Recent trends in incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in the East of Scotland, 1992–2003
Historically, ascertainment of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) by cancer registries in the U.K. has been shown to be incomplete in several studies. However, recent evidence suggesting that almost all clinically diagnosed NMSCs are verified histologically, coupled with the increasing availability of electronic histopathology data to cancer registries, raises the possibility that this situation may have improved. To assess recent trends in incidence of the main types of NMSC and carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the skin in Scotland. The study was restricted to selected health board areas in the East of Scotland for which pathology data have been used routinely to support cancer registration since the early 1990s. Incident cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin, CIS of the skin, and first ever basal cell carcinoma (BCC) were extracted from the Scottish Cancer Registry covering the period of diagnosis 1992-2003. Sex-specific, age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates were calculated for four consecutive 3-year periods of diagnosis. Estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) in incidence were calculated by Poisson regression modelling, with adjustment for age. The percentage distribution of SCC, BCC and CIS of the skin by anatomical site and sex was calculated for the period of diagnosis 1997-2003. The crude incidence of SCC for the period 1995-97 was 34.7 per 100,000, comparable with the best existing Scottish estimate of 32.2 derived from a prospective survey in Glasgow during March 1995. Age-adjusted rates of SCC, first ever BCC, and CIS of the skin have all increased significantly in both sexes between 1992 and 2003 (all P < 0.001), with EAPCs ranging in magnitude from +1.4% (first ever BCC in males) to +5.1% (CIS in males). The majority of lesions arose on the head and neck area, with the exception of CIS, which in females was more commonly located on the limbs. Ascertainment of NMSC has probably improved since the advent and use of electronic pathology data. Ongoing increases in age-adjusted incidence, combined with ageing of the population, will have major implications for the clinical workload associated with NMSC for the foreseeable future.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Raman spectroscopy has emerged as a promising tool for real-time clinical diagnosis of malignant skin tumors offering a number of potential advantages: it is non-intrusive, it requires no sample preparation, and it features high chemical specificity with minimal water interference. However, in vivo tissue evaluation and accurate histopathological classification remain a challenging task for the successful transition from laboratory prototypes to clinical devices. In the literature, there are numerous reports on the applications of Raman spectroscopy to biomedical research and cancer diagnostics. Nevertheless, cases where real-time, portable instrumentations have been employed for the in vivo evaluation of skin lesions are scarce, despite their advantages in use as medical devices in the clinical setting. This paper reviews the advances in real-time Raman spectroscopy for the in vivo characterization of common skin lesions. The translational momentum of Raman spectroscopy towards the clinical practice is revealed by (i) assembling the technical specifications of portable systems and (ii) analyzing the spectral characteristics of in vivo measurements.0Comments 2Citations
- "The two most common skin cancer types of this group, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) comprise ~95% of all skin cancers and together with the third most frequent, malignant melanoma (MM), constitute 99% of the incidence of all skin neoplasms. Several studies have documented the increasing trends in skin cancer occurrence all over the world234567. Furthermore, distinct subpopulations exist with significantly increased risk for developing tumors in this organ like patients with multiple nevi  and those that are on long-term iatrogenic immunosuppresion . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Sigmoidal (S-shaped) dose–cancer incidence relationships are often observed in animal bioassays for carcinogenicity. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an established skin carcinogen. The aim of this study is to examine if S-shaped curves describe the relationship between solar UV doses and skin cancer incidences, and if such relationships can be used to estimate threshold levels of non-carcinogenic UV exposure, as well as maximal incidence rates. Methods We studied the incidence rate–annual erythema-effective UV dose relationship for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous melanoma (CM) among different Caucasian populations in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Results Our analysis indicates that S-shaped associations describe the data well (P < 0.0001). The age-adjusted incidence rates for cases expected to be due to other causes than solar UV exposure (at zero UV dose) were found to be around 0.6, 9.7 and 4.0 per 100,000 for women in 1997–2007 for SCC, BCC and CM, respectively, and around 1.2, 14.3 and 2.6 per 100,000 for men. The analysis indicates that SCC, BCC and CM have maximal incidence of 361 ± 24, 1544 ± 49 and 36 ± 4 per 100,000 for women, and 592 ± 35, 2204 ± 109 and 50 ± 4 per 100,000 for men. Conclusions Between 89 and 95% of the annual CM cases, around 99.8% SCC and 99.4% BCC cases are caused by solar UV exposure. The analysis did not identify any “safe” UV dose below which the risk for skin cancer was absent. Avoidance of UV radiation has a potential to reduce the incidence of skin cancer in fair-skinned population.0Comments 1Citation
- "The epidemiological data are extracted from several cancer registries (Engholm et al., 2014 Germany, 2012; Ferlay et al., 2012 ) and published articles (Birch-Johansen et al., 2010; Brewster et al., 2007; Brougham et al., 2011; Buettner and Raasch, 1998; Carsin et al., 2011; Dal et al., 2008; Demers et al., 2005; Gunnell et al., 2007; Hayes et al., 2007; Lomas et al., 2012; Richardson et al., 2008; Richmond-Sinclair et al., 2009; Stang et al., 2003; Staples et al., 2006; Steding-Jessen et al., 2010). Incidence rates of CM were retrieved from the online database CANCERMondial (GLOBOCAN, CI5 and NORDCAN) (International Agency for Research in Cancer, 2013; Ferlay et al., 2012 ). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There have been rapid increases in the number of skin cancers diagnosed in the USA and worldwide. In the USA, the utilization of Mohs micrographic surgery for the treatment of skin cancer has increased dramatically from use in 1 of 10 skin cancer cases in 1996 to 1 in 4 cases today. Despite numerous advantages ascribed to Mohs surgery as the “gold standard” of skin cancer treatment, the cost-effectiveness of this procedure has been questioned. Understanding the relative costs and cost-effectiveness of skin cancer treatments including Mohs surgery will be critical as insurers, regulators, and patients seek to reduce healthcare expenditures and promote cost-effective care.0Comments 0Citations
- "New cases of invasive malignant melanoma in the USA have been estimated at 70,230 cases in 2011 with increases in annual incidence rates of 3.1 % per year from 1992–2008 [2, 3] . Increases in both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer rates have also been documented in worldwide studies45678. There are very significant costs associated with the treatment of this skin cancer epidemic. "