Anantharamaiah, G. M. et al. Structural requirements for antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of apolipoprotein A-I-mimetic peptides. J. Lipid Res. 48, 1915-1923
Department of Medicine, Biochemistry, and Molecular Genetics and Atherosclerosis Research Unit, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. The Journal of Lipid Research
(Impact Factor: 4.42).
10/2007; 48(9):1915-23. DOI: 10.1194/jlr.R700010-JLR200
Recently, attention has been focused on pharmacological treatments that increase HDL cholesterol to prevent coronary artery disease. Despite three decades of extensive research of human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein component of HDL, the molecular basis for its antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory functions remain elusive. Another protein component of HDL, apoA-II, has structural features similar to those of apoA-I but does not possess atheroprotective properties. To understand the molecular basis for the effectiveness of apoA-I, we used model synthetic peptides. We designed analogs of the class A amphipathic helical motif in apoA-I that is responsible for solubilizing phospholipids. None of these analogs has sequence homology to apoA-I, but all are similar in their lipid-associating structural motifs. Although all of these peptide analogs interact with phospholipids to form peptide:lipid complexes, the biological properties of these analogs are different. Physical-chemical and NMR studies of these peptides have enabled the delineation of structural requirements for atheroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties in these peptides. It has been shown that peptides that interact strongly with lipid acyl chains do not have antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. In contrast, peptides that associate close to the lipid head group (and hence do not interact strongly with the lipid acyl chain) are antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory. Understanding the structure and function of apoA-I and HDL through studies of the amphipathic helix motif may lead to peptide-based therapies for inhibiting atherosclerosis and other related inflammatory lipid disorders.
Available from: Rajitha Kesani
- "The original concept that led to the development of an apoA-I mimetic peptide was based on the assumption that the functional properties of apoA-I, the predominant apolipoprotein of HDL, are derived from its secondary structure, a series of 22-mer amphipathic α-helices linked by proline residues . A number of apoA-I mimetic peptides were developed comprising of one or two helices mimicking the secondary structure of apoA-I, without sharing homology with the primary sequence of apoA-I. "
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ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides are considered a promising novel therapeutic approach to prevent and/or treat atherosclerosis. An apoA-I mimetic peptide ELK-2A2K2E was designed with a reductionist approach and has shown exceptional activity in supporting cholesterol efflux but modest anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties in vitro. In this study we compared these in vitro properties with the capacity of this peptide to modify rates of reverse cholesterol transport and development of atherosclerosis in mouse models. The peptide enhanced the rate of reverse cholesterol transport in C57BL/6 mice and reduced atherosclerosis in Apoe(-/-) mice receiving a high fat diet. The peptide modestly reduced the size of the plaques in aortic arch, but was highly active in reducing vascular inflammation and oxidation. Administration of the peptide to Apoe(-/-) mice on a high fat diet reduced the levels of total, high density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. It increased the proportion of smaller HDL particles in plasma at the expense of larger HDL particles, and increased the capacity of the plasma to support cholesterol efflux. Thus, ELK-2A2K2E peptide reduced atherosclerosis in Apoe(-/-) mice, however, the functional activity profile after chronic in vivo administration was different from that found in acute in vitro studies.
Available from: Dr. Narendra Kumar Sharma
- "APOA1 up-regulation is associated with breast and lung cancer as suggested elsewhere . APOA1 is also linked to antioxidant function that is proposed to be involved in its vasculoprotective activity, apparently by complexing with paraoxonase . Interestingly, studies provide new evidence supporting the notion that HDL plays a protective role in the lung. "
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ABSTRACT: Adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia is required by animals and human in several physiological and pathological situations. Hypobaric hypoxia is a pathophysiological condition triggering redox status disturbances of cell organization leading, via oxidative stress, to proteins, lipids, and DNA damage. Identifying the molecular variables playing key roles in this process would be of paramount importance to shed light on the mechanisms known to counteract the negative effects of oxygen lack. To obtain a molecular signature, changes in the plasma proteome were studied by using proteomic approach. To enrich the low-abundance proteins in human plasma, two highly abundant proteins, albumin and IgG, were first removed. By comparing the plasma proteins of high altitude natives with those of a normal control group, several proteins with a significant alteration were found. The up-regulated proteins were identified as vitamin D-binding protein, hemopexin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin β-chain, apolipoprotein A1, transthyretin and hemoglobin beta chain. The down-regulated proteins were transferrin, complement C3, serum amyloid, complement component 4A and plasma retinol binding protein. Among these proteins, the alterations of transthyretin and transferrin were further confirmed by ELISA and Western blotting analysis. Since all the up- and down- regulated proteins identified above are well-known inflammation inhibitors and play a positive anti-inflammatory role, these results show that there is some adaptive mechanism that sustains the inflammation balance in high altitude natives exposed to hypobaric hypoxia.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "It is similar in sequence to the 18A peptide but contains 4 phenylalanine substitutions, and hence its name, in its hydrophobic face. Because of its relatively high hydrophobicity, the increase in phenylalanine content was found to increase the ability of this peptide to bind to oxidized lipids, a known anti-atherogenic function of HDL (Anantharamaiah et al., 2007). A version of the peptide when synthesized with d-amino acids called D-4F was found to be partially orally available and to reduce atherosclerosis in animal models (Navab et al., 2002). "
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ABSTRACT: New treatments are needed for severe asthmatics to improve disease control and avoid severe toxicities associated with oral corticosteroids. We have used a murine model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthma to identify steroid-unresponsive genes that might represent targets for new therapeutic approaches for severe asthma. This strategy identified apolipoprotein E as a steroid-unresponsive gene with increased mRNA expression in the lungs of HDM-challenged mice. Furthermore, apolipoprotein E functioned as an endogenous negative regulator of airway hyperreactivity and goblet cell hyperplasia in experimental HDM-induced asthma. The ability of apolipoprotein E, which is expressed by lung macrophages, to attenuate AHR, and goblet cell hyperplasia is mediated by low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors expressed by airway epithelial cells. Consistent with this, administration of an apolipoprotein E mimetic peptide, corresponding to amino acids 130-149 of the LDL receptor-binding domain of the holo-apoE protein, significantly reduced AHR and goblet cell hyperplasia in HDM-challenged apoE(-/-) mice. These findings identified the apolipoprotein E - LDL receptor pathway as a new druggable target for asthma that can be activated by administration of apoE-mimetic peptides. Similarly, apolipoprotein A-I may have therapeutic potential in asthma based upon its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-fibrotic properties. Furthermore, administration of apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides has attenuated airway inflammation, airway remodeling, and airway hyperreactivity in murine models of experimental asthma. Thus, site-directed delivery of inhaled apolipoprotein E or apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides may represent novel treatment approaches that can be developed for asthma, including severe disease.
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