Article

Adverse events after vaccine administration in cats: 2,560 Cases (2002-2005)

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Abstract

To determine the incidence of vaccine-associated adverse events (VAAEs) diagnosed within 30 days of vaccination in cats and characterize risk factors for their occurrence. Retrospective cohort study. 496,189 cats vaccinated at 329 hospitals. Electronic records were searched for VAAEs that occurred after vaccine administration classified by practitioners as nonspecific vaccine reaction, allergic reaction, urticaria, shock, or anaphylaxis. Clinical signs and treatments were reviewed. The association between potential risk factors and a VAAE occurrence was estimated via multivariate logistic regression. 2,560 VAAEs were associated with administration of 1,258,712 doses of vaccine to 496,189 cats (51.6 VAAEs/10,000 cats vaccinated). The risk of a VAAE significantly increased as the number of vaccines administered per office visit increased. Risk was greatest for cats approximately 1 year old; overall risk was greater for neutered versus sexually intact cats. Lethargy with or without fever was the most commonly diagnosed VAAE. No localized reactions recorded in the 30-day period were subsequently diagnosed as neoplasia when followed for 1 to 2 years. Although overall VAAE rates were low, young adult neutered cats that received multiple vaccines per office visit were at the greatest risk of a VAAE within 30 days after vaccination. Veterinarians should incorporate these findings into risk communications and limit the number of vaccinations administered concurrently to cats.

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... To δεύτερο γεγονός ήταν η διαπίστωση του συσχετισμού των εμβολιασμών με πολλές μετεμβολιακές επιπλοκές, η σοβαρότητα των οποίων ποικίλλει από μία ολιγοήμερη και ήπια κατάπτωση, μέχρι την εμφάνιση σαρκωμάτων (γάτα) που μπορεί να οδηγήσουν στο θάνατο του ζώου (Day 2006). Αν και η συχνότητα των μετεμβολιακών επι πλοκών ήταν και παραμένει σχετικά μικρή (Moore et al. 2005, Moore et al. 2007, εντούτοις, δεν αμφι σβητείται η ανάγκη εξορθολογισμού των εμβολιακών προγραμμάτων, για να μειωθεί το εξατομικευμένο «εμβολιακό φορτίο» και να ελαχιστοποιηθούν οι πιθα νότητες εμφάνισης τους (Day et al. 2010a (Paul et al. 2006, Richards et al. 2006, Day et al. 2007, Day et al. 2010a, Day et al. 2010b. Κεντρική ιδέα των οδηγιών αυτών είναι ο «εμβολιασμός του μεγαλύτερου δυνατού αριθμού ζώων (για την ενίσχυση της «ανοσίας του πληθυσμού»), με τa απαραίτητα μόνο εμβόλια (ώστε να μειωθούν οι μετεμβολιακές επιπλοκές)» (Day et al. 2010a), δια τυπώνοντας τις βασικές αρχές που διέπουν τη δια μόρφωση ενός ορθολογικού εμβολιακού προγράμ ματος για το σκύλο και τη γάτα. ...
... Ωστόσο, η πιθανότητα εκδήλωσης μετεμβολιακών επιπλοκών (π.χ. ολιγοή μερη κατάπτωση, πυρετός ή/και αναφυλακτική αντί δραση) αυξάνει ανάλογα με τον συνολικό αριθμό των μικροοργανισμών που περιέχει το εμβόλιο (Moore et al. 2005, Moore et al. 2007). Επιπλέον, υπάρχουν ενδείξεις από μελέτες in vitro ότι τα πολυδύναμα εμβόλια (Strasser et al. 2003) ή συγκεκριμένοι συν δυασμοί εμβολίων (π.χ. ...
... Γενικά, όμως υποστηρίζεται οτι είναι χαμηλή (Edwards et al. 2004, Day 2006. Σε πρόσφατες μελέτες που έγιναν στις ΗΠΑ, η συχνότητα τους σε σκύλους που παρακολουθήθηκαν για 3 ημέρες μετά τον εμβολιασμό δεν ξεπέρασε το 0,38% (Moore et al. 2005) και το 0,51% σε γάτες που παρακολουθήθηκαν για 30 ημέρες (Moore et al. 2007). Η συχνότητα στο Ηνωμένο Βασί λειο είναι μικρότερη, αφού καταγράφηκαν 0.21 και 0.61 περιστατικά ανά 10.000 εμβολιαζόμενους σκύλους και γάτες, αντίστοιχα (Gaskel et al. 2002). ...
