Article

Loe IM, Feldman HM. Academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
Journal of Pediatric Psychology (Impact Factor: 2.91). 08/2007; 32(6):643-54. DOI: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsl054
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor grades, poor reading and math standardized test scores, and increased grade retention. ADHD is also associated with increased use of school-based services, increased rates of detention and expulsion, and ultimately with relatively low rates of high school graduation and postsecondary education. Children in community samples who show symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity with or without formal diagnoses of ADHD also show poor academic and educational outcomes. Pharmacologic treatment and behavior management are associated with reduction of the core symptoms of ADHD and increased academic productivity, but not with improved standardized test scores or ultimate educational attainment. Future research must use conceptually based outcome measures in prospective, longitudinal, and community-based studies to determine which pharmacologic, behavioral, and educational interventions can improve academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD.

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    • "Despite the ineffectiveness of coercive CRM strategies related to ADHD (DuPaul & Weyandt, 2006), students diagnosed with ADHD or manifesting behaviours associated with it are more likely to be subjects of coercive disciplinary actions (detention, expulsion, etc.) than their peers (Loe & Feldman, 2007). Assertion is that student behaviour mediates coercive CRM strategies. "
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    ABSTRACT: This interview study addresses the gap in earlier research by focussing on the narratives of 13 ADHD-diagnosed Finnish students regarding teacher reactive classroom management strategies. The data are analysed through narrative analysis. Five different narrative types are identified, in which teacher behaviour is evaluated as (1) disproportionate, (2) traumatising, (3) neglectful, (4) unfair and (5) understanding. The dominant storyline – common to the first four types – constructed the narrator's transgression as contingent upon and a justified reaction to teacher conduct. The vicious cycle of coercive classroom management strategies and the culture of blame between students and teachers are discussed.
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    • "Kinder mit ADHS haben meist schlechtere Schulleistungen als Kinder ohne ADHS. Dieser Unterschied zeigt sich in Zeugnisnoten, Eltern-und Lehrerberichten und in objektiven Schulleistungstests wie beispielsweise standardisierten Lese-und Mathematiktests (Daley & Birchwood, 2010; Loe & Feldman, 2007). Jugendliche mit ADHS besuchen häufig niedrigere Schulformen und verlassen die Schule oft mit schlechteren Abschlüssen als Gleichaltrige ohne ADHS (Klein & Manuzza, 1991; McGee, Prior, Williams, Smart & Sanson , 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Kinder mit einer Aufmerksamkeitsde- fizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung (ADHS) zeigen häufig akade- mische Minderleistung mit unklarer Ursache. Neben den Kernsymptomen der Störung haben Kinder mit ADHS typi- scherweise eine geringere Selbstkontrollkapazität, d. h. eine mangelnde Fähigkeit, automatisch auftretende Reaktionsim- pulse zu unterdrücken oder zu modifizieren. In der Normal- population wurde mehrfach gezeigt, dass eine höhere Selbst- kontrollkapazität mit besseren akademischen Leistungen einhergeht. Daher wird in der vorliegenden Studie der Einfluss der Selbstkontrollkapazität auf den Zusammenhang zwi- schen einer ADHS-Diagnose und Schulleistungen untersucht. 44 Kinder mit und 59 Kinder ohne ADHS im Alter von 7 bis 13 Jahren, für die jeweils ein Elternteil die Schulleistung und die Selbstkontrollkapazität einschätzte, wurden untersucht. Kin- der mit ADHS hatten eine niedrigere Selbstkontrollkapazität und signifikant schlechtere Schulleistungen als Kinder ohne ADHS. In einer Mediationsanalyse zeigte sich, dass der Effekt von ADHS auf die Schulleistung vollständig durch die Selbst- kontrollkapazität vermittelt wurde. Alle Befunde galten auch bei Kontrolle von Intelligenz. Die Ergebnisse sprechen dafür, dass nicht das Vorliegen einer ADHS-Diagnose für schlech- tere Schulleistungen verantwortlich ist, sondern die mit der Störung einhergehenden Selbstkontrolldefizite. Diskutiert werden Diagnostik und Trainierbarkeit von Selbstkontrolle bei Kindern mit ADHS sowie Implikationen der Befunde für die Praxis, mit besonderem Augenmerk auf den Umgang mit Selbstkontrolldefiziten im schulischen Unterricht. Einschrän- kend muss festgehalten werden, dass alle berichteten Vari- ablen nur durch die Eltern eingeschätzt und im Querschnitt erhoben wurden.
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    • "(Hypothesis 2aec): High novelty seeking (Hypothesis 2a) (Cloninger et al., 1991, 1994; von Stumm & Ackerman, 2013; von Stumm et al., 2011), high reward dependence (Hypothesis 2b) (Cloninger, 1987, 1994a; Cloninger et al., 1994, 1993) and high persistence (Hypothesis 2c) (Barrick et al., 2001; Bidjerano & Dai, 2007; De Raad & Schouwenburg, 1996; Poropat, 2009; Steel, 2007; Trautwein et al., 2006) are associated with higher adulthood educational attainment. (Hypothesis 3): Explosive (NHr; i.e., high novelty seeking and harm avoidance, low reward dependence) and methodical (nHr; i.e., low novelty seeking and reward dependence, high harm avoidance) temperament profiles are associated with lower adulthood educational attainment (Agrawal et al., 2008; Anckars€ ater et al., 2006; Cloninger et al., 1994; Diamantopoulou et al., 2007; DuPaul et al., 2004; Guti errez et al., 2008; Josefsson, Cloninger, et al., 2011; Josefsson et al., 2013; Josefsson, Merjonen, et al., 2011; Loe & Feldman, 2007; Svrakic et al., 2002; Vile Junod et al., 2006; Wong & Cloninger, 2010). (Hypothesis 4): Reliable (nhR; i.e., low novelty seeking and harm avoidance, high reward dependence) and passionate temperament profiles (NhR; i.e., high novelty seeking and reward dependence, low harm avoidance) are associated with higher adulthood educational attainment (Cloninger et al., 1994; Svrakic et al., 2002; Wong & Cloninger, 2010). "
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