training of teachers, use of positive reinforcement tech-
niques), careful targeting of high-risk families for pre-
school interventions, using peer-based techniques to
impar t information and skills and empowering commu-
nities in order to reduce drug-related harm.
There is limited understanding of effective treatment
models for youth in the resolution of MA problems.
While there are unique clinical issues associated with
MA use, best practices for treating youth substance
abuse, including integrative methods of treatment using
cognitive behavioral techniques, motivational interview-
ing, family therapy and contingency management,
should be incorporated into treatment models for
MA-based intervention strategies. Gender and cultural
differences also need to be considered when preventing
and treating MA abuse.
In some parts of the world, MA use by adolescents is a
signiﬁcant public health concern. Young women appear
to be at special risk for developing MA-related problems
and their use is associated with elevated levels of depres-
sion and suicidal thinking. High-risk sexual behaviors are
associated with MA use, creating increased risk for
sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV and hepa-
titis. There is a paucity of data on speciﬁc prevention
and treatment approaches for reducing MA use among
youth; however, general best practice principles are
RICHARD A. RAWSON, RACHEL GONZALES,
MICHAEL MCCANN & WALTER LING
UCLA Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, 1640 S.
Sepulveda Blvd, Suite 200, Los Angeles, CA 90025–7535,
USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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