Hepatitis B and C virus infection in Nigerian patients with HIV/AIDS
This study was designed to assess the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in HIV patients and evaluate the risk of infection compared with HIV negative control subjects.
This is a prospective case control study in which 240 HIV/AIDS patients and age and sex matched controls were evaluated. The diagnosis of HIV infection was based on a positive HIV screening test using Capillus test kits (Trinity Biotech PLC, Ireland) and confirmed using Western blot assay. HBsAg and anti-HCV were assayed by commercially available chromatographic immunoassay (SD BIOLINE).
Eleven (9.2%) of the 120 HIV/AIDS patients and 8 (7%) of the 120 control subjects were positive for the HBsAg (OR=1, p=0.27). HBeAg was detected in 3 of the 11 (27.3%) subjects with HIV/HBV co infections. HIV positive patients were 7 times more likely to have HCV infection than control patients (5.8% compared with 0.8%, OR=7.3, p= 0.03).
The lack of a strong association between HBV and HIV infection may be related to different exposure routes in this population where HBV infection is highly endemic and childhood infection almost universal. In this African population, HIV infection may be a super-infection of HBV infections contracted in childhood. This high HCV/HIV co-infection rate is consistent with the shared parenteral and sexual routes of transmission.
Available from: Dorothy Wavinya Nyamai
- "Regarding the criteria taken for the selection of those who were included in the study, the prevalence rates of co-infection with HBV may be much higher in the general population of those with HIV as the study focused on only baseline patients seeking healthcare to improve their CD4 counts. These HIV/HBV co infection rates were found to be in agreement with other results done within Kenya171819, Zambia, and Nigeria. Compared to studies done on other patients such as the prevalence of HBV in HIV subjects with liver failure, the observed prevalence in this study was low as opposed to the 55.8% observed byOkoth et al., (2006). "
Available from: Samoel A Khamadi
- "The HIV/HBV co infection rates (6%) detected in this study was found to be consistent with findings from other studies carried out in Kenya
[19,34], Cote d’ Ivore
 and South Africa
. However, these findings were low compared to those previous obtained in Kenya (55.8%) among liver failure patients
 South Africa
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infections among HIV-1 infected individuals are growing worldwide health problems characterized by lack of effective vaccines, need for expensive treatment, chronicity of morbidity and associated mortality. Their prevalence and distribution patterns continue to vary across geographical locations with high prevalence being detected among high risk populations. To determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV among HIV-1 infected individuals, blood samples were collected from consenting study subjects visiting comprehensive HIV clinics in Nairobi during the period between October and December 2009.
Blood samples from volunteers were screened with ELISA tests for detecting HIV, HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies.
In a total of three (300) hundred infected individuals consisting of 129 (43%) males and 171 (57%) females 15.3% (46/300) were HIV-1 co-infected with either HBV or HCV or both, 10.3% (31/300) with HIV-1 and HCV and 6% (18/300) with HIV-1 and HBV infections. However, only three individuals (1%) were coinfected with the three viruses (HIV/HBV/HCV).
Though, low levels of co-infection with all three viruses were reported, there could be higher prevalence rates than reported here especially among high risk populations.
Available from: Yitayih Wondimeneh
- "The seroprevalence rates of HIV-HCV co-infection in this study was 5.0% which is almost comparable with the studies which were done in Nigeria (5.8%), Malawi (5.0%), Burkina Faso (4.8%) and Senegal (8.0%) [27,28,36,37]. However, the epidemiological survey of HCV in Ethiopia showed variation from 2-3% in the general population in early 1990s [38-40] and recently, the co-infection rates of HIV-HCV ranges from 3.6-13.3% in different reports [24,25,41-45]. "
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The co-existence of viral hepatitis caused by HBV and HCV become common causes of severe liver complication and immunological impairment among HIV infected individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV and their correlation with CD4 and liver enzyme levels among HAART naïve HIV positive individuals.
A Cross-sectional study was conducted from March-May, 2011 at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. HBV and HCV serological tests and liver enzymes as well as CD4 T cell level determination were assessed following the standard procedures. Socio-demographic data was collected by using structured questionnaire. The data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0 statistical software and p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Among 400 study participants, the overall prevalence of HIV-viral hepatitis co-infection was 42(11.7%). The prevalence of HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV and HIV-HBV-HCV co-infections were 20(5.6%), 18(5.0%) and 4(1.1%) respectively. Study participants who had HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV and HIV-HBV-HCV co-infection have relatively raised mean liver enzyme levels (ALT, AST and ALP) than HIV mono-infected once. Individuals with HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV and HIV-HBV-HCV co-infection also had a lower mean CD4 levels than HIV mono-infected study participants. The mean CD4 value in males was lower than females.
The prevalence of HBV and HCV was higher than reports from general population of the country. Raised levels of liver enzymes and lowered mean CD4 counts were seen in HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV and HIV-HBV-HCV co-infections. These findings underscore the importance of screening all HIV positive individuals before initiating antiretroviral treatment.
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