Incidence of Acute Otitis Media and Sinusitis Complicating Upper Respiratory Tract Infection: The Effect of Age

Texas A&M University - Galveston, Galveston, Texas, United States
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 07/2007; 119(6):e1408-12. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-2881
Source: PubMed


Infants and young children are prone to developing upper respiratory tract infections, which often result in bacterial complications such as acute otitis media and sinusitis. We evaluated 623 upper respiratory tract infection episodes in 112 children (6-35 months of age) to determine the proportion of upper respiratory tract infection episodes that result in acute otitis media or sinusitis. Of all upper respiratory tract infections, 30% were complicated by acute otitis media and 8% were complicated by sinusitis. The rate of acute otitis media after upper respiratory tract infection declined with increasing age, whereas the rate of sinusitis after upper respiratory tract infection peaked in the second year of life. Risk for acute otitis media may be reduced substantially by avoiding frequent exposure to respiratory viruses (eg, avoidance of day care attendance) in the first year of life.

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Available from: Tasnee Chonmaitree, Jul 08, 2015
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    • "Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABR) is the infection of paranasal sinuses, seen commonly 7–10 days after worsening of the symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), and continues for less than 30 days [1]. ABR constitutes 5–10% of all complications following pediatric URTI [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Fluticasone propionate and nasal saline irrigation have been used in the treatment of sinonasal diseases for a long time. Our study investigates the effect of the combination of large volume low pressure nasal saline irrigation and fluticasone propionate for the treatment of pediatric acute rhinosinusitis. Methods: Ninety-one pediatric patients with acute rhinosinusitis were included in our study. The patients were randomized into two groups. The first group (n=45) was treated with standard therapy (antibiotherapy+nasal decongestant) for 2 weeks, the second group was treated with the large volume low pressure nasal saline+fluticasone propionate combination for 3 weeks. The clinical scores, radiologic evaluations (X-ray Waters view), peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) measurements, total symptom scores and hematologic parameters (WBC, CRP, ESR) of the patients were evaluated and compared. Results: There were no significant differences in between the two groups regarding age, gender, height and weight. Even though the clinical scores of Group 2 improved more rapidly, there were no significant differences in between groups regarding clinical scores by the 21st day. There were no significant differences in post treatment radiologic evaluations (Waters graphy). Both groups had significant improvement of their post treatment PNIF values, yet the improvement was more marked in Group 2 than in Group 1. The rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, throat itching and cough symptoms improved more rapidly in Group 2 than in Group 1. Post-treatment nose itching and sneezing symptoms were significantly less in Group 2. The values of hematologic parameters were significantly reduced at the end of the 3rd week in both groups. Conclusions: Our study is a first in investigating the combined use of large volume low pressure nasal saline and fluticasone propionate in acute pediatric rhinosinusitis, and the results reveal that the combination therapy was effective. Low pressure large volume nasal saline+fluticasone propionate combination can be employed as a new line of therapy for the treatment of pediatric acute rhinosinusitis, either by itself or combined with standard therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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    • "Although chronic rhinosinusitis with post-nasal drip is a common childhood disease [26,27], it is not usual to examine the upper airways and seek a purulent discharge inside the nasal cavities in children with a history of rCAP. However, on the basis of our results, it is important to start thinking in terms of nose-lung interactions as in the case of the relationship between allergic rhinitis and asthma [28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this case--control study was to analyse the clinical characteristics of children with recurrent community-acquired pneumonia (rCAP) affecting different lung areas (DLAs) and compare them with those of children who have never experienced CAP in order to contribute to identifying the best approach to such patients. The study involved 146 children with >=2 episodes of radiographically confirmed CAP in DLA in a single year (or >=3 episodes in any time frame) with radiographic clearing of densities between occurrences, and 145 age- and gender-matched controls enrolled in Milan, Italy, between January 2009 and December 2012. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the cases and controls were compared, and a comparison was also made between the cases with rCAP (i.e. <=3 episodes) and those with highly recurrent CAP (hrCAP: i.e. >3 episodes). Gestational age at birth (p = 0.003), birth weight (p = 0.006), respiratory distress at birth (p < 0.001), and age when starting day care attendance (p < 0.001) were significantly different between the cases and controls, and recurrent infectious wheezing (p < 0.001), chronic rhinosinusitis with post-nasal drip (p < 0.001), recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (p < 0.001), atopy/allergy (p < 0.001) and asthma (p < 0.001) were significantly more frequent. Significant risk factors for hrCAP were gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD; p = 0.04), a history of atopy and/or allergy (p = 0.005), and a diagnosis of asthma (p = 0.0001) or middle lobe syndrome (p = 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and gender, showed that all of the risk factors other than GERD and wheezing were associated with hrCAP. The diagnostic approach to children with rCAP in DLAs is relatively easy in the developed world, where the severe chronic underlying diseases favouring rCAP are usually identified early, and patients with chronic underlying disease are diagnosed before the occurrence of rCAP in DLAs. When rCAP in DLAs does occur, an evaluation of the patients' history and clinical findings make it possible to limit diagnostic investigations.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · BMC Pulmonary Medicine
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    • "Exposure to secondhand smoke may also increase the risk of otitis media in premature infants. Otitis media with effusion (OME) and recurrent otitis media (ROM) are among the most commonly diagnosed illnesses of childhood [16]. Increased risk for recurrence of otitis media has been reported in prematurely born infants possibly due to the'use of ventilatory assistance provided through nasotracheal and nasopharyngeal intubation, local immune system disturbance , and neuromotor impairment [1]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To explore the effects of secondhand smoke exposure on growth, health-related illness, and child development in rural African American premature infants through 24 months corrected age. Method. 171 premature infants (72 boys, 99 girls) of African American mothers with a mean birthweight of 1114 grams. Mothers reported on household smoking and infant health at 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months corrected age. Infant growth was measured at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and developmental assessments were conducted at 12 and 24 months. Results. Thirty percent of infants were exposed to secondhand smoke within their first 2 years of life. Secondhand smoke exposure was associated with poorer growth of head circumference and the development of otitis media at 2 months corrected age. Height, weight, wheezing, and child development were not related to secondhand smoke exposure. Conclusion. Exposure to secondhand smoke may negatively impact health of rural African American premature infants. Interventions targeted at reducing exposure could potentially improve infant outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011
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