Replication and protection of telomeres. Nature

The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037-1099, USA.
Nature (Impact Factor: 41.46). 07/2007; 447(7147):924-31. DOI: 10.1038/nature05976
Source: PubMed


During the evolution of linear genomes, it became essential to protect the natural chromosome ends to prevent triggering of the DNA-damage repair machinery and enzymatic attack. Telomeres - tightly regulated complexes consisting of repetitive G-rich DNA and specialized proteins - accomplish this task. Telomeres not only conceal linear chromosome ends from detection and inappropriate repair but also provide a buffer to counteract replication-associated shortening. Lessons from many model organisms have taught us about the complications of maintaining these specialized structures. Here, we discuss how telomeres interact and cooperate with the DNA replication and DNA-damage repair machineries.

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Available from: Ramiro E Verdún, Mar 03, 2014
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    • "It is now well known that telomere-dependent senescence is induced by a change in the protected status of shortened telomeres, whereby the loss of telomere DNA contributes to this change [16]. The loss of telomere protection or any other cause of telomere dysfunction results in inappropriate chromosomal end-to-end fusions through non-homologous end joining or homologous recombination DNA repair pathways [17]. These DNA repair pathways are used principally to repair double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). "

    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2015
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    • ". Human telomeres. Top: Shelterin proteins, including TRF1, TRF2, TIN2, RAP1, TPP1, and POT1, interact with many proteins involved in cell cycle progression and DNA repair [14]. The telomerase complex is regulated by shelterin proteins and DNA structures at telomeres, such as T-loop and G-quadruplexes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Telomeres play important roles in maintaining the stability of linear chromosomes. Telomere maintenance involves dynamic actions of multiple proteins interacting with long repetitive sequences and complex dynamic DNA structures, such as G-quadruplexes, T-loops and t-circles. Given the heterogeneity and complexity of telomeres, single-molecule approaches are essential to fully understand the structure–function relationships that govern telomere maintenance. In this review, we present a brief overview of the principles of single-molecule imaging and manipulation techniques. We then highlight results obtained from applying these single-molecule techniques for studying structure, dynamics and functions of G-quadruplexes, telomerase, and shelterin proteins.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · DNA repair
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