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Phytosterol, Squalene, Tocopherol Content and Fatty Acid Profile of Selected Seeds, Grains, and Legumes


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The unsaponifiable lipid fraction of plant-based foods is a potential source of bioactive components such as phytosterols, squalene, and tocopherols. The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of phytosterols, and squalene, as well as tocopherols (alpha and beta + gamma) in selected grains, seeds, and legumes. The method comprised acid hydrolysis and lipid extraction followed by alkaline saponification, prior to analysis by HPLC. In addition, the fatty acid profile of the foods was determined via total lipid extraction, fatty acid derivitisation and GC analysis. In general, beta-sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 24.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin seed to 191.4 mg/100 g in peas. Squalene identified in all foods examined in this study, was particularly abundant in pumpkin seed (89.0 mg/100 g). The sum of alpha- and beta+ gamma-tocopherols ranged from 0.1 mg/100 g in rye to 15.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin seeds. Total oil content ranged from 0.9% (w/w) in butter beans to 42.3% (w/w) in pumpkin seed and the type of fat, in all foods examined, was predominantly unsaturated. In conclusion, seeds, grains, and legumes are a rich natural source of phytosterols. Additionally, they contain noticeable amounts of squalene and tocopherols, and in general, their fatty acid profile is favorable.
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Phytosterol, Squalene, Tocopherol Content and Fatty Acid
Profile of Selected Seeds, Grains, and Legumes
E. Ryan & K. Galvin & T. P. OConnor & A. R. Maguire &
N. M. OBrien
Published online: 27 June 2007
Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007
Abstract The unsaponifiable lipid fraction of plant-based
foods is a potential source of bioactive components such as
phytosterols, squalene, and tocopherols. The objective of
the present study was to determine the levels of phytoster-
ols, and squalene, as well as tocopherols (α and β + γ)in
selected grains, seeds, and legumes. The met hod comprised
acid hydrolysis and lipid extraction followed by alkaline
saponification, prior to analysis by HPL C. In addition, the
fatty acid profile of the foods was determined via total lipid
extraction, fatty acid derivitisation and GC analysis. In
general, β-sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol,
ranging in concentration from 24.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin
seed to 191.4 mg/100 g in peas. Squalene identified in all
foods examined in this study, was particularly abundant in
pumpkin seed (89.0 mg/100 g). The sum of α- and β+ γ-
tocopherols ranged from 0.1 mg/100 g in rye to 15.9 mg/
100 g in pumpkin seeds. Total oil content ranged from 0.9%
(w/w) in butter beans to 42.3% (w/w) in pumpkin seed and
the type of fat, in all foods examined, was predominantly
unsaturated. In conclusion, seeds, grains, and legumes are a
rich natural source of phytosterols. Additionally, they
contain noticeable amounts of squalene and tocopherols,
and in general, their fatty acid profile is favorable.
Keywords Phytosterols
CHD coronary heart disease
FAME fatty acid methyl esters
GC gas chrom atography
HPLC high performance liquid chromatography
LDL low-density lipoprotein
MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids
ND not detected
NMK nitrosaminoketone
PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids
SCE sister chromatid exchange
SFA saturated fatty acids
Tr trace
Phytosterols, squalene, and tocopherols are components
present in the unsaponifiable lipid fraction of foods.
Phytosterols, primarily β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stig-
masterol are integral natural components of plant cell
membranes that are abundant in vegetable oils, nuts, seeds,
and grains, [1] and added components in enriched margarines
[2]. Whilst phytosterols are proposed to have a wide
spectrum of biological effects including anti-inflammatory,
anti-oxidative, and anticarcinogenic activities [3, 4], their
cholesterol-lowering capacity has been the most extensively
researched. Several studies have shown that plant sterols
inhibit the intestinal absorption of cholesterol, thereby
lowering total plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein
(LDL) levels [3].
Squalene, a 30 carbon isoprenoid, is a key intermediate
in cholesterol biosynthesis and is abundant in shark liver oil
(Squaluss spp.) and olive oil. Several studies have indicated
Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2007) 62:8591
DOI 10.1007/s11130-007-0046-8
E. Ryan
K. Galvin
T. P. OConnor
N. M. OBrien (*)
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College,
Cork, Ireland
A. R. Maguire
Department of Chemistry and School of Pharmacy,
Analytical and Biological Chemistry Research Facility,
University College,
Cork, Ireland
that squalene is an important dietary cancer chemopreven-
tive agent [5]. More recently, squalene has been shown to
act as an antidote to reduce accidental drug-induced toxicities
[6, 7]. The protective effect of squalene may be attributed to
its ability to serve as an antioxidant. It has been demonstrat-
ed to be a potent quencher of singlet oxygen [8] and protects
against H
-induced sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in
Chinese hamster V79 cells [9].
Tocopherols, the major vitamers of vitamin E, are fat-
soluble antioxidants that function as scavengers of lipid
peroxyl radicals. Knekt et al. [10] and Kushi et al. [11]
demonstrated that the tocopherol content in food is
inversely associated with mortality from cardiovascular
disease. In addition, tocopherols, due to their capacity to
quench free radical damage, play a putative role in
prevention of Alzheimers disease and cancer [12].
In the past few years the beneficial health effects attributed
to both phytosterols and tocopherols and to a lesser extent
squalene have prompted interest in quantifying these com-
pounds in different foods. Current food databases contain
limited or dated compositional data with respect to these
components. Therefore, the present study attempted to
determine the composition of plant foods with respect to
phytosterol, tocopherol, and squalene content. Additionally,
current dietary guidelines emphasize a diet rich in plant foods
including whole grains, seeds, and legumes. Total lipid and
fatty acid profile of these foods was also analysed in this study.
