Malignant gliomas actively recruit bone marrow stromal cells by secreting angiogenic cytokines

Department of Neurology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich, Germany.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology (Impact Factor: 3.07). 08/2007; 83(3):241-7. DOI: 10.1007/s11060-007-9332-4
Source: PubMed


The transplantation of progenitor cells is a promising new approach for the treatment of gliomas. Marrow stromal cells (MSC) are possible candidates for such a cell-based therapy, since they are readily and autologously available and show an extensive tropism to gliomas in vitro and in vivo. However, the signals that guide the MSC are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that gliomas have the capacity to actively attract MSC by secreting a multitude of angiogenic cytokines. We demonstrate that interleukin-8 (IL-8), transforming growth factor-ss1 (TGF-ss1) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) contribute to this glioma-directed tropism of human MSC. Together with the finding that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is another MSC-attracting factor secreted by glioma cells, these data support the hypothesis that gliomas use their angiogenic pathways to recruit mesenchymal progenitor cells.

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    • "In the in vitro migration assay, the migration of MSCs was not stimulated by IL-1β or TGF-β (data not shown), similar to what was reported before [41], [42]. Because these two cytokines increased the protein level of FAP (Fig. 7B), we asked whether the TNF-α-stimulated migration will be affected when we pre-treated the cells first with IL-1β or TGF-β. "
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to migrate and localize specifically to injured tissues is central in developing therapeutic strategies for tissue repair and regeneration. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a cell surface serine protease expressed at sites of tissue remodeling during embryonic development. It is also expressed in BM-MSCs, but not in normal tissues or cells. The function of FAP in BM-MSCs is not known. We found that depletion of FAP proteins significantly inhibited the migration of BM-MSCs in a transwell chemotaxis assay. Such impaired migration ability of BM-MSCs could be rescued by re-expressing FAP in these cells. We then demonstrated that depletion of FAP activated intracellular RhoA GTPase. Consistently, inhibition of RhoA activity using a RhoA inhibitor rescued its migration ability. Inhibition of FAP activity with an FAP-specific inhibitor did not affect the activation of RhoA or the migration of BM-MSCs. Furthermore, the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) upregulated FAP expression, which coincided with better BM-MSC migration. Our results indicate FAP plays an important role in the migration of BM-MSCs through modulation of RhoA GTPase activity. The peptidase activity of FAP is not essential for such migration. Cytokines IL-1β and TGF-β upregulate the expression level of FAP and thus enhance BM-MSC migration.
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    • "Recruitment of MSC by experimental implanted vascularizing tumors and their incorporation within the tumor architecture [12] [13] implies that these cells must ultimately respond to inflammation-and tumor-derived growth factor cues [14] [15]. Given their intrinsic immunosuppressive property [16] [17], it is further hypothesized that MSC could contribute to tumor formation and growth in vivo through some paracrine-mediated processes involving , in part, promotion of neovascularization [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and produce cytokines and chemokines, all of which contribute to these cells' immunomodulatory and proangiogenic properties. Among the secreted cytokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) regulate angiogenesis through activation of endothelial cell proliferation and migration. Since MSC are recruited within hypoxic tumors where they signal paracrine-regulated angiogenesis, the aim of this study was to evaluate which CSF members are expressed and are inducible in activated MSC. Furthermore, we investigated the JAK/STAT signal transducing pathway that may impact on CSF transcription. MSC were activated with Concanavalin-A (ConA), a TLR-2/6 agonist as well as a membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) inducer, and we found increased transcription of granulocyte macrophage-CSF (GM-CSF, CSF-2), granulocyte CSF (G-CSF, CSF-3), and MT1-MMP. Gene silencing of either STAT3 or MT1-MMP prevented ConA-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, and reversed ConA effects on CSF-2 and CSF-3. Treatment with the Janus Kinase (JAK)2 inhibitor AG490 antagonized the ConA induction of MT1-MMP and CSF-2, while the pan-JAK inhibitor Tofacitinib reversed ConA-induced CSF-2 and -3 gene expression. Silencing of JAK2 prevented the ConA-mediated increase of CSF-2, while silencing of JAK1, JAK3 and TYK2 prevented the increase in CSF-3. Given that combined TLR-activation and locally-produced CSF-2 and CSF-3 could regulate immunomodulation and neovascularization, pharmacological targeting of TLR-2/6-induced MT1-MMP/JAK/STAT3 signalling pathway may prevent MSC contribution to tumor development.
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    • "The high concentration of inflammatory chemokines released after tissue damage can indeed control the migration of MSCs, which express receptors for a number of grow factors including PDGF and IGF-1, and chemokines receptors, as CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, and CCL5 (Ponte et al., 2007). On the other hand, strong connections exist between tissue injury, chronic inflammation and cancer, as first described by Mina Bissell's group (Dolberg et al., 1985), so that tumors have been defined " wounds that do not heal " (Dvorak, 1986), where inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are produced and can drive MSC homing (Birnbaum et al., 2007; Dwyer et al., 2007; Menon et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult multipotent cells that give rise to various cell types of the mesodermal germ layer. MSCs are of great interest in the field of regenerative medicine and cancer therapy because of their unique ability to home to damaged and cancerous tissue. These cells also regulate the immune response and contribute to reparative processes in different pathological conditions, including musculoskeletal and cardiovascular diseases. The use of MSCs for tissue repair was initially based on the hypothesis that these cells home to and differentiate within the injured tissue into specialized cells. However, it now appears that only a small proportion of transplanted MSCs actually integrate and survive in host tissues. Thus, the predominant mechanism by which MSCs participate in tissue repair seems to be related to their paracrine activity. Indeed, MSCs provide the microenvironment with a multitude of trophic and survival signals including growth factors and cytokines. Recent discoveries suggest that lipid microvesicles released by MSCs may also be important in the physiological function of these cells. Over the past few years the biological relevance of micro- and nano-vesicles released by cells in intercellular communication has been established. Alongside the conventional mediators of cell secretome, these sophisticated nanovesicles transfer proteins, lipids and, most importantly, various forms of RNAs to neighboring cells, thereby mediating a variety of biological responses. The physiological role of MSC-derived vesicles (MSC-MVs) is currently not well understood. Nevertheless, encouraging results indicate that MSC-MVs have similar protective and reparative properties as their cellular counterparts in tissue repair and possibly anti-cancer therapy. Thus, MSC-MVs represent a promising opportunity to develop novel cell-free therapy approaches that might overcome the obstacles and risks associated with the use of native or engineered stem cells.
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