kiagah valley Kohistan. Point count method was used to collect data during February 2016 and 2018. The population recorded was 213 and 291 individuals in 2016 and 2018 respectively. Out of 213 individuals, 12 were adult male, 57 were female, while Young males (between age of 3 to 7 years) were 28, Yearlings (both male and female between 1 to 3 year) were 59, Kids (less than 1 year) were 33 and 40 were unknown (Markhor could not be classified by age and sex). The total density/Km 2 area in 2016 was 4.438 individuals/km 2 and average sex and age wise ratios; male to female ratio (M*: F**) was 1:4.75 and kids to female (K*****: F**) ratio was 1:1.727. While out of 291 individuals, 19 were adult male, 95 were female, while Yong males (between age of 3 to 7 years) were 51, Yearlings (both male and female between 1 to 3 year) were 64, kids (less than 1 year) were 50 and 12 were unknown (Markhor could not be classified by age and sex) individuals. The total density/Km 2 area in 2018 was 6.063 individuals/km 2 and Average sex and age wise ratios; male to female ratio
... Last but not least, there are claims by some authors such as Lindsey (2007b) that the consciousness that an area is a hunting area and the actual presence of trophy hunters sometimes deters poachers. This observation however needs to be substantiated. ...
... This skepticism is perhaps being driven by the fact that most of the existing literature is skewed towards anti-hunting. Pro-hunting literature is quite limited and is mostly confined to hunting publications and persons interested in the practice (Lindsey, 2007b). Outcries from local communities of not deriving value from the trophy hunting expeditions have also simmered antitrophy hunting feelings among many people (Lindsey, 2008). ...
Article
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Trophy hunting has become one of the most topical and controversial tourism and conservation issues in the world today. This informative and analytical paper exposes the loopholes in the practice’s procedures and processes with illustrations from Zimbabwe and then proffers feasible recommendations for the sustainability of the practice. Data for the illustrations was collected from in-depth interviews with national park authorities, registered hunting operators, some local communities around the hunting areas and the hunters themselves. This research revealed that although the global trophy hunting procedures and processes were well laid out as set by world body organisations such as the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) and the Convention on International Trade and Endangered Species (CITES), there were several loopholes in the system which needed urgent attention especially for Zimbabwe. The study recommends that countries such as Zimbabwe, which rely heavily on wildlife tourism, should not necessarily adopt a ‘me too approach’ and ban trophy hunting. Rather, they should get rid of the weaknesses inherent in the trophy hunting procedures and processes highlighted in this paper to ensure a win-win situation for the practice. Further research needs to be undertaken to document the contribution of trophy hunting to the decimation of big game in such countries so that any decision to ban the practice can be justified.
... They believed that trophy hunting operators disliked and isolated them to hide their unauthorized activities. Other literature indicates that ineffective supervision undermines the role of the trophy hunting industry as a conservation tool (Lindsey et al. 2007;Leader-Williams et al. 2009;Wright 2016). ...
Article
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The legal subsistence hunting scheme (resident hunting) in Tanzania was temporarily banned in 2015 because it was considered ineffective. So far, no attempt has been made to understand the challenges facing the scheme, especially from the hunters’ perspective. This study used 8 hunter focus groups (in total, 73 hunters) and 26 key informants in the Ugalla ecosystem of western Tanzania–from June to September, 2017–to determine the challenges faced by the resident hunting scheme before the ban, and the areas of the scheme that participants felt required improvement. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were digitally recorded. In general, study participants perceived that resident hunting regulations were poorly enforced, leading to a number of incidents such as the killing of unauthorized game, hunting outside specified areas, false reporting of animals killed, and overshooting of quotas. They noted that hunting areas were under pressure from poaching, and encroachment by pastoralists and subsistence farmers. Conflicts over hunting areas and hunting rights between resident and trophy hunters were common. Participants recommended capacity strengthening to effectively administer resident hunting, through ensuring availability of human and financial resources. They perceived active hunter engagement as the best way to deal with poaching and non-compliant behaviour by hunters. Measures to guarantee coexistence between resident and trophy hunters were recommended, for example, a thorough review of hunting area boundaries to minimize hunting area conflicts. Further study should consider the impact of hunting on wildlife in hunting areas in relation to the issues reported in this study.
... One of the most widespread and well-practiced wildlife sustainable use option in Sub-Saharan Africa is trophy hunting [1,2]. Trophy hunting is defined as hunting by paying tourists, usually with the objective of selecting individuals with exceptional phenotypic traits such as large horns, tusks, body size, skull length, or mane and usually in the company of a professional hunting guide [3]. Sustainability of trophy hunting depends on the application of ecological theory [4,5], in harvesting regimes as well as long term monitoring of the harvested populations [6][7][8]. ...
Article
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Developing harvest management strategies in designated hunting areas requires systematic and robust monitoring. We assessed the trophy size, quota utilization, and distribution of kill sites of African elephant, Cape buffalo, greater kudu, and leopard for the period 2007-2014 in Malapati Safari Area, southeast Zimbabwe. Trophy sizes for African elephant significantly increased over time albeit being below the expected minimum Safari Club International (SCI) score. Cape buffalo trophy sizes declined significantly over time but were not different from the SCI minimum score. However, greater kudu trophy sizes were higher than the SCI minimum score despite being constant over time. Leopard trophy sizes were higher than the SCI minimum score and increased with time. Quota utilization for African elephant and Cape buffalo increased while that of greater kudu and leopard did not change between 2007 and 2014. Some kill sites, in particular, for the African elephant and Cape buffalo, were within the buffer area with the state protected area, i.e., Gonarezhou National Park. Increased hunting pressure likely leads to poor trophy quality and hunting within the protected buffer areas. In contrast, effective adherence to hunting ethics and scientifically and conservatively set quotas largely does not compromise the trophy quality of harvested species. The observed trophy size patterns and kill sites distribution suggest the possible existence of source and sink dynamics of trophy species occurring in a protected area complex within the Zimbabwe’s component of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park. To ensure sustainable trophy hunting in the study area and similar ecosystems the following are recommended: (i) scientifically robust, adaptable, and participatory quota setting process, (ii) enhanced adherence to good practice in terms of ethical hunting conduct, and (iii) development of a robust hunting monitoring system covering all elements of hunting for adaptive wildlife management.
... However, the challenges posed by geography in Solomon Islands and current developments in the global crocodile leather industry make setting up a crocodile ranching scheme along the lines of PNG and Australia commercially unviable. 21 Trophy hunting, in which expatriate hunters would pay local landowners to shoot saltwater crocodiles, could potentially generate income for coastal communities and destroy problem-crocodiles, though this would likely generate substantial social friction related to benefit sharing and kastom (Lindsey et al. 2007 • Develop a community-based crocodile monitoring program: Fishers often have intimate knowledge on saltwater crocodile populations, territories, basking sites, seasonal movements and nesting sites in their immediate surroundings. This survey demonstrated the potential of tapping this local ecological knowledge to identify hotspots for human-crocodile conflict. ...