Materials and Methods
Five types of seed; Linum usitatissimum (linseed), Brassica
nigra (mustard), Papaver sonniferum (poppy), Cucurbita
spp. (pumpkin), and Sesamum indicum (sesame) seeds,
seven types of grain; Hordeum vulgare (barley), Fagopyrum
esculentum (buckwheat), Zea mays (maize), Pennisetum
americanum (millet), Che nopodium quinoa (quinoa),
Secale cereale (rye), and Triticum spelta (spelt), and five
types of legumes; Phaseol us lunatus (butter beans), Cicer
arietinum (chick peas), Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney beans),
Lens culinaris (lentils), and Pisum sativum (peas-marrow-
fat) were analysed in this study. The items were bought
from a local health food store in Cork, Ireland. Solvents
[high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) grade]
were obtai ned from JT Baker (London, UK).
Acid Hydr olysis for Sterol, Tocopherol and Squalene
Samples were finely ground (1.0 mm mesh size) using a
Moulinex Optiblend 2000 and 1 g of each sample was
weighed into a 25×150 mm Pyrex culture tube with Teflon-
lined screw cap. Samples were spiked with 2.5 ml internal
standard (50 μg 6-ketocholesterol dissolved in 2.5 ml
ethanol). Samples were hydrolysed under acidic conditions
by a modification of a procedure previously described by
Toivo et al. [13]. Briefly, 1 ml of absolute ethanol and 5 ml
of 6 M HCl were added to each tube and samples were
shaken vigorously. Tubes were then kept at 80°C for 1 h in
a water bath, during which tubes were shaken every
10 min. The tubes were then cooled on ice and 5 ml
ethanol, 10 ml hexane/diethyl-ether (1:1, v/v) were added to
each sample. Tubes were vortexed for 1 min and then
centrifuged at 1,000 rpm for 10 min. The upper solvent
layer was removed and the extraction repeated with a
further 10 ml hexane/diethyl-ether. The combined extracts
were dried under nitrogen and stored in a refrigerator until
Saponification for Sterol, Tocopherol and Squalene
Samples were s aponified by a procedure previously
described by Maguire et al. [
14]. Briefly, the dried extract
was mixed thoroughly with 300 μl of 50% KOH (w/v) and
2 ml of 1% ethanolic pyrogallol (w/v) in screw-top tubes
fitted with Teflon-lined screw-caps. The tubes were kept for
30 min at 70°C in a water bath. The tubes were cooled on
ice and 1 ml water and 4 ml hexane were added. The tubes
were shaken vigorously and then centrifuged at 2,000 rpm
for 10 min. The hexane layer was removed and the
extraction repeated with a further 2 ml hexane. The
combined extracts were dried under nitrogen. The extract
was redissolved in 200 μl ethanol, transferred to a plastic
insert in a HPLC vial and stored at 20°C until further
analysis by HPLC.
Analysis of Phytosterols, Squalene and Tocopherols
The HPLC syst em consisted of a Waters 510 pump and a
Waters 717 plus autosampler (Waters Corporation, Milford,
Massachusetts, USA). For phytosterol analyses , 20 μl
sample was injected onto a Luna C8 (2) column (250×
4.6 mm i.d.; Phenomenex, Cheshire, UK). Detection was
done by a Waters 995 photodiode array detector. The
mobile phase was 80% acetonitrile and 20% water at a
flow rate of 1.6 ml/min. Column temperature was main-
tained at 50°C. The HPLC system used for squalene and
tocopherol analysis was the same, except the column used
was a Supelcosil LC-18-DB (250×4.6 mm i.d.; Supelco,
Bellefonte, Pennsylvania, USA). The mobile phase was
99% methanol and 1% water at a flow rate of 1.2 ml/mi n.
Column temperature was maintained at 25°C. Peak areas
86 Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2007) 62:8591
were recorded using Millennium 32 Chromatography Man-
ager software (Waters Corporation, Milford, Massachusetts,
USA). For phytosterol, squalene and tocopherol analysis,
chromatograms wer e measured at 205, 215 and 292 nm,
respectively. Concerning tocopherol analysis, reverse phase
chromatography does not distinguish between the β and γ-
isomers of tocopherol, thus the sum of these isomers is
shown throughout as β + γ-tocopherol.
Lipid Extraction for the Determination of % Oi l
and Fatty Acid Profile
Samples (2 g) were finely ground (1.0 mm mesh size) using
a Moulinex Optiblend 2000. The oil from the finely ground
samples was extracted by a modification of a procedure
previously described [15]. Briefly, oil was extracted with
6 ml hexane/isopropanol (3:2, v/v) at room temperature
under vigorous stirring for 1 h in glass beakers to facilitate
homogenisation of the food. The food preparations were
filtered through a vacuum, the residues were washed twice
with 4 ml hexane/isop ropanol solvent. Thereafter, 7 ml of
6.7% sodium sulphate (w/v) were added and the samples
were vortexed for 30 s and centrifuged at 2,000 rpm for
10 min. The solvent layer was removed, dried under
nitrogen and the pure oil was weighed to calculate the
percentage yield.
Preparation of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters
Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were prepared from
extracted oil by the method of Slover and Lanza [16].
Briefly, approximately 40 mg extracted oil were treated
with 1 ml methanolic NaOH at 100°C for 15 min in 25×
150 mm Pyrex culture tube with Teflon-lined screw cap.
The tubes were cooled on ice, 2 ml boron trifluoride were
added and the tubes were boiled for a further 15 min. The
tubes were cooled on ice, then 1 ml isooctane and 2 ml
saturated sodium chloride were added, shaken vigorously
and left to stand to allow the layers to separate. The upper
hexane layer containing the FAME was transferred to a
small tube and stored at 20°C until further analysis by gas
chromatography (GC).
FAME Analysis by GC
For FAME analysis, a DB-WAX capillary column (30 m×
0.32 mm i.d.; J and W Scientific, Folsom, California, USA)
was used. The column was connected to a Shimadzu GC-
14A (Kyoto, Japan) gas chromatograph equipped with a
flame-ionization detector. Nitrogen was used as the carrier
gas. The temperature programme was as follows: initial
temperature 50°C; increase to 200°C at 10°C/min, hold for
25 min; and increase to 230°C at 10°C/min, hold for
20 min. Injector and detector temperatures were 250°C.
Chromatograms were recorded using Millennium 32 chro-
matography manager software (Waters Corporation, Milford,
Massachusetts, USA).
