Depression and Social Support among HIV-Affected Adolescents

Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024, USA.
AIDS PATIENT CARE and STDs (Impact Factor: 3.5). 07/2007; 21(6):409-17. DOI: 10.1089/apc.2006.0066
Source: PubMed


Adolescents of parents infected with HIV/AIDS (HIV-affected adolescents) were recruited from August 1993 to March 1995 to examine their depression as a function of their social support. Adolescent depression and the size, frequency of contact, satisfaction, negative role model influence, and positive social support were examined. Adolescent depression was associated with higher parent depression score, parental HIV disclosure, conduct problems, and was inversely related to higher self-esteem, being male, and a positive living situation. Negative social support was significantly associated with higher adolescent depression, indicating negative role model influence may be more salient than size, frequency of contact, perception, or positive social support. The findings underscore the complex relationships between social support and mental/behavioral outcomes among HIV-affected adolescents as well as the need to examine HIV disclosure in more detail within the context of adolescent social support.

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    • "sion ( Pilowsky , Zybert , Hsieh , Vlahov , & Susser , 2003 ) . Previous studies have also documented that children living in HIV - affected families had low self - esteem ( Lee et al . , 2002 , 2007 ) , high level of stress ( Joseph & Bhatti , 2004 ; Murphy , Marelich , Armistead , Herbeck , & Payne , 2010 ) , and increased delinquent behaviors ( Lee et al . , 2007 ) . There are numerous potential mechanisms by which parental HIV infection may be associated with children ' s psychosocial adjustment difficulties . In comparison , PLHs had more persistent distress and emotional difficulties ( Kagee & Martin , 2010 ; Tsao , Dobalian , Moreau , & Dobalian , 2004 ) . Therefore , it might become more ch"
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The current study aims to explore the association of parents living with HIV (PLHs) and their children's self-esteem, everyday stress, and delinquent behaviors. DESIGN: The study samples included 79 families with 79 PLHs and 79 children. METHODS: Multiple regression analysis was used on baseline data collected in 2009 from a pilot study in Anhui Province, China. RESULTS: The results indicated that children from a family with both parents infected with HIV or children from families having multiple children were more likely to report a higher level of everyday stress. Male PLHs have significant influence on their children's everyday stress compared with female PLHs. Children reporting a lower level of parental care and lower self-esteem were significantly more likely to report a higher level of delinquent behaviors. In addition, we have found a strong positive correlation between families with multiple children and their children's delinquent behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that the severity of psychological and behavioral problems of children living in different HIV-affected families may be dependent not only on factors related to the children but also on factors related to their parents and families. Therefore, parental and family level factors should be considered when providing care and support to children living in HIV-affected families.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies
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    • "The link between perceived social support and reduced symptoms of depression has been well established in people with various chronic illnesses9,10 and in HIV-positive persons.11,12 However, little is known of the effect of functional social support on the association between STI and depression among young women. "
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with a self-reported history of sexually transmitted infection (STI) are at high risk for depression. However, little is known about how social support affects the association between STI and depression among young women in Canada. Data were drawn from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), conducted in 2005. A total of 2636 women aged 15-24 years who provided information on STI history were included in the analysis. Depression was measured by a depression scale based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short-Form (CIDI-SF). The 19-item Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Social Support Survey assessed functional social support. A log-binomial model was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) for self-reported STI history associated with depression and to assess the impact of social support on the association. The adjusted PR for self-reported STI history associated with depression was 1.61 (95% CI, 1.03 to 2.37), before social support was included in the model. The association between STI history and depression was no longer significant when social support was included in the model (adjusted PR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.84). The adjusted PRs for depression among those with low and intermediate levels of social support versus those with a high level of social support were 5.62 (95% CI, 3.50 to 9.56) and 2.19 (1.38 to 3.68), respectively. Social support is an important determinant of depression and reduces the impact of self-reported STI on depression among young women in Canada.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Journal of Epidemiology
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