Article
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The Solomon Islands National Biodiversity Strategic Action Plan 2016–2020 identifies the need to develop a management plan for saltwater crocodiles. However, there is a lack of reliable information on the population status of saltwater crocodiles and the extent of human-crocodile conflict in the country. This report summarizes the results of a nationwide survey that aimed to fill these knowledge gaps
... Trophy hunting is particularly common in Africa, where foreigners can travel to 23 countries to legally hunt big game. South Africa has the largest hunting industry in the world, with annual revenue greater than $100 million (Lindsey, 2006 Trophy hunting generally creates revenue for governments, creates high profits for hunting companies, and can benefit local communities if proper mechanisms exist to redirect funds to them. All of these beneficiaries of the trophy hunting system have an incentive to ensure that the system is sustainable, and that they will thus continue to benefit from it. ...
Technical Report
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In this report, I investigate these changes and the current management of trophy hunting in Mongolia. Is trophy hunting now better protecting Mongolia’s wildlife? After performing an extensive literature review and speaking with government officials, conservationists, and hunting company representatives in Ulaanbaatar, I visited Tsetseg soum (district) in Khovd aimag (province) to investigate the real-world implications of trophy hunting by speaking to local community members and government officials. In total, I performed twenty-four interviews. Over the course of this research, I found that while the 2012 revisions to Mongolia’s trophy hunting significantly improved the system’s potential to support wildlife conservation, reducing the potential for corruption, increasing its ecological sustainability, and linking it more closely to local communities, it will not effectively support wildlife conservation until stakeholders’ capacity increases, local community members feel involved and valued, and local governments properly redirect revenue back to wildlife conservation.
... In China, as well as in other parts of Southeast Asia and throughout the global South, trophy-hunting has been suggested as a way to actively control local wildlife populations and fund agencies that seek to conserve biodiversity (Baker, 1997;Harris, 1995;Lindsey, 2008;Shackleton, 2001). This method, however, goes against the basic value of ecotourism in "sustaining the well-being of local species", and also requires a value-judgement of which organisms should live and should die for the improvement of the ecosystem (Gunn, 2001;Lindsey et al., 2007). Additionally, this value-judgement is not solely based on ecological considerations-there is an economic consideration as well. ...
Chapter
Noting the significant impact that tourism has on ecosystems and their local communities, ecotourism has emerged as an alternative that seeks to find a “win-win” strategy for all parties involved. With growing tourism throughout Asia and active development of many ecosystems, ecotourism has the promise to mend the social and economic gap while also ensuring a positive ecological impact over time. This chapter seeks to understand how sustainability and conservation fit into the core values of the ecotourism industry, as well as, how the industry plans for the short-term and long-term effects of their actions. Two important relationships are then explored in-depth because of their significance to the current and future state of ecotourism in Asia. Working with mass media, a strong brand may be created, thus increasing tourism to a destination site and ensuring that it is sustained over time. And through key partnerships, like those of local communities, ecotourism may have the potential to mutually benefit the people and the places tourists come to visit.
... The role of hunting in wildlife conservation is a theme that has often caused rifts between hunters and scientists (Johannesen 2005;Hames 2007;Lindsey et al. 2007;Treves 2009;Organ et al. 2012;Paulson 2012;Delibes-Mateos et al. 2014;Benítez-López et al. 2017). We know how different human visions and values of ecosystems and the environment, together with ethical and practical contents, can lead to diametrically opposed positions, but in some cases, these two worlds may not be completely incompatible and can coexist to pursue the same goals, even synergistically (Redpath et al. 2017), while maintaining their perspectives. ...
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In the second volume of Problematic Wildlife, we explore relevant topics related to the ecology of the planet and the inevitable overlap between ecosystems, habitats, wildlife conservation, and human activities. The book is divided into six parts. The first is devoted to the species that can pose a danger to human health and safety, the second is about the urban wildlife and its related conflicts with humans, and the third is about hunting and ecotourism as possible tools for conservation. The fourth part of the book is devoted to the major problem of species extinction, while the fifth part consists in a broad collection of works about the debated role of the zoos for conservation, animal welfare, and animal rights. Finally, the last part of the book covers specific cases related to humans and herpetofauna convivence and conflicts.
... Many areas with high bird diversity make nature-based tourism or bird tourism important parts of their economies, such as various southern and eastern African countries (Lindsey, et al., 2007). The Eco-zone of Indo-Malaya had only a single paper examining the developments of the tourism affecting the habitats of Malaysian plovers in the nation of Thailand (Yasué & Dearden, 2006). ...
Chapter
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The Island Flying Fox, Pteropus hypomelanus is a bat from the order of Chiroptera. It is the smallest flying-fox in the Southeast Asia region. The Island Flying Fox is a habitat specialist that roost mainly on small islands and sometimes forage to the nearby mainland. However, this species is among the less studied bats in Malaysia and is threatened by hunting and habitat loss. The Island Flying Fox population, behaviour and ecology are unknown in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aims to suggest the potential of wildlife tourism activities in promoting and contributing towards the conservation of the Island Flying Fox in Malaysia. We chose Pulau Bidong which is situated near Pulau Redang because the Island Flying Fox was reported being there. Pulau Bidong is an uninhabited island and is known to the local people as an old Vietnamese refugee island. The survey in Pulau Bidong held from 31st May 2015 to 6th June 2015 captured 20 Island Flying Fox individuals using mist-netting. We also observed the Island Flying Fox foraging and roosting on the “Ketapang” trees (Terminalia cattapa). Some of the Ketapang trees are very small, ranging from 5 m to 10 m tall where the Island Flying Fox can be easily observed. By looking at the Island Flying Fox, we suggest that wildlife tourism is a potential tool for the conservation of bats which would indirectly provide economic resources to the local communities. Download here ======> https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317175075_ECOTOURISM_POTENTIALS_IN_MALAYSIA
... Poaching, conflict with communities, and hunting activity are the lead causes of mortality in mature bulls, and their numbers are declining at a rapid rate 40 . Trophy hunting divides conservationists for its potential benefits and negative impacts 59 . Supporters argue when a quota system for trophies is managed carefully following ecological theory, trophy hunting only removes a few older males with low reproductive value from a population, which should have a negligible effect on the wider environment 12,13 . ...
Article
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In long-lived social species, older individuals can provide fitness benefits to their groupmates through the imparting of ecological knowledge. Research in this area has largely focused on females in matrilineal societies where, for example, older female African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) are most effective at making decisions crucial to herd survival, and old post-reproductive female resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) lead collective movements in hunting grounds. In contrast, little is known about the role of older males as leaders in long-lived social species. By analysing leadership patterns of all-male African savannah elephant traveling groups along elephant pathways in Makgadikgadi Pans National Park, Botswana, we found that the oldest males were more likely to lead collective movements. Our results challenge the assumption that older male elephants are redundant in the population and raise concerns over the biased removal of old bulls that currently occurs in both legal trophy hunting and illegal poaching. Selective harvesting of older males could have detrimental effects on the wider elephant society through loss of leaders crucial to younger male navigation in unknown, risky environments.
... Many areas with high bird diversity make nature-based tourism or bird tourism important parts of their economies, such as various southern and eastern African countries (Lindsey, et al., 2007). The Eco-zone of Indo-Malaya had only a single paper examining the developments of the tourism affecting the habitats of Malaysian plovers in the nation of Thailand (Yasué & Dearden, 2006). ...
