Article

Ketel IJ, Volman MN, Seidell JC, Stehouwer CD, Twisk JW, Lambalk CB. Superiority of skinfold measurements and waist over waist-to-hip ratio for determination of body fat distribution in a population-based cohort of Caucasian Dutch adults. Eur J Endocrinol 6, 655-661

Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, de Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, room 0Z120, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
European Journal of Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.07). 06/2007; 156(6):655-61. DOI: 10.1530/EJE-06-0730
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

To determine which anthropometric measurement is the most reliable alternative for fat distribution as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).
Population-based survey carried out in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
A total of 376 individuals (200 women) with a mean age of 36.5 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 24.0 (+/-3.1) kg/m2 underwent various anthropometric and DXA measurements of central (CFM) and peripheral fat mass (PFM). Furthermore, for the assessment of apple-shaped body composition, CFM-to-PFM ratio was calculated. Anthropometric measurements were waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), BMI, waist/length and the skinfold thickness of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal (SI), subscapular (SS) and upper leg. We determined whether equations of combined anthropometrics were even more reliable for the assessment of fat mass.
In both women and men, reliable alternatives for CFM are central skinfolds and waist (Pearson's correlation (r) >or= 0.8). Peripheral skinfolds are the best predictors of PFM (r >or= 0.8). In contrast, WHR correlated only marginally with any of the DXA measurements. Equations based on several anthropometric variables correlate with CFM even better (R2 >or= 0.8). CFM-to-PFM ratio has the highest correlation with the ratio (SS+SI)/BMI in women (r = 0.66) and waist/length in men (r = 0.71). Equations are reasonable alternatives of CFM-to-PFM ratio (R2 >or= 0.5).
Waist and skinfolds are reliable alternatives for the measurement of body fat mass in a cohort of Caucasian adults. WHR is not appropriate for the measurement of fat distribution.

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    • "Compared to the stylized MIRD5 phantoms, FAX06 and MAX06 are true to nature representations of humans, which make their CCs applicable to individual patients, at least to those with similar anatomical properties, if one neglects minor differences that still could exist with regard to organs without fixed positions, such as stomach, colon and small intestine. Among the anatomical properties of adult patients of a given age, the central fat mass (CFM), i.e. the subcutaneous and visceral fat mass of the trunk, can influence organ and tissue absorbed doses significantly, whereas the peripheral fat mass (PFM), i.e. the subcutaneous fat mass of the extremities, has negligible influence at least for the examinations mentioned in table 1. Ketel et al (2007) have reported that among the various anthropometric parameters they investigated, the waist circumference showed the best correlation with the CFM, which had been determined before independently by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body mass index and body weight also showed good correlation, but only with the total (CFM + PFM) fat mass. "

    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2014
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    • "Compared to the stylized MIRD5 phantoms, FAX06 and MAX06 are true to nature representations of humans, which make their CCs applicable to individual patients, at least to those with similar anatomical properties, if one neglects minor differences that still could exist with regard to organs without fixed positions, such as stomach, colon and small intestine. Among the anatomical properties of adult patients of a given age, the central fat mass (CFM), i.e. the subcutaneous and visceral fat mass of the trunk, can influence organ and tissue absorbed doses significantly, whereas the peripheral fat mass (PFM), i.e. the subcutaneous fat mass of the extremities, has negligible influence at least for the examinations mentioned in table 1. Ketel et al (2007) have reported that among the various anthropometric parameters they investigated, the waist circumference showed the best correlation with the CFM, which had been determined before independently by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body mass index and body weight also showed good correlation, but only with the total (CFM + PFM) fat mass. "

    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2014
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    • "We calculated the DXA fat mass and fat-free mass indexes using the following formula: [total DXA fat mass (or fat free mass) in kg]/(height in meters)2 (24). We also calculated the DXA trunk to peripheral fat mass ratio, a measure of central adiposity (25,26). "
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To examine the associations of maternal gestational glucose tolerance with offspring body composition in late childhood.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Among 958 women in the prebirth cohort Project Viva, glucose tolerance was assessed in the 2nd trimester by nonfasting 50-g 1-h glucose challenge test (GCT), followed if abnormal by fasting 100-g 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We categorized women as normoglycemic (83.3%) if GCT was ≤140 mg/dL, isolated hyperglycemia (9.1%) if GCT was abnormal but OGTT normal, intermediate glucose intolerance (IGI) (3.3%) if there was one abnormal value on OGTT, or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (4.5%) if there were two or more abnormal OGTT values. Using multivariable linear regression, we examined adjusted associations of glucose tolerance with offspring overall (N = 958) and central (N = 760) adiposity and body composition using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured at the school-age visit (95 ± 10 months).RESULTSCompared with that in the male offspring of normoglycemic mothers, DXA fat mass was higher in male offspring of GDM mothers (1.89 kg [95% CI 0.33-3.45]) but not in male offspring of mothers with IGI (0.06 kg [-1.45 to 1.57]). DXA trunk-to-peripheral fat mass, a measure of central adiposity, was also somewhat higher in male offspring of GDM mothers (0.04 [-0.01 to 0.09]). In girls, DXA fat mass was higher in offspring of mothers with IGI (2.23 kg [0.12-4.34]) but not GDM (-1.25 kg [-3.13 to 0.63]). We showed no association of gestational glucose tolerance with DXA lean mass.CONCLUSIONS In this study, only male offspring of GDM mothers manifested increased adiposity, whereas only female offspring of mothers with IGI did so. Sex differences in glycemic sensitivity may explain these findings.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Diabetes care
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