Article
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Vaccinations are an integral part of a comprehensive preventive health care program targeting to minimize the incidence of major canine and feline infectious diseases. Currently, vaccination practices are re-evaluated globally towards a twofold objective: to strengthen "herd immunity", which depends on the percentage of vaccinated animals in a population, and to reduce the "vaccine load" per animal in order to minimize the vaccine-associated adverse reactions. To this end, the updated canine and feline vaccination guidelines, encourage the vaccination of as many animals as possible, while at the same time classify the vaccines into core, non-core and not recommended. Core vaccines should be administered, if possible, to every dog and cat.Canine parvovirus-2, canine adenovirus-2, canine distemper virus, feline parvovirus, feline calicivirus/herpesvirus-1 and rabies vaccines fall into this category. Non-core vaccines are selectively given to dogs and cats after assessing the risk/benefit ratio. There are also vaccines for which there is currently no sufficient scientific evidence to justify their use. Importantly, after the one-year booster inoculation that follows the completion of the initial puppy/kitten vaccination series, core vaccines should be given no more frequently than every three years, as the duration of the protective immunity far exceeds this time interval. This review focuses on the updated canine and feline vaccination guidelines pertaining to the individual animal as well as to those living in groups. Important questions related to vaccination programs and to relevant adverse reactions are also answered. An effort has been made to align these guidelines according to what is considered a "norm" among the small amimal practitioners in Greece.
... 49 In the most substantial survey to date, any adverse reactions were recorded for cats presented to Banfield Pet Hospitals in the United States between 2002 and 2005. 42 During this period, more than 1.25 million doses of various vaccines were administered to nearly 500,000 cats. Adverse reactions within 30 days of vaccination were reported at a rate of 0.52% of cats vaccinated. ...
... The most commonly reported vaccine reactions are lethargy, anorexia and fever for a few days after vaccination, or local inflammation at the site of injection. 42,50,51 In the Banfield Pet Hospital population, the risk of an adverse reaction was greatest in cats around 1 year of age and/or increased as the total volume of vaccine and number of vaccines administered concurrently increased. 42 ...
... 42,50,51 In the Banfield Pet Hospital population, the risk of an adverse reaction was greatest in cats around 1 year of age and/or increased as the total volume of vaccine and number of vaccines administered concurrently increased. 42 ...
Article
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The guidelines are a consensus report on current recommendations for vaccination of cats of any origin, authored by a Task Force of experts. The guidelines are published simultaneously in the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (volume 22, issue 9, pages 813–830, DOI: 10.1177/1098612X20941784) and the Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association (volume 56, issue 4, pages 249–265, DOI: 10.5326/JAAHA-MS-7123 ). The guidelines assign approved feline vaccines to core (recommended for all cats) and non-core (recommended based on an individualized risk-benefit assessment) categories. Practitioners can develop individualized vaccination protocols consisting of core vaccines and non-core vaccines based on exposure and susceptibility risk as defined by the patient’s life stage, lifestyle, and place of origin and by environmental and epidemiologic factors. An update on feline injection-site sarcomas indicates that occurrence of this sequela remains infrequent and idiosyncratic. Staff education initiatives should enable the veterinary practice team to be proficient in advising clients on proper vaccination practices and compliance. Vaccination is a component of a preventive healthcare plan. The vaccination visit should always include a thorough physical exam and client education dialog that gives the pet owner an understanding of how clinical staff assess disease risk and propose recommendations that help ensure an enduring owner-pet relationship.
... While modern vaccine technology has afforded effective protection of companion animals against serious infectious diseases, this advancement brings the increased risk of rare but real potential for adverse reactions (termed "vaccinosis") [1,10,11,[27][28][29][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56]. Some adverse events are serious, chronically debilitating, and even fatal [11,[27][28][29]. ...
