it is not possible to make a direct comparison with the
clinical situation where both dopamine receptor agonists
and domperidone are administered chronically using
dosage regimens different from that employed in the
ERS is an Institute of Neuroscience, University of
1 Parkinson Study Group. Safety and efficacy of pramipexole in
early Parkinson disease: a randomized dose-ranging study.
JAMA 1997; 278: 125–30.
2 Parkinson Study Group. Pramipexole vs. levodopa as initial
treatment for Parkinson disease: a randomized controlled trial.
JAMA 2000; 284: 1931–8.
3 Piercey MF. Pharmacology of pramipexole, a dopamine
D3-preferring agonist useful in treating Parkinson’s disease.
Clin Neuropharmacol 1998; 21: 141–51.
4 Reichmann H, Brecht MH, Köster J, Kraus PH, Lemke MR.
Pramipexole in routine clinical practice: a prospective
observational trial in Parkinson’s disease. CNS Drugs 2003; 17:
5 Dooley M, Markham A. Pramipexole. A review of its use in the
management of early and advanced Parkinson’s disease. Drugs
Aging 1998; 12: 495–514.
6 Hauser RA, Gauger L, McDowell Anderson W, Zesiewicz TA.
Pramipexole-induced somnolence and episodes of daytime
sleep. Mov Disord 2000; 15: 658–63.
7 O’Suilleabhain PE, Dewey RB. Contributions of dopaminergic
drugs and disease severity to daytime sleepiness in Parkinson’s
disease. Arch Neurol 2002; 59: 986–9.
8 Etminan M, Gill S, Samii A. Comparison of the risk of adverse
effects with pramipexole and ropinirole in patients with
Parkinson’s disease: a meta-analysis. Drug Saf 2003; 26:
9 Samuels ER, Hou RH, Langley RW, Szabadi E, Bradshaw CM.
Comparison of pramipexole and modafinil on arousal,
autonomic, and endocrine functions in healthy volunteers.
J Psychopharmacol 2006; 20: 756–70.
10 Samuels ER, Hou RH, Langley RW, Szabadi E, Bradshaw CM.
Comparison of amisulpride and pramipexole on alertness,
autonomic and endocrine functions in healthy volunteers.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 2006; 187: 498–510.
11 Wermuth L, The Danish Pramipexole Study Group.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, multi-center
study of pramipexole in advanced Parkinson’s disease. Eur J
Neurol 1998; 5: 235–42.
12 Weiner WJ, Factor SA, Jankovic J, Hauser RA, Tetrud JW, Waters
CH, Shulman LM, Glassman PM, Beck B, Paume D, Doyle C.
The long-term safety and efficacy of pramipexole in advanced
Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2001; 7:
13 Pogarell O, Gasser T, van Hilten JJ, Spieker S, Pollentier S,
Meier D, Oertel WH. Pramipexole in patients with Parkinson’s
disease and marked drug resistant tremor: a randomised,
double blind, placebo controlled multicentre study. J Neurol
Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002; 72: 713–20.
14 Silber MH, Girish M, Izurieta R. Pramipexole in the management
of restless legs syndrome: an extended study. Sleep 2003; 26:
15 Obering CD, Chen JJ, Swope DM. Update on apomorphine for
the rapid treatment of hypomobility (‘off’) episodes in
Parkinson’s disease. Pharmacotherapy 2006; 26: 840–52.
16 Tan EK, Ratnagopal P, Han SY, Wong MC. Piribedil and
bromocriptine in Parkinson’s disease: a single-blind crossover
study. Acta Neurol Scand 2003; 107: 202–6.
17 Kuzel MD. Ropinirole. a dopamine agonist for the treatment of
Parkinson’s disease. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 1999; 56:
18 Champion MC, Hartnett M, Yen M. Domperidone, a new
dopamine antagonist. CMAJ 1986; 135: 457–61.
19 Barone JA. Domperidone: a peripherally acting
dopamine2-receptor antagonist. Ann Pharmacother 1999; 33:
20 Dollery C. Therapeutic Drugs, 2nd edn. Edinburgh: Churchill
Livingstone, 1999, D196-D199.
21 Kompoliti K, Wang QE, Goetz CG, Leurgans S, Raman R. Effects
of central dopaminergic stimulation by apomorphine on speech
in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 2000; 54: 458–62.
22 Quinn N, Illas A, Lhermitte F, Agid Y. Bromocriptine and
domperidone in the treatment of Parkinson disease. Neurology
1981; 31: 662–7.
23 Capria A, Attanasio A, Quatrana M, Cannata D, Fioravanti M,
Stocchi F, Ruggieri S. Cardiovascular effects of lisuride
continuous intravenous infusion in fluctuating Parkinson’s
disease. Clin Neuropharmacol 1989; 12: 331–8.
24 Jansen PA, Herings RM, Samson MM, De Vreede PL,
Schuurmans-Daemen LM, Hovestadt A, Verhaar HJ, Van Laar T.
Quick titration of pergolide in cotreatment with domperidone is
safe and effective. Clin Neuropharmacol 2001; 24: 177–80.
25 Jenner P. Parkinson’s disease. pathological mechanisms and
actions of piribedil. J Neurol 1992; 239(Suppl 1): S2–S8.
26 Navan P, Findley LJ, Jeffs JAR, Pearce RKB, Bain PG.
Double-blind, single-dose, cross-over study of the effects of
pramipexole, pergolide, and placebo on rest tremor and UPDRS
part III in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2003; 18: 176–80.
27 Wright CE, Lasher Sisson T, Ichhpurani AK, Peters GR.
Steady-state pharmacokinetic properties of pramipexole in
healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 37: 520–5.
28 Huang YC, Colaizzi JL, Bierman RH, Woestenborghs R,
Heykants JJ. Pharmacokinetics and dose proportionality of
domperidone in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol 1986; 26:
29 Bond AJ, Lader MH. The use of analogue scales in rating
subjective feelings. Br J Med Psychol 1974; 47: 211–8.
30 Smith JM, Misiak H. Critical flicker frequency (CFF) and
Comparison of pramipexole and domperidone
Br J Clin Pharmacol 64:5 601