Results and Discussion
In the last decade, few functional food ingredients have
created more interest than phytosterols. When consumed in
enriched products, these bioactive plant components have
been shown to significantly reduce LDL cholesterol [3].
Whereas most clinical studies have involved relatively high
doses of phytosterols (27 g/day) using enriched foods,
research by Ostlun d et al. [17] and Andersson et al. [18] has
suggested that much lower levels of phytosterols, such as
those that occur naturally in diets rich in plant foods, may
be effective i n reducing cholesterol absorption. More
research is needed to clarify this association. For this task,
reliable food composition data is warranted. Some data
exist on phytosterol content in nuts and seeds [19],
vegetables, fruits, and berries [20], and cereals [21].
However, data on certain foods are limited or dated. For
instance, the only existing data on phytosterol content in
legumes are those reported by Weihrauch and Gardner [1].
In the present study the phytosterol contents of various
seeds, grains, and legumes were analysed. Both free sterols
and sterols bound to conjugates (esters and glycosides),
were measured via a combination of both acid and alkaline
hydrolysis. The levels of phytosterols (β-sitosterol, cam-
pesterol, and stigmasterols) in seeds ranged from 33.3 mg/
100 g (pumpkin seed) to 202 mg/100 g (sesame seed) with
β-sitosterol been the most abundant. Pumpkin seed was
unusual, insofar as the β-sitosterol content was quite low
(24.9 mg/100 g). Similarly, Philips et al. [19] indicate that
pumpkin seed kernel contains 13.1 mg/100 g β-sitosterol.
In addition, the latter study noted that whilst β-sitosterol is
the predominant sterol in virtually all plant foods, pumpkin
seed was found to contain 241 mg/100 g (>90%) of other
sterols (identified as any peak in the gas chromatography-
flame ionization detection (GC-FID) chromatograms that
had a retention time in the sterol region). Phytosterol
content in grains ranged from 43.6 mg/100 g (maize) to
106.5 mg/100 g (buckwheat). Normen et al. [21] reported
similar levels for millet, maize, rye, and buckwheat. Again
β-sitosterol was found to be the main sterol. Whilst cereals
generally contain lesser amounts of phytos terols than seeds
or legumes, nonetheless, they represent a very important
dietary source of phytosterols. In three European studies,
cereals and cereal products have been found to be the main
contributors to phytosterol intake [2224]. Total phytoster-
ol content detected in the legumes ranged from 134 mg/
100 g (kidney beans) to 242 mg/100 g (peas). Whilst
Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2007) 62:8591 87
Weihrauch and Gardner [1] reported similar phytosterol
levels for kidney beans at 127 mg/100 g, they reported a
much lower concentration of phytosterols for chick peas,
35 mg/100 g as opposed to 205 mg/100 g in the present
study. Butter beans and kidney beans contained high levels
of stigmasterol (86.2 mg/100 g an d 41.4 mg/100 g ,
respectively). In this regard, legumes seem to have a very
different phytosterol profile to other food groups, Table 1.
Squalene, a biosynthetic precursor to all steroids both in
plant and animal cells, also exists with phytosterols and
tocopherols in the unsaponifiable fraction of foods. There is
an obvious scarcity of data on squalene content in foods.
Squalene was identified in all foods employed in the
present study; levels were notably high in pumpkin seed
(89.0 mg/100 g) and quinoa (58.4 mg/100 g). Among plant
foods, amaranth, a pseudo cereal grain, contains relatively
high amoun ts of squalene, approximately 132 mg/100 g to
424 mg/100 g [25]. Research indicates that amaranth oil
may have significant benefit for patients with CHD, this
effect may be due, in part, to its high content of squalene
[26]. Another exceptionally rich source of squalene is olive
oil, which is reported to contain 2,000 to 7,000 μg/g oil
[27]. An inverse relationship between olive oil consumption
and cancer risk has been observed, and may, in part be due
to the presence of squalene. Experimental studies have
shown that squalene can inhibit chemically induced colon,
lung and skin tumorigenesis in rodents [5]. In addition,
several experimental studies demonstrated the detoxifying
activities of squalene against a wide range of chemicals
such as arsenic, hexachlorobenzene and phenobarbital.
Therefore, it is suggested that squalene may act as a sink for
highly lipophilic xenobiotics, assisting in their elimination
from the body [2830]. In addition, it is reported that
squalene exhibits protective activity against several carci-
nogens, including azoxymethane induced colon cancer [31]
and nicotine derived nitrosaminoketone (NMK) induced
lung carcinogenesis [32]. Whilst the squalene content of
the foods employed in the present study is lower than that of
the squalene content reported for amaranth grain and olive
oil, the abundance of plant foods in our diet suggest that they
represent a significant source of squalene.
Most plant-derived foods contain low to moderate levels
of vitamin E activity. However, owing to the abundance of
plant-derived foods in our diets, they provide a significant
and consistent source of vitamin E [33]. In the present
study, α- and β + γ-tocopherol content of the selected
foods was also measured. Pumpkin seeds were found to
have the greatest content of tocopherols (16 mg/100 g) with
β + γ-tocopherol being predominant over α-tocopherol.
Murkovic et al. [34] reported similar levels in pumpkin
seeds and γ-tocopherol was the primary vitamer identified.
Generally, tocopherol content was higher in seeds and
legumes than cer eals. Nonetheless, cereal grains are
considered to be a good source of tocopherols in the diet.
Piironen et al. [35]reportedthatupto30%ofthe
recommended dietary allowance of α-tocopherol equiva-
lents comes from cereal products in Finland whilst Wyatt et
al. [36] reported that corn tortillas contributed 17% of the
dietary intake of vitamin E in Mexican diets. In the present
study, the content of β + γ-tocopherol was greater than α-
tocopherol in most foods, with levels rangi ng from 0.1 mg/
100 g in rye to 14.8 mg/100 g in pumpkin seed. However,
peas contained greater amounts of α than β + γ-tocopherol
(10.4 mg/100 g and 5.7 mg/100 g, respectively) and chick
peas contained similar levels of α- and β + γ-tocopherol
(6.9 mg/100 g and 5.5 mg/100 g, respectively). Whilst α-
tocopherol may, in theory, be a more potent chain breaking
anti-oxidant, a preparation of mixed tocopherols has been
shown to have better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory
preliminary clinical studies [37], Table 2.