... Events include: immediate hypersensitivity reactions, other acute events that tend to occur 24-72 h or up to one to two weeks afterwards [10,11,46,47]. In the case of more delayed reactions, these can occur up to 45 days and even 60 days later, especially with rabies vaccines containing thimerosal (mercury) [9][10][11][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57]. These reactions are seriously under-reported to the manufacturers and government regulatory authorities [1,9,42,[58][59][60][61][62]. ...
... In cats, while adverse vaccine reactions may be less common, aggressive tumors (fibrosarcomas) can occasionally arise at the site of vaccination, as they can in dogs [11,28,29,54]. Other cancers such as feline leukemia have been vaccine-associated [54]. ...
Article
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Development of the immune system of mammalian animal species parallels that of humans and involves the innate and adaptive (acquired) immune responses acting together with the thymus gland. Consequently, issues surrounding the adequacy and safety of vaccinations to protect pet animals from their relevant infectious diseases need to be addressed just as they are for humans. Pet animals, especially canines, also have unique needs because of the wide diversity of purebred and mixed breeds that vary greatly in size, type, temperament, and even maturation rates. Furthermore, pets in early life encounter a series of changes that can affect their development and induce stressors including parasite control, new homes and environment, novel foods, and the socialization that is essential at a time when vaccinations need to be given. While recognizing that this overall need is becoming more understood, current vaccination policy guidelines for companion animals are still only adhered to by about 40% of veterinarians worldwide. Clearly, vaccination of pets should no longer be considered as “one size fits all”.
... The AAFP recommends testing all cats for FeLV p27 antigen prior to initial vaccination. There is no proven benefit to vaccinating infected cats 14,34,42 FIV Useful for diagnosis of infection. 34 Between 2002 and 2015, an inactivated whole-virus vaccine was available in North America that interferes with antibody results using some test kits. ...
... 49 In the most substantial survey to date, any adverse reactions were recorded for cats presented to Banfield Pet Hospitals in the United States between 2002 and 2005. 42 During this period, more than 1.25 million doses of various vaccines were administered to nearly 500,000 cats. Adverse reactions within 30 days of vaccination were reported at a rate of 0.52% of cats vaccinated. ...
... The most commonly reported vaccine reactions are lethargy, anorexia, and fever for a few days after vaccination, or local inflammation at the site of injection. 42,50,51 In the Banfield Pet Hospital population, the risk of an adverse reaction was greatest in cats around 1 year of age and/or increased as the total volume of vaccine and number of vaccines administered concurrently increased. 42 ...
Article
Full-text available
The guidelines are a consensus report on current recommendations for vaccination of cats of any origin, authored by a Task Force of experts. The guidelines are published simultaneously in the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (volume 22, issue 9, pages 813–830, DOI: 10.1177/1098612X20941784) and the Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association (volume 56, issue 4, pages 249–265, DOI: 10.5326/JAAHA-MS-7123). The guidelines assign approved feline vaccines to core (recommended for all cats) and non-core (recommended based on an individualized risk–benefit assessment) categories. Practitioners can develop individualized vaccination protocols consisting of core vaccines and non-core vaccines based on exposure and susceptibility risk as defined by the patient’s life stage, lifestyle, and place of origin and by environmental and epidemiologic factors. An update on feline injection-site sarcomas indicates that occurrence of this sequela remains infrequent and idiosyncratic. Staff education initiatives should enable the veterinary practice team to be proficient in advising clients on proper vaccination practices and compliance. Vaccination is a component of a preventive healthcare plan. The vaccination visit should always include a thorough physical exam and client education dialog that gives the pet owner an understanding of how clinical staff assess disease risk and propose recommendations that help ensure an enduring owner–pet relationship.
... Bahsedilen aşılamanın sistemik etkileri, endotoksin birikimi, ürünlerde kullanılan saponinler, adjuvanlar ve antijenlerin yardımcı maddelerinin, pirojenik etkileri olmuştur. 25 ...