... Arguably, the reintroduction of trophy hunting in 2001 could represent another example of means-end decoupling in Uganda. While presented as a community based conservation approach that contributes to sustainable development by the Government, other actors, such as non-governmental organizations, highlight problems with corruption, lack of transparency and accountability, and unreliability in animal statistics (Ochieng, 2011;Ochieng et al., 2015) and the negative ecological and economic impact associated with trophy hunting could hinder the conservation role of the industry (Lindsey et al., 2007). Trophy hunting has also been used as a facilitator of wildlife crime, as demonstrated in the so-called "pseudo-hunting" of white rhino in South Africa. ...
Article
Despite numerous promises and pledges at national and international levels to confront what many acknowledge as a crisis, illegal trade in wild plants and animals continues to grow and diversify. Empirical research conducted in Norway and Uganda from 2013 to 2015 indicates that despite the different circumstances in which law enforcement operates in the two countries, policing agents face a number of comparable challenges. Drawing on institutional theory the paper argues that decoupling, that is, gaps between official policies and daily work activities within the policing organizations, compromises enforcement in both countries. Challenges stem from conflicting demands, poor resources and want of guidelines that oblige officers to prioritize the control of illegal wildlife trade in practice.
... South Africa however, which borders Botswana, continues to be the largest hunting nation in Africa (contributing 80% of the total revenue from hunting on the continent). Namibia and Zimbabwe, also still have strong hunting economies (Lindsey et al., 2007a). Thus, Pb ammunition is still widely used throughout the region despite a localised hunting ban in Botswana. ...
Article
Lead (Pb) toxicity caused by the ingestion of Pb ammunition fragments in carcasses and offal is a threat to scavenging birds across the globe. African vultures are in critical decline, but research on whether Pb exposure is contributing to declines is lacking. In Africa, recreational hunting represents an important economic activity; however, Pb in leftover hunted carcasses and gut piles represents a dangerous food source for vultures. It is therefore important to establish whether recreational hunting is associated with Pb exposure in African vultures. We explored this issue for the critically endangered white-backed vulture (Gyps africanus) in Botswana by examining their blood Pb levels inside and outside of the hunting season, and inside and outside of private hunting areas. From 566 birds captured and tested, 30.2% birds showed elevated Pb levels (10 to <45 μg/dl) and 2.3% showed subclinical exposure (≥45 μg/dl). Higher blood Pb levels were associated with samples taken inside of the hunting season and from within hunting areas. Additionally, there was a significant interaction between hunting season and areas, with Pb levels declining more steeply between hunting and non-hunting seasons within hunting areas than outside them. Thus, all our results were consistent with the suggestion that elevated Pb levels in this critically endangered African vulture are associated with recreational hunting. Pb is known to be highly toxic to scavenging birds and we recommend that Pb ammunition in Botswana is phased out as soon as possible to help protect this rapidly declining group of birds.
... observ.). As an example, the collection of hoofed mammals (ungulates) across Africa was regularly undertaken in the early 20 th century (Heller 1912), but is nearly non-existent today despite large numbers of such animals being taken for trophy hunting (Peter et al. 2007). This limited collecting of an entire taxonomic group has direct consequences for understanding the taxonomic boundaries and ecology of such species ), a problem that could potentially be remedied through partnering hunting activities with regional or international NHMs. ...
Article
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The global environment is faced with growing threats from anthropogenic disturbance, propelling the Earth into a 6th mass extinction. For the world’s mammals, this is reflected in the fact that 25% of species are threatened with some risk of extinction. During this time of species loss and environmental alteration, the world’s natural history museums (NHMs) are uniquely poised to provide novel insight into many aspects of conservation. This review seeks to provide evidence of the importance of NHMs to mammal conservation, how arguments against continued collecting of physical voucher specimens is counterproductive to these efforts, and to identify additional threats to collecting with a particular focus on small mammals across Africa. NHMs contribute unique data for assessing mammal species conservation status through the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) Red List of Threatened species. However, NHMs’ contributions to mammal conservation go well beyond supporting the IUCN Red List, with studies addressing topics such as human impacts, climate change, genetic diversity, disease, physiology, and biodiversity education. Increasing and diverse challenges, both domestic and international, highlight the growing threats facing NHMs, especially in regards to the issue of lethally sampling individuals for the purpose of creating voucher specimens. Such arguments are counterproductive to conservation efforts and tend to reflect the moral opposition of individual researchers than a true threat to conservation. The need for continued collecting of holistic specimens of all taxa across space and time could not be more urgent, especially for underexplored biodiversity hotspots facing extreme threats such as the Afrotropics.
... Trophy hunting generates more significant net profit than ecotourism because it requires less investment (Lindsey et al., 2013). A ban in trophy hunting has been suggested to accelerate biodiversity loss (Mbaiwa, 2018;Lindsey et al., 2007a). This is because it accounts for a significant contribution of money for conservation particularly for developing countries, as well as reducing ecological impacts' related to mass tourism (Di Minin et al., 2016). ...
... The effects of prey depletion are likely occurring in many ecosystems experiencing high rates of illegal harvest, with serious implications for conservation of large carnivores (Wolf and Ripple 2016). The current status of lions in the GKE could affect the ecotourism and trophyhunting industries (Lindsey et al. 2007, Rogan et al. 2017, highlighting the economic impacts of prey depletion, in addition to a myriad of ecological impacts (Ripple et al. 2015). Addressing the consequences of prey depletion by evaluating direct effects on population demography, increasing resource protection, and addressing underlying drivers of illegal harvest are urgent conservation needs for lions and other large carnivores now experiencing rapid decline across their ranges. ...
Article
Large carnivores are experiencing range contraction and population declines globally. Prey depletion due to illegal offtake is considered a major contributor, but the effects of prey depletion on large carnivore demography are rarely tested. We measured African lion density and tested the factors that affect survival using mark‐recapture models fit to six years of data from known individuals in Kafue National Park (KNP), Zambia. KNP is affected by prey depletion, particularly for large herbivores that were preferred prey for KNP lions a half‐century ago. This provides a unique opportunity to test whether variables that explain local prey density also affect lion survival. Average lion density within our study area was 3.43 individuals per 100 km2 (95% CI: 2.79 – 4.23), which was much lower than lion density reported for another miombo ecosystem with similar vegetation structure and rainfall that was less affected by prey depletion. Despite this, comparison to other lion populations showed that age‐ and sex‐specific survival rates for KNP lions were generally good, and factors known to correlate with local prey density had small effects on lion survival. In contrast, recruitment of cubs was poor and average pride size was small. In particular, the proportion of the population comprised of 2nd year cubs was low, indicating that few cubs are recruited into the sub adult age class. Our findings suggest that low recruitment might be a better signal of low prey density than survival. Thus, describing a lion population’s age structure in addition to average pride size may be a simple and effective method of initially evaluating whether a lion population is affected by prey depletion. These dynamics should be evaluated for other lion populations and other large carnivore species. Increased resource protection and reducing the underlying drivers of prey depletion are urgent conservation needs for lions and other large carnivores as their conservation is increasingly threatened by range contraction and population declines.
... Conservation managers often must prioritize research and monitoring programs and target species that garner high social, economic, or conservation value or whose population status may serve as a useful indicator of ecosystem health. In many protected areas, large-bodied ungulates and carnivores often rise to the top of the priority list for research and monitoring given their economic value for photographic tourism and hunting (Krüger 2005;Lindsey et al. 2007;Borg et al. 2016), the management challenges they pose to neighboring human populations (e.g. crop raiding, competition for forage, livestock predation) (Prins 2000;Ogada et al. 2003), and the impact they can have on ecosystem processes Winnie and Creel 2017). ...