In order to maximize the content of phytosterols, squalene
and tocopherols in plant foods, it is important to consider
factors such as processing conditions, cultivar, growing
season and planting location [25, 3843]. In addition,
enhanced contents of these bioactive components may be
achieved through crop engineering [4446].
The total oil content of the foods analysed in the present
study ranged from 0.9 to 42.3% with pumpkin seed
yielding the greatest percentage of oil (Table 3). Butter
beans, barley and buckwheat were found to have the
Table 1 β-Sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol content (mg/100 g)
of selected seeds, grains, and legumes
Sample β-Sitosterol
(mg/100 g)
(mg/100 g)
(mg/100 g)
Linseed 57.4±2.4 19.0±0.7 21.8±0.8
Mustard 74.4±3.4 26.5±1.3 2.5±0.3
Poppy 58.3±1.0 9.8±0.4 5.7±0.6
Pumkin 24.9±1.4 ND 8.4±0.3
Sesame 139.0±7.4 22.3±1.3 41.5±2.1
Barley 38.1±1.0 12.0±1.0 0.3±0.1
Buckwheat 94.5±4.1 10.4±0.4 1.6±0.2
Maize 34.1±1.1 9.1±0.5 0.4±0.0
Millet 48.3±5.5 8.7±2.4 0.8±0.3
Quinoa 63.7±4.0 15.6±8.7 3.2±0.1
Rye 58.4±5.6 16.8±1.7 0.7±0.1
Spelt 53.3±2.7 15.1±3.4 0.4±0.0
Butter beans 85.1±7.3 15.2±2.9 86.2±5.7
Chick peas 159.8±7.1 21.4±0.7 23.4±0.7
Kidney beans 86.5±2.6 6.5±0.8 41.4±1.6
Lentils 123.4±4.1 15.0±0.4 20.0±0.6
Peas 191.4±0.4 25.0±6.9 26.0±0.6
Results are the mean value ± standard error of the mean for at least
three independent experiments
ND Not detected
88 Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2007) 62:8591
greatest % saturated fatty acids (28.7, 22.5 and 21.9%,
respectively). The levels of total unsaturated fatty acids
ranged from 71.4% in butter beans to 93.7% in mustard
seed. The major MUFA present in all foods was oleic acid
(C18:1) which was particula rly high in buckwheat and
sesame seed. Linoleic acid (C18:2) was the most abundant
polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) identified in most foods.
PUFA (n -6) ha ve n um erou s ben ef icia l effects on cardio-
vascular disease including improved blood lipid profile
[47], improved insulin sensitivity [48], lower incidence of
type 2 diabetes [49] and anti-arrhythmic effects [50].
Exceptionally, in linseed and kidney beans, the main
PUFA was the essential fatty acid, linolenic acid (n-3
PUFA). Prospective cohort studies and secondary inter-
vention trials have provided strong evidence that an
increasing intake of n-3 fatty acids from fish o r plant
sources s ubstantially lowers risk of cardiovascu lar morta l-
ity [ 51]. Certainly, whether it is n-3/n-6 PUFA, or MUFA,
there is strong evidence that replacing saturated with
unsaturated fat is far more effective in lowering risk of
CHD than simply reducing total fat consumption. Among
the foods a nalysed, mustard seed h ad a different fatty acid
profile, ins ofar as the fat was p rimar ily monounsaturated
due to its exceptionally high content of erucic acid
(C22:1). There is some s uggestion that erucic acid-rich
mustard may bear a cardiotoxic or pro-oxidant substrate
In conclusion, the present study indicates that seeds,
legumes, and cereal grains are good natural sources of
phytosterols. Additionally, they contain appreciable amounts
of squalene, α-andβ + γ-tocopherol, and generally, their
fatty acid profile is favorable from a cardio-protective
Table 2 Squalene, α-Tocopherol and β + γ-T ocopherol content (mg/100 g)
of selected seeds, grains, and legumes
Sample Squalene
(mg/100 g)
(mg/100 g)
β + γ-Tocopherol
(mg/100 g)
Linseed 1.0±0.04 0.1±0.02 8.2±0.41
Mustard 0.5±0.05 0.6±0.02 6.3±0.30
Poppy 0.6±0.01 0.2±0.02 4.7±0.13
Pumpkin 89.0±8.70 0.9±0.06 14.8±0.78
Sesame 0.6±0.04 Tr 10.0±0.26
Barley 0.2±0.08 1.5±0.06 0.1±0.01
Buckwheat 1.9±0.58 0.1±0.04 4.5±0.28
Maize 1.6±0.60 0.2±0.03 1.1±0.02
Millet 8.8±0.80 0.2±0.05 2.4± 0.20
Quinoa 58.4±0.69 2.1±0.22 3.1±0.07
Rye 0.3±0.05 Tr 0.1±0.01
Spelt 2.0±0.68 0.6±0.09 0.5±0.06
Butter beans 0.4±0.02 0.7±0.18 4.7±0.40
Chick peas 0.5±0.03 6.9±0.04 5.5±0.72
Kidney beans 0.7±0.05 1.2±0.16 2.6±0.13
Lentils 0.7±0.15 1.6±0.43 4.5±0.11
Peas 1.0±0.07 10.4±0.09 5.7±0.64
Results are the mean value ± standard error of the mean for at least
three independent experiments
Tr Trace amounts (<0.1 mg/100 g)
Table 3 Total oil content (g/100 g) and fatty acid composition (% of total) of various seeds, grains, and legumes
Sample Total oil Fatty acid
16:0 16:1 17:0 18:0 18:1 18:2 18:3 20:0 20:1 22:0 22:1 SFA MUFA PUFA
Linseed 29.3 6.59 0.08 1.25 4.11 23.99 19.90 43.27 0.39 0.23 0.19 ND 12.5 24.3 36.2
Mustard 15.2 4.15 0.11 ND 1.40 26.28 10.68 8.16 0.53 9.68 0.53 38.76 4.9 74.8 18.8
Poppy 39.5 12.20 0.27 0.76 2.30 22.19 59.87 1.30 0.67 0.16 ND 0.29 13.7 22.9 61.2
Pumpkin 42.3 14.00 0.16 0.11 6.93 35.80 40.70 0.34 1.43 0.21 0.17 0.26 22.7 36.4 41.0
Sesame 40.5 8.62 0.11 ND 5.43 39.09 40.39 0.69 1.77 3.77 0.12 0.29 15.9 43.3 41.1
Barley 1.3 20.45 0.07 ND 1.28 14.88 58.01 4.37 0.24 0.21 0.49 ND 22.5 15.2 62.4
Buckwheat 2.7 16.96 0.15 ND 2.00 40.91 34.43 1.76 0.83 0.12 2.08 0.73 21.9 41.9 36.2
Maize 1.6 12.48 0.26 0.11 1.96 29.26 52.99 1.62 0.57 0.50 0.20 ND 15.4 30.0 54.6
Millet 4.0 8.54 0.20 ND 1.37 23.16 64.40 1.06 0.57 0.36 0.35 ND 10.8 23.7 65.5
Quinoa 6.3 9.18 0.27 0.06 0.59 29.49 48.07 7.99 0.52 1.57 0.71 1.43 11.2 32.8 56.1
Rye 1.3 14.98 0.08 ND 0.79 17.36 58.71 6.80 0.61 0.49 ND 0.18 16.4 18.1 65.5
Spelt 2.0 15.30 0.15 ND 0.97 21.51 57.33 3.45 0.71 0.49 0.19 ND 17.2 22.2 60.8