... 17 Yaklaşık 3,5 milyon doz aşıyı içeren 1.2 milyondan fazla köpek üzerinde yapılan retrospektif bir kohort çalışmada, 4.678 adet yan etkinin meydana geldiği ve bunların çoğunun alerjik reaksiyonlar olduğu bildirilmiştir. 25 Köpeklerde görülen reaksiyonlar, cilt reaksiyonları, hipotansif şok, dispne, fasiyal ödem, pruritis ve diyare gibi Tip I aşırı duyarlılık reaksiyonları olmuştur. Ani alerjik reaksiyonlar geliştiren aşılanmış köpeklerin, aşı komponentlerine karşı IgE reaktivitesine sahip oldukları laboratuvar bulguları tarafından desteklenmiştir. ...
Chapter
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Pandemik hayvan hastalıklarının sınırlandırılması ve eradikasyon programlarında, kamu ve özel sektör tarafından sağlanan veteriner hizmetlerinde bölgesel yaklaşımlar ve ekonomik stratejilerin ortak plan dâhilinde uygulanması, ayrıca masraf/fayda analizlerinin gerçekçi bir şekilde belirlenmesi gerekmektedir. Böylelikle bölgesel, hatta ülkesel aşılama stratejileri, güvenilir veteriner epidemiyoloji birimleri ve donanımlı laboratuvarlar yardımıyla kaliteli şekilde geliştirilmiş olmaktadır. Aşılar ve aşılama konusunda, sadece hastalık önleme ve kontrolünde değil, aynı zamanda açık ve riske dayalı gözetim, diagnostik yeterlik, erken müdahale, nakliye, pazarlama ve muhafaza yönetmelikleri gibi diğer destekleyici teknik konuların da mevzuata göre yapılandırılması gerekmektedir. Bir aşının güvenliğinin ve etkinliğinin sağlanması, başarılı bir hastalık kontrol programı için önemli bir unsur olarak kabul edilmiştir. Aslında, bir aşının antijenik bileşenleri, güvenliği ve potensi bakımından karakterize edilmek üzere uygun laboratuvar yöntemlerinin geliştirilmesi, yeni bakteriyel, viral veya antiparaziter aşıların rutin klinik kullanımı için bir ön koşul olmalıdır. Uygun şekilde takip edilen kontrol prosedürleri, yetersiz immunizasyon ve aşı reaksiyonları gibi geri dönüşü olmayan olumsuz olayların önlenmesinde yardımcı olmaktadır.
... In addition to vaccine-associated fibrosarcomas, which seem to be limited to cats and possibly ferrets, vaccines have been associated with other rare side effects in companion animals (Hendrick, 1998;Munday et al., 2003). Reported adverse effects include anaphylaxis, postvaccinal polyneuropathy, autoimmune disease, hypertrophic osteodystrophy, corneal edema, non-specific systemic side effects such as fever and lethargy, and localized reactions including pain, swelling, vaccine-associated alopecia, conjunctivitis and oculonasal ulcers (Kruth and Ellis, 1998;Carmichael, 1999;Dodds, 2001;Meyer, 2001;Richards and Rodan, 2001;Gaskell et al., 2002;Moore et al., 2005Moore et al., , 2007Davis-Wurzler, 2006). Microbial contamination of vaccines, although very rare, can also be a concern (Kruth and Ellis, 1998;Dodds, 2001;Meyer, 2001). ...
... concurrently. Recently, Moore et al. reported that cats and small dogs given several vaccines at one time had an increased risk for anaphylaxis and other vaccine-related side effects (Moore et al., 2005(Moore et al., , 2007. Vaccination might also cause transient immunosuppression. ...
Article
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Concerns about possible adverse effects from annual vaccination have prompted the reanalysis of vaccine protocols for cats and dogs. In the last decade, several veterinary advisory groups have published protocols that recommend extended revaccination intervals for certain 'core' vaccines. In addition, practicing veterinarians have been asked to consider vaccination as an individualized medical procedure, based on an analysis of risks and benefits for each vaccine in an individual animal. The calls for extended revaccination intervals prompted considerable debate in USA and internationally. Areas of concern include the amount of evidence to support prolonged immunity from various vaccines, the risk of poor responses in individual animals and the possible effects on population immunity. This review examines how the duration of immunity (DOI) to a vaccine is established in animals and humans. It reviews factors that can affect the DOI in an individual animal, including the types of immune defenses stimulated by the pathogen, and the vaccine, host factors such as age and the level of exposure to the pathogen. In addition, it examines DOI studies that were published for canine and feline core vaccines.