Article
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Protected area managers need reliable information to detect spatial and temporal trends of the species they intend to protect. This information is crucial for population monitoring, understanding ecological processes, and evaluating the effectiveness of management and conservation policies. In under-funded protected areas, managers often prioritize ungulates and carnivores for monitoring given their socio-economic value and sensitivity to human disturbance. Aircraft-based surveys are typically utilized for monitoring ungulates because they can cover large areas regardless of the terrain, but such work is expensive and subject to bias. Recently, unmanned aerial vehicles have shown great promise for ungulate monitoring, but these technologies are not yet widely available and are subject to many of the same analytical challenges associated with traditional aircraft-based surveys. Here, we explore use of inexpensive and robust distance sampling methods in Kafue National Park (KNP) (22,400 km²), carried out by government-employed game scouts. Ground-based surveys spanning 101, 5-km transects resulted in 369 ungulate group detections from 20 species. Using generalized linear models and distance sampling, we determined the environmental and anthropogenic variables influencing ungulate species richness, density, and distribution. Species richness was positively associated with permanent water and percent cover of closed woodland vegetation. Distance to permanent water had the strongest overall effect on ungulate densities, but the magnitude and direction of this effect varied by species. This ground-based approach provided a more cost-effective, unbiased, and repeatable method than aerial surveys in KNP, and could be widely implemented by local personnel across under-funded protected areas in Africa.
... ). Supporting these assertions, this study revealed that, in addition to addressing some of the challenges facing Amboseli, landscape governance through partnerships has also created and/or faced new challenges relating to transboundary landscape governance and partnership dynamism.First, by working in a transboundary landscape, BLF has introduced new constraints in governing the landscape, owing to differences in wildlife conservation policies in Kenya and Tanzania. For instance, Kenya prohibits trophy hunting, while it is legalized in Tanzania(Lindsey, Frank, Alexander, Mathieson & Romanach, 2007; Lindsey et al., 2013). When implementing the wildlife conservation and security program, the transboundary operations necessitate actors in Amboseli-Kenya and neighbouring north-eastern Tanzania to negotiate and build consensus. ...
... The principal argument in favour of trophy hunting in Africa is that the benefits generated through hunting can encourage the conservation of land -and wildlife populations therein -that may otherwise be lost to competing land uses such as agricultural or urban expansion 2 . So far, the revenues and other socio-economic and livelihood benefits gained through hunting have driven land-use changes across large areas of private land in southern Africa from pastoralism towards wildlife, and have provided incentives for community-based natural resource management programmes 3 . Full bans on hunting in some African countries, notably Tanzania (1973)(1974)(1975)(1976)(1977)(1978) and Zambia (2000Zambia ( -2003, led to a loss of biodiversity as a consequence of the loss of economic incentives 3 . ...
Article
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Adaptive certification is the best remaining option for the trophy hunting industry in Africa to demonstrate sustainable and ethical hunting practices that benefit local communities and wildlife conservation.
... It refers to tourists who pay to engage in hunting, usually in the company of a professional guide, to obtain a "trophy" (i.e. horns, tusks, skin, etc.) from an animal with the desired trophy (Lindsey et al., 2007;McNamara et al., 2020;Novelli & Humavindu, 2005). In the context of Botswana, trophy hunting is undertaken to promote the sustainable wildlife harvesting (SWH) of wildlife resources. ...
Article
Botswana re-introduced trophy hunting in 2019. This generated a debate about the relevance of trophy hunting in achieving wildlife conservation and human well-being among wildlife stakeholders. These stakeholders include the Government of Botswana, local agro-pastoralists, photographic and trophy hunting tourism operators and anti-hunting groups that differ in opinion on the acceptability of trophy hunting as socio-economic development and conservation tool. This paper, therefore, adopts the socio-ecological framework and uses Spivak’s rhetoric question: “Can the Subaltern Speak”, to analyse contradictions of trophy hunting, human well-being and wildlife conservation trajectory in Botswana. The study is qualitative and makes use of interviews and secondary data sources. The results indicate that the Government of Botswana and communities (agro-pastoralists) especially those residing in wildlife areas prefer both trophy hunting and photo-tourism as a strategy to derive tourism benefits and achieve wildlife conservation. Conversely, animal rights groups reject trophy hunting noting its failure to promote conservation. The paper concludes the socio-ecological framework is the ideal guide for wildlife conservation and human well-being in wildlife areas. Both photographic tourism and trophy hunting are sustainable land use options with the potential to achieve wildlife conservation and human well-being in Botswana.
... Use of and trade in wildlife has often been discussed and used as a tool for conservation (e.g. Hutton and Leader-Williams 2003;Rosser, Leader-Williams and Tareen 2005;Lindsey et al. 2007), with rare but notable examples in Australia (e.g. Webb and Manolis 1993). ...
... There is an extensive body of research on trophy hunting in Africa stretching over decades (Baker, 1997;Humavindu & Barnes, 2003;Lindsey, Roulet, & Romanach, 2007;Lindsey, Alexander, Frank, Mathieson, & Romanach, 2006;Lindsey et al., 2013;Lindsey, Frank, Alexander, Mathieson, & Romanach, 2007). However, most of these studies focus on the economic contribution of trophy hunting, and its contested link with conservation (Creel et al., 2016;Crosmary, Côt e, & Fritz, 2015;Lindsey et al., 2006;Vora, 2018). ...
Article
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Existing studies on the trophy hunting controversy in recent years have largely represented the anti-hunting views of the Western public, while overlooking the opinions of African people. This study taps into Africans’ social media narratives to illuminate the racially, politically, and historically charged context in which trophy hunting occurs in Africa. Data were collected from the Facebook pages of three major social media players with a predominantly African followership, namely, BBC News Africa, News24.com, and NewsDay-Zimbabwe. The dominant pattern was resentment towards what was viewed as the neo-colonial character of trophy hunting, in the way it privileges Western elites in accessing Africa’s wildlife resources. However, the West’s passionate criticism of violence against animals was viewed by participants as overblown, and as evidence of their (Westerners') higher regard for animals than for African people. Interestingly, trophy hunting was not objectionable from an animal rights perspective, but as a consequence of its complex historical and postcolonial associations. In addition, criticism was directed at African politicians who were perceived as allowing wildlife exploitation to satisfy their own greed. In this instance, far from tourism being a facilitator of intercultural understanding and peace, it appears to reproduce images and wounds of a colonial past.
