Dystocia in nulliparous women

Dept of Family Medicine and Community Health, Family Health Center of Worchester, University of Massachusetts, Massachusetts 01610, USA.
American family physician (Impact Factor: 2.18). 07/2007; 75(11):1671-8.
Source: PubMed


Dystocia is common in nulliparous women and is responsible for more than 50 percent of primary cesarean deliveries. Because cesarean delivery rates continue to rise, physicians providing maternity care should be skilled in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of dystocia. If labor is not progressing, inadequate uterine contractions, fetal malposition, or cephalopelvic disproportion may be the cause. Before resorting to operative delivery for arrested labor, physicians should ensure that the patient has had adequate uterine contractions for four hours, using oxytocin infusion for augmentation as needed. For nulliparous women, high-dose oxytocin-infusion protocols for labor augmentation decrease the time to delivery compared with low-dose protocols without causing adverse outcomes. The second stage of labor can be permitted to continue for longer than traditional time limits if fetal monitoring is reassuring and there is progress in descent. Prevention of dystocia includes encouraging the use of trained labor support companions, deferring hospital admission until the active phase of labor when possible, avoiding elective labor induction before 41 weeks' gestation, and using epidural analgesia judiciously.

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    • "Prolonged labour or dystocia is a common birth complication and constitutes the major indication of instrumental deliveries and delivery by emergency Caesarean section (CS) [1,2]. Diagnosing prolonged labour is inherently difficult and it is a controversial issue that has been discussed ever since Friedman introduced the graphic analysis of labour, a study based on 100 women [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Prolonged labour very often causes suffering from difficulties that may have lifelong implications. This study aimed to explore the prevalence and treatment of prolonged labour and to compare birth outcome and women's experiences of prolonged and normal labour. Method: Women with spontaneous onset of labour, living in a Swedish county, were recruited two months after birth, to a cross-sectional study. Women (n = 829) completed a questionnaire that investigated socio-demographic and obstetric background, birth outcome and women's feelings and experiences of birth. The prevalence of prolonged labour, as defined by a documented ICD-code and inspection of partogram was calculated. Four groups were identified; women with prolonged labour as identified by documented ICD-codes or by partogram inspection but no ICD-code; women with normal labour augmented with oxytocin or not. Results: Every fifth woman experienced a prolonged labour. The prevalence with the documented ICD-code was (13%) and without ICD-code but positive partogram was (8%). Seven percent of women with prolonged labour were not treated with oxytocin. Approximately one in three women (28%) received oxytocin augmentation despite having no evidence of prolonged labour. The length of labour differed between the four groups of women, from 7 to 23 hours.Women with a prolonged labour had a negative birth experience more often (13%) than did women who had a normal labour (3%) (P <0.00). The factors that contributed most strongly to a negative birth experience in women with prolonged labour were emergency Caesarean section (OR 9.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.0) and to strongly agree with the following statement 'My birth experience made me decide not to have any more children' (OR 41.3, 95% CI 4.9-349.6). The factors that contributed most strongly to a negative birth experience in women with normal labour were less agreement with the statement 'It was exiting to give birth' (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.34-0.5). Conclusions: There is need for increased clinical skill in identification and classification of prolonged labour, in order to improve care for all women and their experiences of birthing processes regardless whether they experience a prolonged labour or not.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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    • "In the hypotonic disorder regardless hypertonic uterine dysfunction, in the active phase of labor (dilatation > 4 cm), the base tonicity of uterus is not increased. In addition in the cases of hypertonic contractions, due to lack of harmony in the impulses which root from one or both cornea and because the contractions of the middle segment of the uterus are more powerful from fundal contractions' force, effective contractions during labor are absent (Cunningham, 2009; Shields et al., 2007; Savitsky et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Failure to progress remains a key indication for cesarean section which caused by different factors including uterine contractions. If it is diagnosed in the primary phase of labor, a better prognosis can thus be made. The purpose of this study was to find a possible correlation between pattern of uterine contraction and progression of labor. During this study, 120 women referred for delivery to an educational hospital's maternity ward in the North of Iran in 2010 were included. Uterine contractions of mothers were recorded in dilatation of 4 to7 cm for an hour. In this way, F/R ratio which means the time that a contraction needs to return from its peak to baseline (Fall) divided to the time for a contraction to rise to its peak (Rise) was calculated. All of the participants were followed until delivery, vaginal delivery or caesarean section. Mean and standard deviation of fall to raise ratio was 1.54±0.26 in mothers with vaginal delivery versus 1.74±0.21 for others underwent caesarean section (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.005- 0.42, P < 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values (positive and negative) of mentioned ratio were 68.32%, 70.01%, 69.55%, and 68.91%, respectively. By considering acceptable predictive value of uterine contractions' pattern in the active phase of labor, it could help to timely diagnosis of failure to progress and consequently suitable intervention which probably maintain better health of both mother and fetus.
    Preview · Article · May 2014 · Global journal of health science
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    • "Bailit et al. [8] found that the frequency of emergency caesarian section was twice that of women admitted to delivery wards in early labour compared to women who sought care in the active phase of labour. Moreover, the risk for an abnormal birth outcome in relation to early admission is particularly high if the woman is also expecting her first child [9,11,12]. The reason for this deviation from the normal birthing process is still not clear. "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research has reported that women who are admitted to delivery wards in early labour process before an active stage of labour has started run an increased risk of instrumental deliveries. Therefore, it is essential to focus on factors such as self-efficacy that can enhance a woman's own ability to cope with the first stage of labour. However, there was no Swedish instrument measuring childbirth self-efficacy available. Thus, the aim of the study was to translate the Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory and to psychometrically test the Swedish version on first- time mothers within the Swedish culture. The method included a forward-backward translation with face and content validity. The psychometric properties were evaluated using a Principal Component Analysis and by using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and inter-item correlations. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were used to describe and compare the scales. All data were collected from January 2011 to June 2012, from 406 pregnant women during the gestational week 35-42. The Swedish version of the Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory indicated good reliability and the Principal Component Analysis showed a three-component structure. The Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test indicated that the women could differentiate between the concepts outcome expectancy and self-efficacy expectatancy and between the two labour stages, active stage and the second stage of labour. The Swedish version of Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory is a reliable and valid instrument. The inventory can act as a tool to identify those women who need extra support and to evaluate the efforts of improving women's self-efficacy during pregnancy.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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