Effects of Monotherapy of Temocapril or Candesartan with Dose Increments or Combination Therapy with Both Drugs on the Suppression of Diabetic Nephropathy
We examined the effects of increasing the recommended initial doses of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or of switching to combination therapy with both drugs, on diabetic nephropathy. Hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients with urinary albumin excretion (ACR) between 100 and 300 mg/g creatinine (Cre) were assigned to the following five groups in which an antihypertensive drug was administered at a recommended initial dose for 48 weeks, and then either the dose was doubled or an additional drugs was added to regimen for the following 48 weeks: N, nifedipine-CR (N) 20 mg/day (initial dose); T, ACEI temocapril (T) 2 mg/day; C, ARB candesartan (C) 4 mg/day; T+C, T first and then addition of C; C+T, C first and then addition of C. ACR decreased in the T (n=34), C (n=40), T+C (n=37) and C+T (n=35) groups, but not in the N group (n=18). However, the anti-proteinuric effect was less in the T than in the C, T+C or C+T groups, while no differences existed among the latter three. In each group, there were significant linear relationships between attained BP and ACR; however, the regression lines were shifted toward lower ACR level in the renin-angiotensin system-inhibition groups compared with the N group. These results indicate that an ACEI and/or ARB is superior to a CCB in retarding diabetic nephropathy, while the combination of low doses of ACEI and ARB has effects similar to those of high-dose ARB. Even among patients treated with an ACEI and/or ARB, lowering BP is important.