Article
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Trophy hunting has occupied a prominent position in recent scholarly literature and popular media. In the scientific conservation literature, researchers are generally supportive of or sympathetic to its usage as a source of monetary support for conservation. Although authors at times acknowledge that trophy hunting faces strong opposition from many members of the public, often for unspecified reasons associated with ethics, neither the nature nor the implications of these ethical concerns have been substantively addressed. We identify the central act of wildlife “trophy” taking as a potential source of ethical discomfort and public opposition. We highlight that trophy hunting entails a hunter paying a fee to kill an animal and claim its body or body parts as a trophy of conquest. Situating this practice in a Western cultural narrative of chauvinism, colonialism, and anthropocentrism, we argue trophy hunting is morally inappropriate. We suggest alternative strategies for conservation and community development should be explored and decisively ruled out as viable sources of support before the conservation community endorses trophy hunting. If wildlife conservation is broadly and inescapably dependent on the institution of trophy hunting, conservationists should accept the practice only with a due appreciation of tragedy, and proper remorse. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Thesis
Through a socio-legal and historical exploration of ecological controversies, this dissertation attempts to demonstrate the following thesis: that Western legal systems have historically tended to exclude the ecological practices and traditions of indigenous and other marginalized communities; and that the emergence and progressive structuration of discourses and legal regulations aiming at the protection of the environment have not resulted in a structural questioning of these dynamics. Yet, despite these patterns of discrimination within the law, our inquiry shall reveal that there exist a variety of avenues that could allow more inclusive legal arrangements, recognizing the ecological pluralism inherent to every human society. Can marginalized minorities, and most notably indigenous communities, be prevented from hunting endangered species, living in protected areas or using psychoactive substances, when these prohibitions violate their core ecological values? Under what conditions can legal institutions find a way beyond ethnocentrism and articulate ecological pluralism despite persisting colonial legacies? These are among the questions that this dissertation endeavors to address.
Thesis
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The importance of the Arusha Conference of 1961 for the protection of the environment in Africa as the countries were gaining their independence.
Chapter
The unchecked drift towards luxury in the tourist industry compounds, exacerbates and perpetuates environmental and cultural harms on a local and global scale. I will demonstrate this claim through a range of examples, raising a number of important questions around the role of luxury within contemporary consumer culture. There are few startling revelations here. We are aware of many of the environmental costs of tourism. Many people would claim to be uncomfortable with the inequalities we witness when ‘on holiday’. In this sense, this chapter attempts to wrestle with motivational aspects at work. How can we explain the resilience and growth of the luxury tourist industry at a time when climate change is acknowledged as scientific truth, and extreme weather events appear to be increasing in both frequency and devastation, while the wealth divide between the global north and the south is increasingly pronounced. The deviant leisure perspective on leisure, consumerism and harm offers some hope here. Combined with a theorisation of luxury and individualistic subjectivities in consumer capitalism, this literature has great potential to explain these motivations within a deeper socio-cultural and political-economic causal context.
Article
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Wildlife crime is an increasing problem worldwide. Based on empirical research, we examine how the criminal justice systems of Brazil, Colombia, Uganda and Norway perceive and respond to such crime, with Norway as the main case study and basis for comparison. While the general assumption is that Northern countries are more 'developed' in their response to environmental problems, we argue that Norway, despite its economic resources and international profile as a supporter of environmental protection, is failing to confront illegal trade in-and protection of-endangered species nationally. We propose that these Southern countries have developed more tools in terms of legislation, enforcement, awareness and wildlife protection and that Northern countries have expectations regarding conservation in Southern countries that they themselves neglect.
Chapter
Coexistence of hunting and wildlife conservation (WLC) is possible if hunting world includes itself in a process of social maturity, which is not only economic but also cultural and educational, to develop a new environmental awareness. Four forms of coexistence between hunting and WLC are examined: non-impactful, impactful and eliminatory, impactful but resilient, and impactful but contributory hunting (ICH). Typical hunter figures are described: venator dominus (owners, etc.), venator socius (associated to a specific district), and venator emptor (who buy rights from time to time). The most significant with regard to its impacts on wildlife, on the environment, and on local communities is ICH. This includes anti-poaching surveillance, monitoring, local community projects that seek improvement in residents’ social conditions (economic and cultural), and coexistence with ecotourism. Trophy hunting needs special attention because there are several critical elements but also various reasons to support a coexistence with WLC. In any case, the aware hunter must contribute to conservation but also concern himself with the economic, social, and cultural problems of those who live in the areas within which he hunts. Five case studies of hunting related to positive or critical consequences to conservation are examined: Italy, Wetlands, Oregon (USA), the Safari Club International, and trophy hunting in sub-Saharan Africa.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to address the potential of hunting humans as sport tourism activity in the twenty-second century. The paper explores past and current trends related to sport hunting, animal extinction, human violence and the normalisation of violence via fictional media. This paper paints a provocative picture of society with the aim of encouraging dialogue across the wider community regarding the challenges facing society in relation to practices related to sport hunting and tourism. Design/methodology/approach This paper takes a scenario narrative approach in presenting potential discussion on the future of sport hunting as a tourism activity. The importance of narrative writing as a method to research is its ability in telling a story to the reader. By embracing diverse philosophical methods, this research draws on past and current trends via secondary data sources to justify the future scenario narrative. Findings This paper presents interesting insights into the future of sport hunting and its potential relationship to tourism. However, considering the following quote, “Yet another uncertainty is that predictions themselves can alter the future – which, of course, is part of the motivation behind futurism” (Larson, 2002, p. 5), this paper concludes with a sobering message, if previous research as well as the ideas presented here are to become a future reality, one where humans hunt each other for sport, are we content to allow this to happen? Or do we want to encourage debate to ensure we create better futures? Originality/value This paper offers original and novel research within the sport-tourism literature by taking a futures perspective and applying a scenario narrative approach. The paper offers original insight into attitudes towards sport hunting and its future potential, moving away from its traditions of hunting animals to hunting humans. This paper encourages debate around a taboo-subject, by drawing on a popular past-time, sport. Death is also universal, and by aligning the topic with sport and as a hunting activity, this paper is offering original approaches to addressing difficult questions that need to be asked.