... In humans, there are several reports of adverse reactions linked to overimmunization [13][14][15][16] although the risks of hyperimmunization were already underlined as early as 1976 [17]. In veterinary medicine, concurrent vaccinations and repetitive inoculation have been related to an increase in the proportion of adverse events in dogs and cats [18][19][20]. In a retrospective cohort study including 1,226,159 vaccinated dogs, there was a significantly increased risk of vaccine-associated adverse events within the 3 days of vaccination as the number of vaccine doses administered in a single visit increased. ...
... Furthermore, each additional vaccine in the following visit to the veterinarian significantly increased the risk of an adverse event [18,19]. In another parallel study including 496,189 cats, a similar conclusion was reached, since the risk of vaccine adverse events increased significantly as the number of vaccines administered per single office visit increased [20]. A similar relationship was found in another retrospective study including 3587 ferrets, where the incidence rate of adverse events increased in parallel to the cumulative number of distemper and/or rabies vaccinations [21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of vaccines has proven to be very effective in controlling and eradicating infectious diseases, both in veterinary and human medicine; however, vaccines can be also the source of an array of problems caused by procedures such as overimmunization. Bluetongue, an orbiviral disease that affects ruminants, is best controlled by the use of inactivated vaccines. During the last years of the past decade, these vaccines were applied all over Europe to control the spreading of the disease, a goal that was accomplished; however, at the same time, several adverse effects related to the vaccination were reported. Especially in sheep, this vaccination campaign brought out a new cachectic and neurologic disease with harmful consequences for the ovine industry. This disease is now recognized as the ovine version of the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome) and poses an immense challenge in veterinary medicine, immunology, and vaccinology.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]. © 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.
... 90 Use of FVRCP vaccines that also contained C. felis was associated with more vaccine reactions in cats when compared to other products. 62 Because infection of cats by C. felis generally only results in mild conjunctivitis, is easily treated with antibiotics, has variable prevalence rates, and is of minimal zoonotic risk to people, it has been questioned whether C. felis vaccination is ever necessary in the United States. 14 Duration of immunity for Chlamydophila vaccines may be short-lived, so high-risk cats, such as those in multi-cat environments or where there is a history of chlamydial infection, should be immunized before a potential exposure. ...
... Another concern related to vaccination is the occurrence of severe adverse events. These events usually occur in very small numbers both in humans [26,27] and in animals [28]. The current study was designed in order to find these rare events. ...
Article
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Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an economically important, arthropod borne viral disease of cattle. Vaccination by the live attenuated homologous Neethling vaccine was shown as the most efficient measure for controlling LSD. However, adverse effects due to vaccination were never quantified in a controlled field study. The aim of this study was to quantify the milk production loss and mortality due to vaccination against LSD. Daily milk production, as well as culling and mortality, were retrieved for 21,844 cows accommodated in 77 dairy cattle farms in Israel. Adjusted milk production was calculated for each day during the 30 days post vaccination. This was compared to the preceding month by fitting mixed effects linear models. Culling and mortality rates were compared between the 60 days periods prior and post vaccination, by survival analysis. The results of the models indicate no significant change in milk production during the 30 days post vaccination period. No difference was observed between the pre- and post-vaccination periods in routine culling, as well as in immediate culling and in-farm mortality. We conclude that adverse effects due to Neethling vaccination are negligible.
... core vaccine with a separate rabies vaccine), that these be given into different subcutaneous sites so that different draining lymph nodes are targeted for immune priming. Two studies from the USA counter this, in that they show for both dogs (particularly of low bodyweight) and cats that there is a greater likelihood of adverse reactions post vaccination when increasing numbers of antigens are delivered at any one time (Moore et al. , 2007 [EB1]. Vaccinating according to WSAVA guidelines minimises the number of antigens that might be delivered on one practice visit. ...