Butter Bean 0.9 23.68 0.20 0.37 3.62 10.35 42.43 18.34 ND ND 0.30 ND 28.7 10.5 60.8
Chick Peas 5.0 10.87 0.23 0.06 1.85 33.51 49.74 2.41 0.60 0.39 0.21 Tr 13.7 34.2 52.1
Kidney Bean 1.2 14.20 0.16 0.22 1.30 11.97 26.04 45.69 0.24 ND 0.51 ND 16.5 12.1 71.7
Lentils 1.4 14.57 0.09 0.13 1.24 22.95 47.17 11.67 0.44 0.70 0.28 ND 16.7 23.7 58.8
Peas 1.5 10.65 0.07 0.19 3.11 28.15 47.59 9.29 0.22 0.21 ND ND 14.7 28.4 56.9
Results are the mean for at least three independent experiments
SFA Saturated fatty acids, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids, ND not detected, Tr trace amounts (<0.05)
Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2007) 62:8591 89
Acknowledgements This work has been supported by Enterprise
Ireland Basic Research Grant.
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Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2007) 62:8591 91
... Although legume or pulse crops are mostly cultivated to enhance protein content for human consumption and animal feed, it may be possible to improve lipid concentration through cross-breeding and genetic engineering to increase their value as enhanced bioproducts. Legume protein content ranges from 25-32% [1,2] and lipid content ranges between 0.9-46% [3,4]. ...
... In this study, saturated fatty acids ranged between 4.61-28.24%. The results are similar to published data [4,8]. ...
... Partial least squares (PLS) regression analyses were run for datasets that were preprocessed in the preceding section using UCal 4 TM Custom Calibration Software. The calibration model design relied on data previously obtained as reference values for lipid content in the scanned pea samples obtained by solvent extraction using hexane-isopropanol (3:2, v/v) in a modified version of a method described previously [4]. In the absence of an independent validation sample set due to the small sample size available for this study, a cross-validation method was used for validating the calibration model. ...
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Pisum sativum is a leguminous crop suitable for cultivation worldwide. It is used as a forage or dried seed supplement in animal feed and, more recently, as a potential non-traditional oilseed. This study aimed to develop a low-cost, rapid, and non-destructive method for analyzing pea lipids with no chemical modifications that would prove superior to existing destructive solvent extraction methods. Different pea accession seed samples, prepared as either small portions (0.5 mm2) of endosperm or ground pea seed powder for comparison, were subjected to HR-MAS NMR analyses and whole seed samples underwent NIR analyses. The total lipid content ranged between 0.57–3.45% and 1.3–2.6% with NMR and NIR, respectively. Compared to traditional extraction with butanol, hexane-isopropanol, and petroleum ether, correlation coefficients were 0.77 (R2 = 0.60), 0.56 (R2 = 0.47), and 0.78 (R2 = 0.62), respectively. Correlation coefficients for NMR compared to traditional extraction increased to 0.97 (R2 = 0.99) with appropriate correction factors. PLS regression analyses confirmed the application of this technology for rapid lipid content determination, with trends fitting models often close to an R2 of 0.95. A better robust NIR quantification model can be developed by increasing the number of samples with more diversity.
... This may be affected by both specific plant root exudates and soil type (Kremer et al., 1990) [15] . Food legumes account for an important share of food and feed, which are rich in proteins and provide a significant amount of fixed nitrogen useful for cereals, reducing production costs and limiting groundwater pollution by nitrates in fertilizers (Labdi, M. 1991& Ryan et al., 2007 [18,25] . Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is one of the important rabi pulse crop of India, which is cultivated in the different states. ...
... This may be affected by both specific plant root exudates and soil type (Kremer et al., 1990) [15] . Food legumes account for an important share of food and feed, which are rich in proteins and provide a significant amount of fixed nitrogen useful for cereals, reducing production costs and limiting groundwater pollution by nitrates in fertilizers (Labdi, M. 1991& Ryan et al., 2007 [18,25] . Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is one of the important rabi pulse crop of India, which is cultivated in the different states. ...
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Lentils are believed to have originated and been consumed since prehistoric times. They are one of the first crops to have been cultivated. Lentil seeds dating back 8,000 years have been found at archeological sites in the Middle East. In this study bacteria from root nodules of lentil (Lens culinaris L.) grown in different agroclimatic zones were isolated and their beneficial properties for plants were characterized. Five isolates were obtained from nodules and screened for some biochemical properties such as citrate utilization, amylase production, methyl red test, HCN production for antagonistic activity & phytohormone production such as IAA. Out of five isolates all the isolates showed ability to produce HCN, citrate & phytohormone IAA. Four out of five isolates exhibited positive test for starch hydrolysis & methyl red test.