Thesis
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Humanity is exerting unprecendented pressure on natural ecosystems and the species living in them. This pressure is particularly evident among the larger members of the order Carnivora. Their large body size (typically in the 25-600 kg range), life history traits, and reliance on large prey species places them at increased risk of extinction. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Cat Specialist Group, and the Convention of Migratory Species (CMS) both recognize the deficiencies in robust data available on large carnivores across large tracts of Africa. Furthermore, the population estimates we do have are often drawn from less-reliable methods. The overarching aim of this PhD thesis was to: 1) use a recently-developed population estimation technique (Elliot and Gopalaswamy 2017) to estimate the densities, population size, and population parameters of large carnivores in the Queen Elizabeth Conservation Area (QECA), Uganda, and use these data to inform their conservation status, 2) improve understanding of the conflict between large carnivores and human communities in Lake Mburo, Uganda, and Mumbai, India, and 3) explore alternative methods to fund conservation measures, including compensation and a wildlife imagery royalty. In Chapter 1 as part of introducing my thesis, I examined the literature on historic and present methods being used to census African lions Panthera leo and together with a team of international collaborators I made a case for the adoption of spatially explicit capture recapture (SECR) methods for African lions. In Chapter 2 I built upon this and showed the utility of using population state variables (namely movement, sex-ratios, and density) in assessing the conservation status of African lions in a poorly known area of East Africa. I used a population of African lions in south-western Uganda’s Queen Elizabeth Conservation Area (QECA), as a model. I conducted a 93-day African lion census in 2017-2018 and compared the results to those from an intensive radio-collaring study from a decade ago. I hypothesized that if the population of African lions in the QECA was stable or increasing, lion movement distances and home ranges would be similar between the two study periods but if movement distances were larger and sex-ratios were male-biased, the lion population was likely declining. I found male lions expanded their ranges by > 400%, and females >100%, overall lion densities were low (2.70 lions/100 km2, posterior SD=0.47), and the sex ratio of lions in the system was skewed towards males (1 female lion: 2.33 males), suggesting a decline. I concluded this chapter with a discussion of the practical conservation application of using this census technique in other parts of Africa, particularly where historic lion home-range data exist. In Chapter 3, I used the same spatially explicit capture recapture models on data collected from 74 remote camera traps set across the QECA to assess the population densities of African leopards and spotted hyenas in this savannah park. We surveyed the northern, and southern sections of the QECA, and estimated leopard densities to be 5.03 (range = 2.80–7.63), and 4.31 (range = 1.95–6.88) individuals/100 km2 respectively, while hyena densities were 13.43 and 14 individuals/100 km2. Estimates of hyena density were the highest recorded for the species anywhere within their range using SECR methods. I also suggested that the high hyena densities could be related to the evidence provided in Chapter 2 of African lion decline in the QECA. One hypothesis that could explain the inverse densities of hyenas and lions is that hyenas have experienced competitive release from African lions in the QECA. Similar findings have been reported in the Talek region of Kenya’s Maasai Mara, and Zambia’s Liuwa Plains. This chapter also provided the first SECR population estimates of leopards, and spotted hyenas anywhere in Uganda. In Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 I addressed the most important threat to the existence of large carnivores: conflict with human communities, and their livestock. While conflict tends to dominate the narrative where large carnivores and humans co-exist, there can often be direct and indirect benefits to humans. In Chapter 4 I examined the ecosystem services provided to people by the Indian leopard Panthera pardus fusca, in Mumbai.The Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP) is located in the city of Mumbai, India, and has some of the highest human population densities in the world. Large carnivores are known to control prey populations, suppress smaller carnivores, reduce parasite load in humans, and promote seed dispersal. However, this chapter is one of the first studies highlighting the ecosystem services provided by a large carnivore outside of a natural or protected system. I showed that leopard predation on stray dogs reduced the number of people bitten by dogs, reduced the risk of rabies transmission, and reduced dog sterilization and management costs. Our estimates showed that dog densities around SGNP (17.3/km2) were 40 times lower than four nearby urban informal settlements (688/km2) and were ten times lower than the citywide mean (160/km2). If it is, as we propose, leopards that are holding the dog population around the park at its current density, dog bites could increase from 3.6 bites/1000 people to 15.5 bites/1,000 people if leopards were to disappear. As over 78% of dog bites in Mumbai require treatment, and 2% require rabies post-exposure vaccination, the treatment costs could reach as high as US$ 200,000 per year (compared to ~US$ 42,500 currently). As development pressures are threatening the region’s leopards, this work shows the potential costs of their local extirpation. Chapter 5 assesses the landscape-level correlates of livestock attacks by two large carnivores, the spotted hyena, and African leopard in the cattle and sheep/goat farms bordering Lake Mburo National Park, south-western Uganda. I also make suggestions on how to improve the sustainability of a voluntary financial compensation scheme run by a local lodge (the Mihingo Conservation Fund) aimed at alleviating persecution of these species. I used ten years of depredation events to investigate the importance of seasonality and landscape features (ie. terrain ruggedness, proximity to roads, water, human settlements, and vegetation density) on livestock attack probability. I also examined the current costs of the compensation scheme of reported attacks. I showed that most livestock attacks in this region were caused by spotted hyenas, both predators killed at night, did not exhibit seasonal patterns in depredation, and attacks were owed to poorly fortified bomas (82% of leopard attacks and 64% of hyena attacks were made inside bomas). Attacks were also made near human settlements, close to the national park border, and in areas of rugged terrain. The compensation fund made more gross income from tourism activities than was paid in compensation in most years, but compensation costs had to be subsidised by the lodge because the funding was also used in other community development projects (eg. building of a school, and paying children’s school fees). Chapter 6 of this thesis built upon the sub-theme of Chapter 5, funding of carnivore conservation measures and created a roadmap for a recently proposed idea of a threatened wildlife imagery royalty to stem the large budgetary shortfalls facing large carnivore conservation. The idea of a threatened species imagery royalty was proposed in two recent papers, Good et al. (2017) and Courchamp et al. (2018). I built upon these and discussed how such a royalty could be implemented, explored several legal avenues for its application, and also showed its potential scale in leveraging funding. The creation of a national law which charges a royalty from corporations using the imagery of their threatened wildlife, and a “Fairtrade” equivalent held the most promise for the development of a wildlife imagery royalty. Indeed, articles 3 and 6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) encourage sovereign states to ensure activities within their jurisdiction and control do not damage the environment of other states. Similarly they are encouraged to develop national strategies, plans or programs for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. The funding that could potentially be leveraged from a wildlife imagery royalty is immense. I used large felids as a model group to show that the relevant 14 companies on the Forbes 2000 list alone could generate US$ 202 million–2.02 billion if they paid 0.1-1% of their profits in royalties. My thesis addressed an important but often overlooked component of estimating large carnivore populations, the use of population state variables in informing conservation status. The use of animal movement, sex-ratio, and density information has wide application that transcends large carnivores. My assessment of leopard-dog interactions, and the potential implications for humans, was one of the first examples in the literature of the potential benefits a large carnivore may have to humans. The assessments of compensation and wildlife imagery royalties have important consequences on better managing and also leveraging funding for the conservation of large carnivores and other threatened, enigmatic species.
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In African wildlife conservation literature, southern and southeastern African voices dominate, giving a false impression of pan-Africanism. We present divergent perspectives from West, Central and the Horn of Africa and argue that empathy towards multiple perspectives offers increased resilience to COVID-19 and other crises.
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Trophy hunting (TH) tourism plays an important and often controversial role in wildlife conservation and community livelihood in many African countries. Despite its potential social and economic benefits, TH can have a negative impact among the locals and pose critical challenges in governance. However, research on the local community perspective of TH and how it is linked to empowerment of locals and wildlife conservation in Namibia remains limited. Therefore, to address these gaps, our study explores how communities of Namibia’s Bwabwata National Park perceive TH and how TH supports or hinders empowerment of local communities and their relationship with wildlife. Through semi-structured interviews with community members, this study elucidates the economic benefits and inequities, cultural impacts from lack of traditional hunting, perceived relationship to poaching, and limitations of governance and distrust among stakeholders. This research innovatively applies empowerment theory to TH tourism and thus, can strengthen and inform sound governance and sustainable practices of TH at local, national, and international levels by providing the local perspective that has largely been absent from the TH debate.
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Large terrestrial wildlife negatively impacts agricultural livelihoods on all continents except Antarctica. There is growing recognition of the need to reconcile these impacts to achieve socially and ecologically sustainable wildlife conservation agendas. Elk populations in northern California are estimated to have doubled in the past 35 years, marking a conservation success, but also increasing forage loss and damage to infrastructure on private land. Wildlife managers are pursuing the goal of increasing elk numbers on public lands, but elk are preferentially utilizing private pasture and rangeland, driving conflict with beef and dairy producers. We conducted 17 semistructured interviews with private landowners, primarily beef and dairy producers, in northern California to understand their experiences and reactions to elk conflict and state wildlife management. Landowners report that elk density on private rangeland has steadily increased in recent years and poses a threat to their businesses due to loss of forage, damage to fences, and the corresponding liability risk posed by breached fences and errant cattle. The absence of crop and forage loss compensation, difficulty obtaining depredation permits, and low harvest quotas for recreational hunting limit landowner mitigation options and foster resentment toward the state wildlife agency. Most landowners believe that current elk management policies, including restricted hunting opportunities, do not adequately address elk conflict, creating novel challenges for wildlife officials tasked with reconciling elk restoration goals with a variety of stakeholders experiencing economic losses and threats to rural livelihoods. We discuss these issues in the context of common wildlife management challenges, such as building social capital, defining tolerable impacts, and building institutional capacity for alternative solutions within rigid regulatory frameworks. We draw upon environmental economics and common-pool resource theory to suggest that a rethinking of elk management based on local conditions, facilitating damage compensation mechanisms while reducing transaction costs, and increasing participation of local stakeholders in decision making might improve outcomes.