Article
Executive Summary The World Small Animal Veterinary Association Vaccination Guidelines Group has produced global guidelines for small companion animal practitioners on best practice in canine and feline vaccination. Recognising that there are unique aspects of veterinary practice in certain geographical regions of the world, the Vaccination Guidelines Group undertook a regional project in Latin America between 2016 and 2019, culminating in the present document. The Vaccination Guidelines Group gathered scientific and demographic data during visits to Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, by discussion with national key opinion leaders, visiting veterinary practices and review of the scientific literature. A questionnaire survey was completed by 1390 veterinarians in five Latin American countries and the Vaccination Guidelines Group delivered continuing education at seven events attended by over 3500 veterinarians. The Vaccination Guidelines Group recognised numerous challenges in Latin America, for example: (1) lack of national oversight of the veterinary profession, (2) extraordinary growth in private veterinary schools of undetermined quality, (3) socioeconomic constraints on client engagement with preventive health care, (4) high regional prevalence of some key infectious diseases (e.g. feline leukaemia virus infection, canine visceral leishmaniosis), (5) almost complete lack of minimal antigen vaccine products as available in other markets, (6) relative lack of vaccine products with extended duration of immunity as available in other markets, (7) availability of vaccine products withdrawn from other markets (e.g. Giardia vaccine) or unique to Latin America (e.g. some Leishmania vaccines), (8) accessibility of vaccines directly by pet owners or breeders such that vaccination is not delivered under veterinary supervision, (9) limited availability of continuing education in veterinary vaccinology and lack of compulsion for continuing professional development and (10) limited peer‐reviewed published scientific data on small companion animal infectious diseases (with the exception of leishmaniosis) and lack of support for such academic research. In this document, the Vaccination Guidelines Group summarises the findings of this project and assesses in evidence‐based fashion the scientific literature pertaining to companion animal vaccine‐preventable diseases in Latin America. The Vaccination Guidelines Group makes some recommendations on undergraduate and postgraduate education and academic research. Recognising that current product availability in Latin America does not permit veterinarians in these countries to vaccinate according to the global World Small Animal Veterinary Association guidelines, the Vaccination Guidelines Group makes a series of “pragmatic” recommendations as to what might be currently achievable, and a series of “aspirational” recommendations as to what might be desirable for the future. The concept of “vaccine husbandry” is addressed via some simple guidelines for the management of vaccine products in the practice. Finally, the Vaccination Guidelines Group emphasises the global trend towards delivery of vaccination as one part of an “annual health check” or “health care plan” that reviews holistically the preventive health care needs of the individual pet animal. Latin American practitioners should transition towards these important new practices that are now well embedded in more developed veterinary markets. The document also includes 70 frequently asked questions and their answers; these were posed to the Vaccination Guidelines Group during our continuing education events and small group discussions and should address many of the issues surrounding delivery of vaccination in the Latin American countries. Spanish and Portuguese translations of this document will be made freely available from the on‐line resource pages of the Vaccination Guidelines Group.
... Adverse reactions (of any kind, including very minor reactions) were documented within the first 3 days following vaccination in 38 of 10,000 vaccinated dogs (Moore et al. 2005). Adverse reactions (of any kind, including very minor reactions) were documented within the first 30 days following vaccination in 52 of 10,000 vaccinated cats (Moore et al. 2007). However, some animals may have had reactions that were not reported to the practice, but were reported to other practices or emergency practices where the animal was seen. ...
... Anaphylaxis comprised 17 of 2560 total cases of feline VAAE (0.7%). 29 These organizations recognize that adverse reactions are likely to be underreported by both veterinarians and pet owners 27 and that in veterinary medicine there is no requirement to report VAAE, either known or suspected. 26 ...
... ■ Chez le Chat, 92 % des effets indésirables sont constatés dans les 3 jours suivant la vaccination ; la probabilité d'effets secondaires est accrue chez le jeune mâle castré[11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Une meilleure connaissance de la mise en place de l’immunité chez le jeune animal et chez l’animal âgé, associée aux progrès réalisés par les vaccins, conduisent à adopter de nouvelles pratiques pour la vaccination des Carnivores domestiques. L’objectif de la consultation de médecine préventive, outre le bilan de santé annuel incluant toutes les composantes impactant l’état de santé (cf article Freyburger-Pépin et al dans le même N° SPECIAL MEDECINE PREVENTIVE), doit permettre d’établir un plan de vaccination “à la carte” adapté à l’animal et à son mode de vie (si l’animal vit seul ou en collectivité et si l’animal sort ou non) et prenant en compte les durées effectives d’immunité avec en filigrane la volonté de “vacciner moins et vacciner mieux”.
