Glial-Cytokine-Neuronal Interactions Underlying the Mechanisms of Persistent Pain

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Program in Neuroscience, Dental School, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 6.34). 06/2007; 27(22):6006-18. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0176-07.2007
Source: PubMed


The emerging literature implicates a role for glia/cytokines in persistent pain. However, the mechanisms by which these non-neural elements contribute to CNS activity-dependent plasticity and pain are unclear. Using a trigeminal model of inflammatory hyperalgesia, here we provide evidence that demonstrates a mechanism by which glia interact with neurons, leading to activity-dependent plasticity and hyperalgesia. In response to masseter inflammation, there was an upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic proteins (GFAPs), a marker of astroglia, and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), a prototype proinflammatory cytokine, in the region of the trigeminal nucleus specifically related to the processing of deep orofacial input. The activated astroglia exhibited hypertrophy and an increased level of connexin 43, an astroglial gap junction protein. The upregulated IL-1beta was selectively localized to astrocytes but not to microglia and neurons. Local anesthesia of the masseter nerve prevented the increase in GFAP and IL-1beta after inflammation, and substance P, a prototype neurotransmitter of primary afferents, induced similar increases in GFAP and IL-1beta, which was blocked by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Injection of IL-1 receptor antagonist and fluorocitrate, a glial inhibitor, attenuated hyperalgesia and NMDA receptor phosphorylation after inflammation. In vitro application of IL-1beta induced NR1 phosphorylation, which was blocked by an IL-1 receptor antagonist, a PKC inhibitor (chelerythrine), an IP3 receptor inhibitor (2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate), and inhibitors of phospholipase C [1-[6-((17b-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione] and phospholipase A2 (arachidonyltrifluoromethyl ketone). These findings provide evidence of astroglial activation by tissue injury, concomitant IL-1beta induction, and the coupling of NMDA receptor phosphorylation through IL-1 receptor signaling.

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    • "In addition, we examined the effect of i.t. administration of chelerythrine , a selective PKC inhibitor (Herbert et al., 1990; Guan et al., 2004; Guo et al., 2007 "

    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2015
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    • "Regarding NMDAR phosphorylation in pain facilitation, several researchers have indicated a non-negligible role of IL-1β. These authors suggested that IL-1β could directly bind to its receptor, thereby localizing in neurons, and induce NMDA receptor phosphorylation in the neurons of the spinal dorsal horn [66] [67] or medullary dorsal horn [24], ultimately enhancing pain transmission. "
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    ABSTRACT: It is commonly accepted that psychological stress contributes to the development of temporomandibular joint disorders, in which chronic orofacial pain is the main symptom. However, the central mechanism underlying the development of these disorders has remained unclear. The current study was performed to determine the involvement of the glia in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis in stress-induced increases in masseter muscle hyperalgesia in rats. After being subjected to chronic restraint stress, the animals showed decreased body weight gain, behavioral changes and marked masseter allodynia. We also found that astrocytes, but not microglia, in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) were dramatically activated. A further analysis was undertaken to investigate the contribution of the glia; we intrathecally injected l-α-aminoadipate (astrocyte-specific inhibitor) and/or minocycline (microglia-specific inhibitor) into the stressed rats. Our results showed that l-α-aminoadipate (LAA), but not minocycline, could significantly attenuate the mechanical masseter allodynia and behavioral changes induced by restraint stress. In addition, the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and phosphorylated N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor 1 (p-NR1) in the Vc was significantly increased after chronic restraint stress, whereas LAA dramatically inhibited the overexpression of IL-1β and p-NR1. Taken together, these results suggest that activated astrocytes in the Vc may be one of the most important factors in the pathophysiology of masseter hyperalgesia induced by restraint stress and the following overexpression of IL-1β and excessive NMDAR phosphorylation may ultimately contribute to masseter hyperalgesia. Thus, inhibiting spinal astrocytic activation may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of orofacial pain induced by stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Physiology & Behavior
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    • "Under the condition of pain, the levels of IL-1 mRNA, protein, and IL-1 receptors are up-regulated in nociceptors suggesting that IL-1 directly affects the excitability of primary afferents [71]. IL-1-induced inflammatory cascades make the sensory neurons be susceptible to subthreshold stimuli [72], and IL-1 functions as a key mediator in the interaction between glia and neurons [73] indicating that blockade of IL-1 or IL-1R possesses therapeutic property. IL-6 is another key mediator of inflammation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract DRG is of importance in relaying painful stimulation to the higher pain centers and therefore could be a crucial target for early intervention aimed at suppressing primary afferent stimulation. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a common pain condition with an unknown etiology. Recently added new information enriches our understanding of CRPS pathophysiology. Researches on genetics, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and mechanisms of pain modulation, central sensitization, and autonomic functions in CRPS revealed various abnormalities indicating that multiple factors and mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Epigenetics refers to mitotically and meiotically heritable changes in gene expression that do not affect the DNA sequence. As epigenetic modifications potentially play an important role in inflammatory cytokine metabolism, neurotransmitter responsiveness, and analgesic sensitivity, they are likely key factors in the development of chronic pain. In this dyad review series, we systematically examine the nerve injury-related changes in the neurological system and their contribution to CRPS. In this part, we first reviewed and summarized the role of neural sensitization in DRG neurons in performing function in the context of pain processing. Particular emphasis is placed on the cellular and molecular changes after nerve injury as well as different models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. These were considered as the potential molecular bases that underlie nerve injury-associated pathogenesis of CRPS.
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