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Drawing from a historical conservation perspective and political ecology, this review mediates the growing debate on wildlife conservation and hunting, especially inhuman-dominated landscapes of Africa. The focus is to 1) trace how socio-political changes during and after colonization transformed the hunting and wildlife conservation discourse in southern Africa, and 2) to address how previous conservation injustices were addressed through benefit-based approaches like CAMPFIRE, adopted in Zimbabwe after colonization. Some 144 published journal articles, books and other source materials were consulted. The review indicates that political changes in southern Africa profoundly transformed the conservation and trophy hunting narrative. This narrative had varied impacts and outcomes for different groups of people. Although a number of benefit-based approaches, like CAMPFIRE reflected a complete departure from past conservation policies, they continue to attract praise and criticisms since opinions differ among stakeholders, especially over extractive activities like trophy hunting and its associated benefits. I conclude that political developments impacted on conservation and trophy hunting in a profound way and that although post-colonial, pro-community conservation programs have inherent weaknesses, to a greater extent they addressed past conservation-based injustices. Continuous monitoring and area-specific adaptive management of wildlife and its sustainable management is recommended for long-term conservation benefits and community livelihoods.
Chapter
The trade in a wildlife species is driven by a unique combination of economic, cultural, and societal motivations, which fluctuate over time and space. Although the wildlife trade is vital for the livelihood of millions of people worldwide, it can bring serious consequences for the environment, economy, and human health when it is not well managed or regulated. In addition, loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services, spread of invasive alien species, and zoonoses and other diseases can be connected to the wildlife trade in its illegal or unsustainable form. Here, we present some purposes and drivers of the trade, the actors and legislation involved, and some trends and patterns of one of the most relevant challenges in conservation.
Chapter
The large felid carnivores are among the most endangered, and the most challenging, species to conserve on this increasingly human-dominated planet. In modern times, large felid carnivores were widely distributed in the continents of Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Unfortunately, global human expansion, loss of prey species, hunting and poaching, and retaliatory killings after livestock predation have greatly reduced and fragmented their original ranges and decimated their populations. In this chapter, large felid carnivore characteristics, usual habitats, ecology, and predatory behaviors are reviewed. Changes in great cat distribution, changes in wild prey populations resulting in a shift to increased livestock predation, and the resulting human-felid conflicts are discussed. Preservation of remaining wild large felid carnivore populations has become a global conservation priority as populations have plummeted over the last century. Current approaches to better understand and conserve these apex keystone predators and to maintain ecosystem integrity are discussed. Current strategies and policies to ameliorate and resolve the intricate and difficult problems of predator-human conflict are examined. The complex issues of “problem carnivores” and “man-eaters” are discussed. Finally, recommendations on creative, fluid, and scientifically sound strategies that might be employed to address these conflicts in a manner acceptable to all key stakeholders are discussed.
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Editor's note: This Conservation Forum begins with a reprinted editorial by Elizabeth Bennett from the August 2000 issue of Conservation Biology. Several papers were submitted in repsonse to that piece, and it is reprinted here to start this forum.
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In South Africa, wild dogs are limited to a single viable population in Kruger National Park. Current conservation efforts aim to develop a meta-population through the reintroduction of wild dogs into fenced reserves. However, significant potential also exists for conserving naturally occurring wild dogs in situ on ranchland. This study represents an assessment of the attitudes of southern African landowners towards wild dogs to determine the scope for conserving them on private land, and to identify the conditions under which conservation efforts might succeed. Over half of ranchers interviewed indicated that they would like to have wild dogs on their property. Younger ranchers were more positive than older ranchers, suggesting that traditional prejudices against wild dogs are fading. Attitudes were generally negative where ranches are game-fenced, and where cattle or consumptive wildlife utilisation dominate land use. Negative attitudes were typically related to economic costs associated with wild dogs, and conservation initiatives aimed at reducing costs or creating benefits from the species represent the most direct way to improve attitudes. Many ranchers recognised the potential ecotourism value of wild dogs, and attitudes were most positive where ranches belong to conservancies, and where ecotourism-based land uses predominate. Similar relationships were found between ranch/rancher characteristics and attitudes towards most large carnivores. Thus, our findings have general relevance for large carnivore conservation on private land in southern Africa. Encouraging the formation of conservancies should be a priority for carnivore conservation efforts on ranchland, to reduce conflict and promote coexistence between people and predators.
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The value of wildlife has been widely ignored or under-rated in the past by the international community. At most, wildlife was considered from the limited aesthetic and touristic aspects. This situation has changed somewhat. In the majority of the veterinary profession, which is largely livestock-oriented, wildlife is increasingly considered in terms of wild animal production and occupies just as relevant a position as domestic animal production. Some economists are now trying to quantify the informal nature of a large portion of the wildlife sector. The importance of wildlife to local communities is now globally recognised in community-based or participatory natural resources management programmes. The authors highlight not only the economic importance of wildlife (which amounts to billions of United States dollars world-wide), through consumptive and non-consumptive uses, but also the present and potential nutritional value, the ecological role as well as the socio-cultural significance of wildlife for human societies of both the developed and the developing worlds. Also addressed in this chapter is a discussion on one of the main threats to wildlife conservation which consists of the reduction or even retrieval of the different values wildlife can offer.
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In most species, sport hunting of male trophy animals can only reduce overall population size when the rate of removal of males is so high that females can no longer be impregnated. However, where males provide extensive paternal care, the removal of even a few individuals could harm the population as a whole. In species such as lions, excessive trophy hunting could theoretically cause male replacements (and associated infanticide) to become sufficiently common to prevent cubs reaching adulthood. Here we simulate the population consequences of lion trophy hunting using a spatially explicit, individual-based, stochastic model parameterized with 40 years of demographic data from northern Tanzania. Although our simulations confirm that infanticide increases the risk of population extinction, trophy hunting could be sustained simply by hunting males above a minimum age threshold, and this strategy maximizes both the quantity and the quality of the long-term kill. We present a simple non-invasive technique for estimating lion age in populations lacking long-term records, and suggest that quotas would be unnecessary in any male-only trophy species where age determination could be reliably implemented.
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Cambridge Core - Ecology and Conservation - People and Wildlife, Conflict or Co-existence? - edited by Rosie Woodroffe
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Many ecotourism proponents advocate certification as a means to distinguish legitimate ecotourism from counterfeit ‘greenwashed’ products. This paper discusses efforts by certification advocates operating in global arenas to generate standards for measuring compliance with one dimension of widely accepted definitions of ecotourism, the stipulation that it should provide benefits to local communities. The paper then presents an ethnographic case study from Belize that reveals disagreements among ecotourism stakeholders in Belize and between them and international experts about the meaning of several key terms: who should count as ‘local’, what should count as ‘participation’ by locals, and what constitutes a ‘benefit’ to local communities. The author argues that divergent perspectives on these issues must be recognised and accommodated in the process of harmonising or standardising certification criteria for ecotourism; failure to do that could imperil both the principled and pragmatic rationales behind the requirement that ecotourism provide benefits to local communities.
