Article

Children at family risk of dyslexia: A follow-up in adolescence

Department of Psychololgy, University of York, UK.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 6.46). 06/2007; 48(6):609-18. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01725.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

This study is the follow-up in early adolescence of children born to families with a history of dyslexia (Gallagher, Frith, & Snowling, 2000).
Fifty young people with a family history of dyslexia and 20 young people from control families were assessed at 12-13 years on a battery of tests of literacy and language skills, and they completed questionnaires tapping self-perception and print exposure. One parent from each family participated in an interview documenting family circumstances (including family literacy) and a range of environmental variables considered likely correlates of reading disability. They also rated their child's behavioural and emotional adjustment and their own health and well-being. Parental literacy levels were also measured.
Forty-two per cent of the 'at-risk' sample had reading and spelling impairments. A significant proportion of the literacy-impaired group were affected by behavioural and emotional difficulties, although they were not low in terms of global self-esteem. The children in the at-risk subgroup who did not fulfil criteria for literacy impairment showed weak orthographic skills in adolescence and their reading was not fluent. There were no differences in the literacy levels or activities of the parents of impaired and unimpaired at-risk children, and no significant correlation between parent and child reading levels in the at-risk group. The impaired group read less than the other groups, their reading difficulties impacted learning at school and there was evidence that they also had an impact on family life and maternal well-being.
The literacy difficulties of children at family-risk of dyslexia were longstanding and there was no evidence of catch-up in these skills between 8 and 13 years. The findings point to the role of gene-environment correlation in the determination of dyslexia.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Julia M Carroll
  • Source
    • "Adlof, Catts, and Lee 2010). Poor literacy skills and mathematical difficulties can be connected with behavioural and emotional difficulties as well as with increased social anxiety (Auerbach et al. 2008; Snowling, Muter, and Carroll 2007). To describe disruptive behavioural problems, we use the term 'externalising problems', which includes two syndrome scales: aggressive behaviour and delinquency. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Learning difficulties have been found to dilute the possibilities that young adults have in their educational careers. However, during the last few decades, education has become increasingly important for employment and overall life satisfaction. In the present study, we were interested in the effects of mathematical and reading difficulties and socioemotional and behavioural problems (measured at age 16) on three educational situations at age 21: delayed graduation from upper secondary education, short educational trajectory and not being engaged in education, employment or training (NEET). The participants (N = 597; 304 females, 293 males) were one age cohort of ninth graders in general education classes, who were followed for five years after completion of compulsory education. This time frame included two different transition phases: first, from comprehensive education to upper secondary education, and second, from upper secondary education to further studies or to working life. Structural equation modelling was used as analysis method. The findings show that mathematical and reading difficulties as well as socioemotional and behavioural problems had significant long-term effects on the participants’ educational careers. New in part was that these learning difficulties seemed to have somewhat divergent emphases on the three investigated life situations: (1) mathematical difficulties, more strongly than reading difficulties, caused the students to attain lower levels of education, (2) mathematical difficulties and socioemotional problems predicted a student ending up in the NEET group and (3) reading difficulties and behavioural problems predicted delayed graduation from upper secondary education.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · European Journal of Special Needs Education
    • "bene Lernstörungen gemäß ICD-10 vorliegen, beide Gruppen weisen gleichermaßen niedrige Einschätzungen ihrer eigenen Fähigkeiten auf (Fischbach et al. 2010). Vielmehr stellen das kindliche Verständnis der eigenen Problematik und ein positives Selbstkonzept bedeutsame Prädiktoren für die Überwindung von Lernschwierigkeiten dar und gehen darüber hinaus mit einer erfolgreicheren psychosozialen Anpassung in der Schule einher (Kershner 1990; Snowling et al. 2007; Terras et al. 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several studies converge on the view that children with learning difficulties (LD) have a lower academic self-concept than children without LD. However, whether the influence of specific learning difficulties on academic self-concept is domain-specific or domain-general it is still at issue. Therefore, this longitudinal study examined the academic self-concept of 77 typically developing children and 236 children with specific learning difficulties in reading, spelling and/or mathematics. The children’s self-concept in reading, spelling and mathematics was assessed at the beginning and the end of the children’s last year in elementary school. The study revealed three important findings: First, in line with the domain-specific hypothesis, children with LD showed a lower self-perception of academic skills only in those domains in which they were low achieving. Second, children with specific learning difficulties in either reading or spelling exhibited a lower academic self-concept in both verbal domains, which suggests that they did not differentiate between their skills in reading and spelling. Last, children’s self-concept in spelling and mathematics decreased significantly in the course of a school year. Overall, the children showed a sophisticated self-perception of their individual strengths and weaknesses at the end of primary school.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft
    • "Few of these studies, however, assessed psychological variables of family well-being. Snowling et al. (2007), in a follow-up study on families at risk, observed that about 74% of them considered child's disorder to have negative— from moderate to severe—effects on family life, and that mothers reported high anxiety and/or depression levels (see Karande, Kumbhare, Kulkarni, & Shah, 2009, for similar results on anxiety symptoms). Mothers of children with LD have also been found to have higher level of avoidant coping than mothers of children with typical development (Al-Yagon, 2007; Margalit, Raviv, & Ankonina, 1992). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite their ascertained neurobiological origin, specific learning disorders (SLD) often have been found to be associated with some emotional disturbances in children, and there is growing interest in the environmental and contextual variables that may modulate children's developmental trajectories. The present study was aimed at evaluating the psychological profile of parents and children and the relationships between their measures. Parents of children with SLD (17 couples, 34 participants) and parents of children with typical development (17 couples, 34 participants) were administered questionnaires assessing parenting styles, reading history, parenting stress, psychopathological indexes, and evaluations of children's anxiety and depression. Children (N = 34, 10.7 ± 1.2 years) were assessed with self-evaluation questionnaires on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem and with a scale assessing their perception of parents' qualities. Results showed that parents of children with SLD have higher parental distress, poorer reading history, and different parenting styles compared to parents of children with TD; there were no differences in psychopathological indexes. The SLD group also rated their children as more anxious and depressed. Children with SLD had lower scholastic and interpersonal self-esteem, but they report ratings of parents' qualities similar to those of TD children. Relationships between parents' and children's measures were further explored. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2015.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Learning Disabilities
Show more