... Since then another 5 cats with presumed idiosyncratic ACDR have been reported: erythema multiforme (ampicillin) 9) , pemphigus foliaceus (amoxicillin) 9) , self-induced hair loss (valproic acid) 15) , pruritic ulcerative dermatitis of the head (amoxicillin clavulanate) 12) , and sterile pustular dermatitis (cephalexin) 4) . In addition, facial edema or generalized pruritus accounted for 5.7% and 1.9%, respectively, of vaccine-associated adverse events in cats 7) . ...
Article
We performed a retrospective evaluation of 29 cats with presumed idiosyncratic adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR). ACDR accounted for 2% of the cats examined by the Dermatology Service over a period of 15 years. No breed, age, sex, or retroviral predilections were found. The most common cutaneous reaction patterns were contact dermatitis, contact otitis externa, allergy-like pruritus, and vasculitis. The most commonly incriminated drugs were amoxicillin clavulanate and chlorhexidine scrub. Drug withdrawal resulted in resolution of the skin eruptions within 2 to 6 weeks in 25 cats, and 12 weeks in 4 cats. Two cats with cefovecin-associated necrotizing vasculitis required additional anti-inflammatory therapy.
... 2663 cases per 10.000 vaccinated domestic animals [2,3]. Indeed, Type III allergic reactions, including cutaneous vasculopathy and Arthus reactions (36 cases) occurred mainly at the rabies vaccination, could be correlated to a genetic predisposition [4,5]. ...
Article
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Objective: To determine the general clinical presentation and incidence of adverse reactions to vaccinations in domestic animals. Design: A retrospective study using clinical databases and scientific literature. Methods: Veterinary hospitals, Universities and private animal clinics participated in a database search for all the domestic animals vaccinated within a 2-year period. Results: We reported all the adverse events, including local injection site reactions and systemic signs recorded in cats, dogs and ferrets. Conclusions: Data from this study show that adverse reactions occur frequently, we are not aware of the exact role of the vaccinal components or of the their complex formulation altogether, as definite triggers of post-injection complications, but comparative pathology with exhaustive surveys of animals untoward effects either in the domestic or zoo technique setting will assist us in better deciphering this puzzling issue.
... Collins [12] provided results of histologic evaluations of 15 mice, with photographs that appear to show a complete response for acutely sensitized mice and an incomplete response for chronically sensitized mice. Because immunization is known to in and of itself be responsible in humans and cats for an anaphylaxis, [29,30] the findings suggest that any study comparing immunized and allergic mice carefully evaluate the histological findings in all animals to exclude those who experienced allergic pulmonary inflammation resulting from the immunization. Four sensitized animals in this study developed a complete histological response. ...
Article
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The objective was to define murine histologic alterations resembling asthma in a BALB/c OVA model and to suggest grading criteria. Identified were six salient histologic findings in lungs with putative allergic inflammation: 1) bronchoarterial space inflammation; 2) peri-venular inflammation; 3) inflammation about amuscular blood vessels; 4) inter-alveolar space inflammation, not about capillaries; 5) pleural inflammation; and 6) eosinophils within the inflammatory aggregates. An initial study comprised six groups of twelve mice each: 1) stressed, control; 2) stressed, sensitized; 3) stressed, challenged; 4) not physically stressed, control; 5) not physically stressed, sensitized; 6) not physically stressed, challenged. A second study comprised four experimental groups of twenty mice each: 1) stressed, control; 2) stressed, challenged; 3) not physically stressed, control; 4) not physically stressed, challenged. A third study evaluated two grading criteria, 1) the proportion of non-tracheal respiratory passages with inflammatory aggregates and 2) mitoses in the largest two non-tracheal respiratory passages, in five groups of five mice each, evaluated at different times after the last exposure. The first study suggested the six histological findings might reliably indicate the presence of alterations resembling asthma: whereas 82.4% of mice with a complete response had detectable interleukin (IL)-5, only 3.8% of mice without one did; whereas 77.8% of mice with a complete response were challenged mice, only 6.7% of mice without complete responses were. The second study revealed that the six histological findings provided a definition that was 97.4% sensitive and 100% specific. The third study found that the odds of a bronchial passage's having inflammation declined 1) when mitoses were present (OR = 0.73, 0.60 - 0.90), and 2) with one day increased time (OR = 0.75, 0.65 - 0.86). A definition of murine histologic alterations resembling asthma in the BALB/c OVA mouse was developed and validated. The definition will be of use in experiments involving this model to ensure that all mice said to have undergone an asthmatic attack did indeed reveal allergic pulmonary inflammation. Proposed grading criteria should be further evaluated with additional studies using physiologic measures of attack severity and increased airway resistance.