... In unrefined mustard oil, the main compound was phytosterols like γ-sitosterol, campesterol, and ergosterol presenting up to 37%. Phytosterol makes edible oils healthier by improving metabolism, cholesterol solubilization, and decreasing the risk of heart disease [42]. Flavonoids such as quercetin, genistein, and anethole made up 22% of the secondary metabolites, and the alkaloid allyl-isothiocyanate was found to be 5%. ...
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Edible oils play a tremendous role in the human diet. The production and consumption of edible oils have extensively increased due to their nutritional and economic significance. As a result of exponential population growth, the demand for edible oil has prompted adulteration, which has become a global crisis. Adulteration causes a variation in the fatty acid profiles, unique to each oil. The addition of adulterants is associated with gallbladder cancer, epidemic dropsy, cardiovascular diseases, hypercholesterolemia, and several other life-threatening diseases. Hence, monitoring the purity of edible oils at regular intervals has become inevitable. This study is to evaluate the quality of edible oils such as sesame, groundnut, coconut, mustard, sunflower, soybean, and olive oils by screening their fatty acids and secondary metabolites composition using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and thereby identifying the adulterants in comparison between the unrefined and refined oils. The fatty acid profiles of the unrefined oils were found to be in accordance with the literature survey, whereas the commercially available refined oils were mainly adulterated with palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, and myristic acids. Contrastingly, numerous health-promoting secondary metabolites have been detected in unrefined oil samples. In conclusion, unrefined oils have nutritional values, and authenticity used for human consumption rather than refined edible oils.
... The hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio (HH), index of atherogenicity (IA), index of thrombogenicity (IT), PUFA/SFA ratio, and health-promoting index (HPI) of all Huhu grub developmental stages were similar. The ω6:ω3 ratio increased with the development of the Huhu grub, and the highest ratio was found in pupae compared to other conventional food sources, such as beef (1.7) and chickpea (20.5), with mealworm having the highest ratio (50) (Fig S3) (Daley et al., 2010;Lawal et al., 2021;Ryan et al., 2007). The HPI and PUFA: SFA ratios were found to be relatively low in Huhu grub development stages in the present study, ranging from 0.07 to 0.11 and 0.07-0.09, ...
The proximate composition, fatty acid profile, and lipid nutritional indices of the edible Huhu grub development stages (small, medium, large larvae, and pupae) of the New Zealand endemic beetle (Prionoplus reticularis), were investigated. Ash (1.5 - 3.2%, dry weight (DW)) and crude protein (26.2 – 30.5%, DW) contents were similar across the development stages. Lipid content was highest in pupae (58.4%, DW). Between 10 and 13 fatty acids were found in each of the four development stages. Palmitic acid (7.45 – 13.95 g/100 g DW), oleic acid (22.04 – 40.54 g/100 g DW), and linoleic acid (0.82 – 1.47 g/100 g DW) were the most abundant saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty (PUFA) acid, respectively. The PUFA/SFA ratio ranged from 0.07 to 0.09, while the ω6/ω3 ratio ranged between 16.23 and 29.54. The hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic acid ratio ranged from 2.89 to 3.15. The atherogenicity indices ranged between 0.32 and 0.37, the thrombogenicity index range was 1.63 – 1.99, and the health-promoting index range was 0.07 – 0.11. Overall, the results of this study indicate that Huhu grub larvae and pupae contain relatively high levels of lipids, but they differ in their fatty acid profile and lipid nutritional indices.
... In sesame, the variability of phytosterol contents was still not well understood. Ryan et al. [37] have tested one sesame variety and found that the content of β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol was 1.39, 0.223, and 0.415 mg/g, respectively. Liu et al. [38] have evaluated five sesame oil samples and found that they contained brassicasterol, β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol in the range of 0.0031-0.0044, ...
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Sesame is one of the most important oilseed crops grown worldwide. It provides diverse nutraceuticals—including lignans, unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), phytosterols, etc.—to humans. Among sesame’s nutraceuticals, phytosterols have received less attention from sesame breeders, although their biological and pharmacological functions have been recorded. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the variation of phytosterol contents in 402 sesame accessions grown in two environments and revealed their associated loci and candidate genes. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis unveiled that sesame mainly contains four phytosterols: campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, and Δ5-avenasterol. β-sitosterol (1.6–4.656 mg/g) was the major phytosterol, followed by campesterol (0–2.847 mg/g), stigmasterol (0.356–1.826 mg/g), and Δ5-avenasterol (0–1.307 mg/g). The total phytosterol content varied from 2.694 to 8.388 mg/g. Genome-wide association study identified 33 significant associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci for the four traits, of which Ch6-39270 and Ch11-142842 were environmentally stable and simultaneously linked with campesterol and stigmasterol content variation. Candidate genes screening indicated that SINPZ1100015 encoding a NAC domain-containing protein 43 is likely the major candidate effect gene of phytosterol variation in sesame. The results of this study extend knowledge of phytosterol variation in sesame and provide important resources for markers-assisted breeding of high-phytosterol content varieties.
Fabaceae is the third largest family in the plant world, mainly considered a source of relatively valuable plant protein and a rather poor source of oil. The present study shows that several legume species (Bauhinia purpurea, Phanera vahlii, Butea monosperma, Caesalpinia crista, Gliricidia sepium, Mimosa pudica, Millettia pinnata) can be also considered as an alternative source of oil. The oil yield in studied species (19–36%) was similar or even higher than in soybean (Glycine max), the most known representant of the Fabaceae family. Palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids constitute 87–99% of detected fatty acids with predomination of unsaturated (62–82%). All obtained oils were rich sources of tocopherols (79–187 mg/100 g oil), mainly α (five species) and γ (two species) homologues. With the exception of M. pinnata, where Δ5-stigmasterol (25%) and α-amyrin (26%) were the main phytosterols, β-sitosterol, Δ5-stigmasterol and campesterol constituted 51–96% of total phytosterols with a predomination of β-sitosterol (36–64%). The total carotenoid and phytosterol contents in studied Fabaceae species were in the range 0.6–8.9 and 175–622 mg/100 g oil, respectively. The present study demonstrated that several legume seeds could be considered a valuable source of oil and lipophilic bioactive compounds.