Article
Preserving wildlife in a pristine state on a large scale is no longer feasible in view of continued human population increases, economic development, habitat fragmentation and degradation, the introduction of nonnative species, and commercialisation of wildlife products. The wise use of the planet's remaining wildlife resources will depend on management practices which recognise that indigenous people are integral parts of ecosystems. Community-based conservation, which attempts to devolve responsibility for the sustainable use of wildlife resources to the local level, can include consumptive activities, such as trophy hunting, as well as nonconsumptive forms of tourism. The trophy hunting management systems of six countries of eastern and southern Africa are profiled and critiqued, demonstrating a number of essential conditions for obtaining optimal wildlife conservation and community benefits.
Article
This paper assesses the socio- economic benefits and challenges of community-based safari hunting in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Through sub- leasing of community hunting concession areas and selling of annual wildlife hunting quotas to safari hunting companies, local communities generate income, create employment opportunities and engage in community development projects in their villages. However, community-based safari hunting is also associated with several problems which downplay its achievements. These include: the lack of marketing, entrepreneurship and managerial skills in safari hunting business; mismanagement and misappropriation of funds; poor distribution of financial and employment benefits from safari hunting; and, reliance on foreign hunting companies and donor agencies. Community-based safari hunting can be more successful in the Okavango if stakeholders (local people, government and safari hunting operators) find solutions to these problems. The empowerment of local communities especially training and the acquisition of skills in the safari hunting tourism business by local people should be given priority. Empowerment of local people can promote a sustainable community-based safari hunting industry that is self- sustaining and capable of meeting the needs of safari hunters and local people while maintaining the ecological balance.
Article
For wildlife conservation to succeed in developing countries, people who live in or near protected areas must receive benefits that offset the costs of their reduced access to natural resources. International trophy hunting is currently generating significant economic benefits for residents of game management areas in Zambia. This has been made possible through a revolving fund and an administrative program that direct revenues from trophy hunting to local wildlife management and community development projects. Benefits might be enhanced by better biological information for management, greater local participation in the allocation and operation of hunting concessions, and the promotion of ecological and ethical standards for trophy hunting. An international system of certification for trophy hunting operations could foster these improvements. Para el éxito de la conservación de la vida silvestre en países en desarrollo la gente que vive en o cerca de áreas protegidas debe recibir beneficios que compensen los costos de la reducción del acceso a los recursos naturales. Actualmente a nivel internacional la cacería deportiva genera beneficios económicos significativos para los residentes de las áreas de manejo recreativo en Zambia. Esto ha sido posible a través de fondos revolventes y un programa administrativo que dirige las ganacias de la cacería deportiva hacia proyectos de manejo de vida silvestre y desarrollo comunitario. Los beneficios podrían mejorar mediante información biológica para el manejo, mayor participatión local en la ubicación y operación de concesiones de caza y la promoción de estándares éticos para la cacería deportiva. Un sistema internacional de certificación de operaciones de cacería deportiva podría fortalecer esos avances.
Article
There is a lack of consensus among conservationists as to whether trophy hunting represents a legitimate conservation tool in Africa. Hunting advocates stress that trophy hunting can create incentives for conservation where ecotourism is not possible. We assessed the hunting preferences of hunting clients who have hunted or plan to hunt in Africa (n=150), and the perception among African hunting operators (n=127) of client preferences at two US hunting conventions to determine whether this assertion is justified. Clients are most interested in hunting in well-known East and southern African hunting destinations, but some trophy species attract hunters to remote and unstable countries that might not otherwise derive revenues from hunting. Clients are willing to hunt in areas lacking high densities of wildlife or attractive scenery, and where people and livestock occur, stressing the potential for trophy hunting to generate revenues where ecotourism may not be viable. Hunting clients are more averse to hunting under conditions whereby conservation objectives are compromised than operators realize, suggesting that client preferences could potentially drive positive change in the hunting industry, to the benefit of conservation. However, the preferences and attitudes of some clients likely form the basis of some of the problems currently associated with the hunting industry in Africa, stressing the need for an effective regulatory framework.
Article
There is a lack of consensus among some conservation NGOs and African governments concerning the acceptability and effectiveness of trophy hunting as a conservation tool. This lack of consensus is due partly to a lack of reliable information on the economic significance and ecological impact of the industry. We provide a review of the scale of the trophy hunting industry, and assess both positive and negative issues relating to hunting and conservation in Africa. Trophy hunting occurs in 23 countries in Africa, with the largest industries occurring in southern Africa and Tanzania, where the industry is expanding. The trophy hunting industry has remained static or is shrinking in Central and West Africa. A minimum of 1,394,000 km2 is used for trophy hunting in sub-Saharan Africa, which exceeds the area encompassed by national parks. Trophy hunting is thus of major importance to conservation in Africa by creating economic incentives for conservation over vast areas, including areas which may be unsuitable for alternative wildlife-based land uses such as photographic ecotourism. However, there are a number of problems associated with the industry which limit conservation benefits. Several of these problems are common to multiple countries, suggesting that if solutions were developed, conservation benefits would accrue over large areas.
Article
We examined ways of improving the incentive structure of a safari company, the state, and the local communities within a wildlife co-management framework in Northern Cameroon. To this end, we built an integer linear programming model with state-allocated quotas and a profit maximisation objective function for a typical hunting concession. The model was evaluated under three scenarios representing varying taxation schemes and apportionment of trophy fees and company's profits. Further, we set forth three principles that should underlie a good incentive structure, namely (i) a close link to the resource base, (ii) economic sustainability, and (iii) a transfer of land property rights from the state to the communities neighbouring the hunting areas. Our results indicate that the safari company would improve its profits if the concession term is extended to 15 years and a single business tax is substituted to the current myriad of levies. The local communities should be apportioned 25% of the trophy fees and a negotiated percentage of the company's profit, in return for resource custodianship. Finally, the state could expect an increased efficiency of its conservation policy through an improved regulatory framework and a more equitable distribution of wildlife revenues.
Article
In recent years, transnational and domestic non-governmental organizations have created private standard setting bodies whose purpose is to recognize officially companies and landowners practicing ‘sustainable forest management’. Eschewing traditional state processes and state authority, these certification programs have turned to the market to create incentives and force compliance to their rules. This paper compares the emergence of this non-state market driven (NSMD) phenomenon in the forest sector in eight regions in North Am40erica and Europe. We specifically seek to understand the role of forest companies and landowners in granting competing forest certification programs ‘legitimacy’ to create the rules. We identify distinct legitimation dynamics in each of our cases, and then develop seven hypotheses to explain differences in support for forest certification.
A review of the economic contribution of the trophy-hunting industry in Africa
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La chasse sportive en Afrique Centrale
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Bond, I., B. Child, D. de la Harpe, B. Jones J. Barnes, and H. Anderson. 2004. Private land contribution to conservation in South Africa. Pages 29-61 in B. Child, editor. Parks in transition. Earthscan, London.
Socio‐economic benefits and challenges of a community‐based safari hunting tourism in the Okavango delta, Botswana
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