Claudin-1 and claudin-5 expression patterns differentiate lung squamous cell carcinomas from adenocarcinomas. Mod Patho Off J U S Can Acad Pathol Inc

Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
Modern Pathology (Impact Factor: 6.19). 10/2007; 20(9):947-54. DOI: 10.1038/modpathol.3800835
Source: PubMed


We investigated the expression of tight junction proteins in human lung squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found a statistically significant correlation between diagnosis and positivity of tumors with either claudin (CLDN)-1 or CLDN-5. Squamous cell carcinomas and basal cells of bronchial epithelium were positive for CLDN-1 and negative for CLDN-5, whereas adenocarcinomas, normal cylindrical cells and pneumocytes were positive for CLDN-5 and negative for CLDN-1, suggesting different pathways in tumor development and progression. CLDN-4 and ZO-1 staining were detected in both types of tumors, whereas cingulin (CGN) was not detected in squamous cell carcinomas. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to evaluate changes in transcript levels for a large panel of tight junction proteins. In squamous cell carcinomas, we observed statistically significant decreases in the mRNA levels of JAM-1, occludin, CLDN-3, CLDN-4, CLDN-7, CGN, ZO-2 and ZO-3, and an increase in CLDN-1 mRNA. In adenocarcinomas, when transcript levels were compared with bronchial cells, we observed statistically significant decreases in the mRNA levels of CLDN-1, CLDN-3, CLDN-4, CLDN-7, ZO-2 and ZO-3. These results indicate that characterization of tight junction protein expression in human lung tumors can be an additional diagnostic tool and provide new insights on their histogenesis.

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    • "Previous studies have revealed the differential expression of Claudins in human cancers [32]. Although high levels of Claudin-5 have been reported in ovarian [6], prostate [42] and lung cancers [5] and low levels in hepatocellular carcinoma [43], this is the first study to our knowledge to report levels of Claudin-5 in patients with breast cancer. We have shown for the first time that Claudin-5 is aberrantly expressed in human breast cancer and has a link to the clinical outcome of the patient. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown dysregulation in TJ structure of several cancers including breast. Claudin-5 is a protein member of the TJ structure expressed in both endothelial and epithelial cells. This study examined the level of expression and distribution of Claudin-5 in human breast cancer tissues and the effect of knockdown and forced expression of Claudin-5 in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative-PCR were used to analyse patient tissue samples. The Claudin-5 gene was cloned and overexpressed or knocked down using ribozyme technology in human breast cancer cells. Changes in function were assessed using in vitro assays for invasion, growth, adhesion, wounding, motility, transepithelial resistance and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. Changes in cell behaviour were achieved through the use of Hepatocyte Growth factor (HGF) which we have shown to affect TJ function and expression of TJ proteins. In addition, an in vivo model was used for tumour growth assays. Results data was analyzed using a Students two sample t-test and by Two-way Anova test when the data was found to be normalized and have equal variances. In all cases 95% confidence intervals were used. Patients whose tumours expressed high levels of Claudin-5 had shorter survival than those with low levels (p = 0.004). Investigating in vitro the effect of altering levels of expression of Claudin-5 in MDA-MB-231cells revealed that the insertion of Claudin-5 gene resulted in significantly more motile cells (p < 0.005). Low levels of Claudin-5 resulted in a decrease in adhesion to matrix (p < 0.001). Furthermore, a possible link between Claudin-5 and N-WASP, and Claudin-5 and ROCK was demonstrated when interactions between these proteins were seen in the cells. Moreover, followed by treatment of N-WASP inhibitor (Wiskostatin) and ROCK inhibitor (Y-27632) cell motility was assessed in response to the inhibitors. Results showed that the knockdown of Claudin-5 in MDA-MB-231 masked their response after treatment with N-WASP inhibitor; however treatment with ROCK inhibitor did not reveal any differences in motility in this cell line. This study portrays a very new and interesting role for Claudin-5 in cell motility involving the N-WASP signalling cascade indicating a possible role for Claudin-5 in the metastasis of human breast cancer.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research
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    • "In an immunohistochemical study of lung tumors occludin was present in adenocarcinomas but it was not present in squamous cell carcinomas , small or large cell carcinomas [37]. Another study on mRNA expression of occludin indicated an increased mRNA expression in adenocarcinomas and a decreased expression of mRNA in squamous cell carcinomas compared to normal lung or bronchial tissue [30]. This discrepancy may be due to the fact that tight junctions are not formed in squamous cell carcinomas even though occludin mRNA is synthesized , alternatively immunohistochemistry might fail to detect trace concentrations of occludin in a narrowed tight junctional structure. "
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    ABSTRACT: Tight junctions are structures located in the apicobasal region of the cell membranes. They regulate paracellular solute and electrical permeability of cell layers. Additionally, they influence cellular polarity, form a paracellular fence to molecules and pathogens and divide the cell membranes to apical and lateral compartments. Tight junctions adhere to the corresponding ones of neighbouring cells and by this way also mediate attachment of the cells to one other. Molecules forming the membranous part of tight junctions include occludin, claudins, tricellulin and junctional adhesion molecules. These molecules are attached to scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1, ZO-2 and ZO-3 through which signals are mediated to the cell interior. Expression of tight junction proteins, such as claudins, may be up- or downregulated in cancer and they are involved in EMT thus influencing tumor spread. Like in tumors of other sites, lung tumors show changes in the expression in tight junction proteins. In this review the significance of tight junctions and its proteins in lung cancer is discussed with a focus on the proteins forming the membranous part of these structures.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
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    • "Certain CLDNs show decreased expression (Miyamoto et al. 2008; Chao et al. 2009), whereas others are overexpressed (Lodi et al. 2006; Sobel et al. 2006; Lanigan et al. 2009). Data on the CLDN expression profile in different premalignant and malignant alterations suggest that CLDNs might serve as diagnostic and prognostic markers (Paschoud et al. 2007; Lechpammer et al. 2008; Szabo et al. 2009). Furthermore, they might be targets or dockers for future therapy (Saeki et al. 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Updated classification of urothelial cell cancer differentiates low-grade and high-grade cancers, which determines potential clinical outcome. Substantial interobserver variability necessitates new biomarkers to ensure classification. Claudins' specific expression pattern characterizes normal tissues, different tumor types, and defined grades of tumor differentiation. The aim of this study was to examine the expression pattern of claudins and proliferation marker Ki-67 in low-grade and high-grade urothelial cell cancers compared with independent control samples of non-tumorous urothelium, as well as to reveal the predictive usefulness of claudins. The expression of claudins-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -7, and -10 and Ki-67 was studied with quantitative immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR with relative quantification in 103 samples: 86 urothelial cell cancers (27 low grade, 59 high grade) and 17 non-tumorous urothelia. Results were analyzed regarding overall survival and recurrence-free period as well. High-grade tumors overall showed significantly higher claudin-4 and Ki-67 and significantly lower claudin-7 expression when compared with low-grade ones. High-grade tumors revealed significantly shorter overall survival in Kaplan-Meier analysis. Claudin-4, claudin-7, and Ki-67 might be used as potential markers to differentiate low-grade and high-grade urothelial cell cancers, thereby possibly enhancing accuracy of pathological diagnosis and adding further information to clinical outcome.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
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