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Schistosomiasis, a disease usually related to poverty and poor sanitation, affects more than 200 million people worldwide. Since the 1970s, the medical sector has depended on a single drug, praziquantel, for the treatment of the disease. The emerging evidence of resistance of the Schistosoma parasite to praziquantel and the drug’s inefficacy against juvenile stages of the parasite makes the need to find alternative drugs an urgent matter. In this study, we explored the inhibition potential of compounds from Cucurbita maxima using molecular docking studies on Schistosoma mansoni purine nucleoside phosphorylase ( SmPNP) and Schistosoma haematobium 28-kDa glutathione S-transferase ( Sh28kDaGST). Following molecular docking studies and analysis of the active sites, the primary amino acids that were observed and shown to be involved in the SmPNP-ligand interaction are CYS 33, ARG 86, HIS 88, TYR 90, ALA 118, ALA 119, PRO 200, TYR 202, GLU 203, VAL 219, MET 221, THR 244, ASN 245, PRO 257 and HIS 259. For the Sh28dKa-ligand interaction, the primary amino acids were PHE 11, ARG 16, TRP 41, LEU 53, GLU 70 and SER 71. Momordicoside I aglycone binds to SmPNP with the lowest binding affinity of -7.9 kcal/mol by pi sigma bond interactions with HIS 88. Balsaminoside B binds to Sh28kDaGST with a binding affinity of −7.6 kcal/mol by hydrogen bond interaction with TRP 41, LEU 53 and SER 71. Pharmacokinetic studies showed favourable drug-like properties for the 10 compounds that exhibited the lowest binding energies. Therefore, we propose that bioactive compounds from C. maxima be considered as potential novel drug hits in the treatment of schistosomiasis.
Objective The purpose of the current study is to conduct a meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials to explore the quantitative effect of quinoa supplementation on serum lipid concentrations. Methods Online databases, including Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed, were systematically searched. A comprehensive literature review was performed based on English reports of randomized controlled trials of quinoa on lipid profiles in adults, which were published up to July 2020. Weighted mean differences (WMD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) were assigned as the ultimate effects of using random models. Study quality was assessed by using the Cochran score, and a meta-analysis was conducted. Results Five RCTs with eight intervention arms, including 291 participants, were selected for the present meta-analysis. The intervention period was between 4 and 12 weeks. The results showed doses higher than 50 g of quinoa consumption and duration more than six weeks of intervention significantly reduced serum triglyceride (TG) levels (WMD: -0.864 mg/dl; 95% CI: -1.286, -0.442, P < 0.001) and (WMD: -0.623 mg/dl; 95% CI: -1.015, -0.232, P = 0.002), respectively. In general, quinoa supplementation did not have a significant effect on concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (WMD: -0.145 mg/dl; 95% CI: -0.377, 0.086, P = 0.218), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, (WMD: 0.082 mg/dl; 95% CI: -0.150, 0.314, P = 0.489), and total cholesterol (TC) levels)WMD: -0.036 mg/dl; 95% CI: -0.267, 0.195, P = 0.759(. Conclusion This study reveals quinoa supplementation in doses higher than 50 g/day and the duration more than six weeks significantly reduced TG levels. However, further studies in this area are recommended to understand the potential mechanisms of quinoa on blood lipids.
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a topical and oral administration of pumpkin seed oil (PSO) on the hair growth of BALB/c male mice. The animals had their dorsal area shaved (2 ×2 cm) and they were divided into 6 experimental groups. They received orally saline (OS), finasteride (F), or PSO (OP) for 14 days; or topically saline (TS), minoxidil (M), or PSO (TP) for 7 days. The euthanasia of all of the mice occurred on the 22nd day, and the histological slides from the skin area were analyzed. Lipoperoxidation in the liver was assessed through the TBARS method and was also evaluated by the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT). The comet assay and the micronucleus tests were performed for genotoxic/mutagenic safety analyses. A significant increase in the number of hair follicles in the TP group was seen (8.8 ± 0.8) but it was disorganized, with loose dermal collagen. Finasteride presented a significant increase in the levels of the TBARS, SOD, and CAT in the liver, and M increased the DNA damage in the blood and the liver tissues. PSO did not induce any significant changes. In addition, PSO did not induce genotoxic or mutagenic effects. In conclusion, the oral PSO for 14 days acted in the proliferation of the hair follicles, without toxicity signals in the liver. Data availability The authors confirm that all of the relevant data is included in the article and/or in the supplementary information file.
Fixed oils are potential treasures of various bioactive compounds. Here, we extracted fixed oils from spices, namely Cinnamomum cassia, Amomum subulatum, Punica granatum L., Papaver somniferum L., Elettaria cardamomum L., Tamarindus indica L., and Cinnamomum tamala, and studied their fatty acid and triacylglycerol (TAG) composition. It was observed that P. somniferum (47.09%) yielded the highest amount of fixed oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling of the fixed oils showed the presence of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids. Lipidome analysis via high-resolution mass spectrometry confirmed large diversity of TAG molecular species ranging from C38:0 to C60:4. Further, the antioxidant potential and nutraceutical profile of fixed oils were studied by determining the phenolics, tocopherols, sterols, and squalene content through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Hydroxybenzoic acid, trans -cinnamic acid, p -coumaric, and kaempferol were the dominant phenolic compounds present in the studied fixed oils. HPLC confirmed the highest amounts of α-tocopherol in C. tamala (282.42 mg/100g oil) and T. indica (251.89 mg/100g oil) fixed oils. The β-sitosterol was the major sterol in all the studied fixed oils. The study enhances our understanding of lipids and secondary metabolites from fixed oils and paves way for its nutraceutical and industrial applications.
