Neonatal and 5-Year Outcomes After Birth at 30–34 Weeks of Gestation
To evaluate the rates of in-hospital death, neonatal complications, and 5-year outcomes of infants born at 30-34 weeks of gestation. In nine regions of France, all 2,020 stillbirths and live births at 30, 31, and 32 weeks in 1997 and all 457 births at 33 and 34 weeks in April and October 1997 were recorded. Survivors were evaluated at 5 years of age. Increasing gestational age from 30 to 34 weeks was associated with progressive decreases in in-hospital mortality (from 8.1% to 0.4%) and neonatal complications (respiratory distress syndrome, 43.8% to 2.6%; maternofetal infections, 7.2% to 2.6%; and severe white matter injury, 5.5% to 1.3%). Although infants at 33 and 34 weeks of gestation rarely experienced necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or nosocomial infections, they still required endotracheal ventilation, antibiotics, or parenteral nutrition. At 5 years of age, older gestational age was associated with significant decreases in rates of cerebral palsy (6.3% at 30 weeks and 0.7% at 34 weeks) and mild to severe cognitive impairments (35.3% at 30 weeks and 23.9% at 34 weeks). In singletons, preterm rupture of membranes or preterm labor carried an increased risk of cerebral palsy but not of cognitive impairment. Neonates born at 30-34 weeks experienced substantial morbidity and often required admission to neonatal intensive care units. These outcomes suggest that prolonging pregnancies beyond 34 weeks may be desirable whenever possible. Infants born at 30-34 weeks should be carefully monitored to ensure prompt detection and management of neurodevelopmental impairment.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A major cause of preterm labor in pregnant women is intra-amniotic infection, which is mediated by an inflammatory process. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous transmitter, has been implicated to be involved in inflammatory responses. We sought to investigate whether H2S affects infectious preterm birth using the mouse model of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced preterm birth. Administration of LPS at 0.4 mg/kg with two injections intraperitoneally (i.p.) on gestational day 14.5 induced preterm labor. LPS significantly increased leukocyte infiltration in uterus, stimulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), CCL2 and CXCL15 in myometrium. Administration of NaHS (i.p.) delayed the onset of labor induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. NaHS prevented leukocyte infiltration into intrauterine tissues and inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in myometrium and decreased the levels of these cytokines in maternal circulation. H2S also decreased LPS-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2/ nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways in myometrium. This study provides new in vivo evidence for the roles of H2S in attenuating inflammation, and a potential novel therapeutic strategy for infection-related preterm labor.0Comments 0Citations
- "Preterm birth (PTB) occurs in 5–15% of all pregnancies worldwide, and is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality [1, 2] . Of the survivors of PTB, 25% will have at least one developmental delay such as cerebral palsy and long term vision, hearing and respiratory problems  . Approximately half of PTB is of unknown aetiology, while maternal genito-urinary infections account for up to 30% to 40% of all PTB . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Late preterm infants (LPIs), born at 34+0 to 36+6weeks of gestation contribute a significant proportion of all neonatal intensive care (NIC) admissions and are regarded as being at risk of adverse outcomes compared to term-born infants. To explore the health outcomes and family functioning of LPIs who required neonatal intensive care, at three years of age. This cohort study included 225 children born late preterm, between 1 January and 31 December 2006 in Northern Ireland. Children admitted for NIC (study group, n=103) were compared with children who did not require NIC or who required special care only for up to three days (comparison group, n=122). Health outcomes were measured using the Health Status Questionnaire, health service usage by parent report and family functioning using the PedsQL™ Family Impact Module. LPIs who required NIC revealed similar health outcomes at three years in comparison to those who did not. Despite this, more parents of LPIs who required NIC reported visiting their GP and medical specialists during their child's third year of life. Differences in family functioning were also observed with mothers of LPIs who required NIC reporting, significantly lower levels of social and physical functioning, increased difficulties with communication and increased levels of worry. LPIs were observed to have similar health outcomes at three years of age regardless of NIC requirement. The increase in GP and medical specialist visits and family functioning difficulties observed among those infants who required NIC merits further investigation.0Comments 0Citations
- "In contrast, this study has sought to add new information surrounding LPIs. Finally, the health status assessment was originally designed to identify and classify in a standardised way, a specified range of moderate to severe functional disabilities in children born preterm within the UK at the age of two years,  including disabilities which have been raised previously as a concern for some children born late preterm343536. Measurement limitations include the retrospective recall of health service usage over the previous year which is open to inaccurate reporting. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Magnesium sulphate is currently recommended for neuroprotection of preterm infants for women at risk of preterm birth at less than 30 weeks' gestation, based on high quality evidence of benefit. However there remains uncertainty as to whether these benefits apply at higher gestational ages.The aim of this randomised controlled trial is to assess whether giving magnesium sulphate compared with placebo to women immediately prior to preterm birth between 30 and 34 weeks' gestation reduces the risk of death or cerebral palsy in their children at two years' corrected age.Methods/design DESIGN: Randomised, multicentre, placebo controlled trial.Inclusion criteria: Women, giving informed consent, at risk of preterm birth between 30 to 34 weeks' gestation, where birth is planned or definitely expected within 24 hours, with a singleton or twin pregnancy and no contraindications to the use of magnesium sulphate.Trial entry & randomisation: Eligible women will be randomly allocated to receive either magnesium sulphate or placebo.Treatment groups: Women in the magnesium sulphate group will be administered 50 ml of a 100 ml infusion bag containing 8 g magnesium sulphate heptahydrate [16 mmol magnesium ions]. Women in the placebo group will be administered 50 ml of a 100 ml infusion bag containing isotonic sodium chloride solution (0.9%). Both treatments will be administered through a dedicated IV infusion line over 30 minutes.Primary study outcome: Death or cerebral palsy measured in children at two years' corrected ageSample size: 1676 children are required to detect a decrease in the combined outcome of death or cerebral palsy, from 9.6% with placebo to 5.4% with magnesium sulphate (two-sided alpha 0.05, 80% power, 5% loss to follow up, design effect 1.2). DISCUSSION: Given the magnitude of the protective effect in the systematic review, the ongoing uncertainty about benefits at later gestational ages, the serious health and cost consequences of cerebral palsy for the child, family and society, a trial of magnesium sulphate for women at risk of preterm birth between 30 to 34 weeks' gestation is both important and relevant for clinical practice globally.Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12611000491965.0Comments 9Citations
- "The latest Australian Cerebral Palsy Register Report (2009) shows that approximately 45% of all cases of cerebral palsy are associated with preterm birth . Whilst the highest risks are for extremely preterm infants , babies born between 30 and 33 completed weeks’ gestation still have significant risks  with the risk of cerebral palsy being up to eight times more likely than babies born at term . Moderate prematurity is responsible for as many cases of cerebral palsy as extreme prematurity . "