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Disclosed are constructs comprising sequences encoding 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase and at least one other sterol synthesis pathway enzyme. Also disclosed are methods for using such constructs to alter sterol production and content in cells, plants, seeds and storage organs of plants. Also provided are oils and compositions containing altered sterol levels produced by use of the disclosed constructs. Novel nucleotide sequences useful in the alteration of sterol production are also provided. Also provided are cells, plants, seeds and storage organs of plants comprising sequences encoding 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase, at least one other sterol synthesis pathway enzyme and at least one tocopherol synthesis enzyme.
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The superior efficiency of capillary columns is desirable for the gas chromatographic analysis of complex mixtures of fatty acids, but there have been some reservations regarding quantitation and reproducibility. This paper discusses the use of wall-coated glass capillary columns in a semiautomated system for the determination of food fatty acids. Glass columns coated with SP2340 were used for extended periods at temperatures up to 200 C without appreciable deterioration. Up to 1900 samples were analyzed on a single column over an 11-month period, with only minor changes in retention ratios, response factors and column efficiency. Quantitative precision of results, calculated either as normalized weight percentage or as absolute amounts, based on the use of an internal standard, were typically within 2% relative deviation. Difficulties encountered in obtaining acceptable chromatograms and reproducible data are discussed, and typical analyses of the fatty acids from foods presented.
Fish-oil derived n-3 PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been shown to exhibit anti-carcinogenic effects in vivo and in vitro. Squalene, found in shark liver oil and olive oil, can effectively inhibit chemically induced tumorigenesis in rodents. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether supplementation with EPA (50 μmol/l), DHA (50 μmol/l) or squalene (50 μmol/l) for 24 h would protect Chinese hamster V79 fibroblast cells against oxidant-induced DNA damage. EPA and DHA were delivered to the cells either complexed to bovine serum albumin (BSA) or dissolved in ethanol. DNA damage was assessed using the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay. V79 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) alone showed a significant increase in SCE (P < 0.05) when compared with control levels. Pre-incubation with either EPA or DHA did not significantly affect H2O2-induced SCE regardless of the delivery vehicle employed. However, pre-treatment with squalene significantly decreased the frequency of SCE induced by H2O2 (P < 0.05). Results indicate that squalene was more effective than EPA and DHA in protecting against H2O2-induced SCE.
Although the tocopherol content in food has been shown to be inversely associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease, dietary supplementation with α-tocopherol alone has a modest protective effect. The lack of natural tocopherols such as γ- and δ-tocopherol most vitamin E preparations may be a limiting factor for promoting health. Although α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol are 2 principle tocopherols in vegetable oils, the latter is in greater abundance in the edible oils processed in the United States. In contrast to α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol has biologic activity that potentially protects against chronic diseases such as inflammation. Evidence indicates that the mixed tocopherols found in native vegetable oils afford additive and synergistic activities that support their broader beneficial biologic functions. Both γ- and δ-tocopherol may be necessary for preventing lipid peroxidation and in counteracting the prooxidant effect of α-tocopherol. Moreover, all tocopherols except β-tocopherol inhibit smooth muscle proliferation. In our research, a preparation of mixed tocopherols, containing γ-, δ-, and α-tocopherol (5:2:1), has been shown to have better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions than α-tocopherol alone. This mixture did not have any adverse effects in a limited number of preliminary clinical investigations. Thus, among the tocopherols, α-tocopherol is not the only important isomer for human health. Based on the evidence in this review, further research and additional clinical studies should be conducted on mixed tocopherol preparations.
HPLC was used to determine α- and γ-tocopherol content in selected foods commonly consumed in the Mexican diet and to study losses due to cooking. Raw corn was high in total tocopherol content (8.1 mg/100 g), but processing into tortillas destroyed almost all of the tocopherols. Legumes were high in γ-tocopherol content. Almonds were high in α-tocopherol content with 22.3 mg/100 g and low in γ-tocopherol content (0.3 mg/100 g). Pecans showed the reverse trend with 0.7 mg/100 g of α- and 9.2 mg/100 g of γ-tocopherol. Peanuts had high levels of both α- and γ-tocopherol (8.2 and 7.9 mg/100 g, respectively). The cooking loss for most grains ranged from 22 to 55%, while that for legumes ranged from 9% for the garbanzo bean to 59% for the bayo bean. Vegetable oils were high in total vitamin E content and contributed the most vitamin E activity (1.3 mg/d), in the Mexican diet. Corn tortillas were low in vitamin E activity (0.03 mg/100 g) but due to their high intake in the Mexican diet, along with pinto beans, contributed to the total vitamin E intake. Neither diet met the recommended RDA intake; the high- and low-income diets provided 16.7 and 14.6%, respectively. Keywords: α- and γ-tocopherol; Mexican diet; cooking losses
The total and individual sterol content in 21 oat samples (seven cultivars grown at three different locations in Sweden) were analysed by gas chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The total sterol content in these oat cultivars varied between 350–491 µg g−1 of dry weight of kernel. The most abundant phytosterol was β-sitosterol (237–321 µg g−1) followed by campesterol (32–46 µg g−1), Δ5-avenasterol (15–47 µg g−1) and stigmasterol (11–21 µg g−1). There was a statistically significant difference in total sterol content between cultivars (p < 0.05) but no effect was found for cultivation location. Furthermore when contents of Δ5-avenasterol in hexane-extracted oat oil and acid-hydrolysed oat samples were compared, it was noticed that the content of Δ5-avenasterol was lowered due to acid hydrolysis. © 1999 Society of Chemical Industry
Cholesterol intakes in Britain have been re-estimated by analysing Total Diet samples taken in 1991 and from 1993 National Food Survey records. The Total Diet samples contained only 284 mg/day compared with 319 mg/day in 1987 and 337 mg/day in 1981, while the National Food Survey showed intakes had fallen to 238 mg/day from 259 mg/day in 1990 and 405 mg/day in 1970-75. More details of the intakes by adults in 1986/87 are given, and compared with the results from the other methods. Daily intakes of eight phytosterols were also estimated, the main ones being β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and 57-stigmastenol whose intakes were 104, 49, 10 and 4 mg/day, respectively, in 1991. These intakes had increased since 1981, reflecting the rising consumption of vegetable oils.