... Adverse reactions associated with vaccination are rare, but can occur ranging from mild signs to more severe anaphylaxis. Mild side effects may include lethargy, local pain or swelling at the injection site, reduced appetite, or a mild fever [40,41,42] and are often short lasting and self-limiting. In the unlikely event that more severe signs are noted or persist beyond 2-3 days (such as collapse, vomiting, diarrhoea, trouble breathing, facial swelling), a veterinarian should be consulted. ...
... Many inactivated vaccines also contain adjuvants or immunopotentiators [168][169][170]. Veterinary vaccines are subjected to rigorous safety testing and evaluation prior to authorisation [171,172] but vaccination is not without risks in humans, and in animals although these risks are low [29,[173][174][175][176][177][178]. ...
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The etiology of feline injection-site sarcomas remains obscure. Sarcomas and other tumors are known to be associated with viral infections in humans and other animals, including cats. However, the available evidence suggests that this is not the case with feline injection-site sarcomas. These tumors have more in common with sarcomas noted in experimental studies with laboratory animals where foreign materials such as glass, plastics, and metal are the causal agent. Tumors arising with these agents are associated with chronic inflammation at the injection or implantation sites. Similar tumors have been observed, albeit infrequently, at microchip implantation sites, and these also are associated with chronic inflammation. It is suggested that injection-site sarcomas in cats may arise at the administration site as a result of chronic inflammation, possibly provoked by adjuvant materials, with subsequent DNA damage, cellular transformation, and clonal expansion. However, more fundamental research is required to elucidate the mechanisms involved.
... The incidence of vaccine-associated adverse events has also been reported in the literature (60,61) and the overall risk was higher for neutered v. sexually intact cats, according to the authors. One reason for these results is reduced oestrogen and testosterone, each acting in the physiological balance of protective immunity. ...
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Neutering or spaying is a commonly recommended veterinary procedure. However, veterinarians are often confronted with conflicting findings and differences in concepts regarding practice and proper nutritional management after the procedure. The objective of the present review was to bring to light the most recent literature, summarise it and discuss the findings focusing on the risks and benefits of neutering in dogs and cats, and to determine the appropriate nutritional management for these animals.
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VACCINES play a vital role in controlling and preventing infectious diseases in small animals. Vaccination is an established concept for preventive health care and an important source of income for most veterinary practices. Although most veterinary surgeons administer vaccines daily, it has become such a routine part of the working day that few stop to consider the science behind this aspect of veterinary medicine. In the late 1990s, potential side effects of vaccination were highlighted by both the medical and veterinary communities, and ideal vaccination protocols have been hotly debated ever since. This article outlines the current recommendations for vaccination in dogs and cats, explains the rationale behind them and discusses some of the more recent developments in this field.
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Regrettably, two errors appeared in the 2013 AAFP Feline Vaccination Advisory Panel Report. Firstly, in the ‘Injectable vaccine administration’ box, on page 798, the pictures in Figures 8 and 9 were swapped with each other. The amended box is reproduced here. Secondly, the penultimate sentence in the second ‘Trap–Neuter–Return’ FAQ on page 804 should have read: ‘In contrast, only inactivated vaccines resulted in a high rate of protective antibodies against FHV-1,’ and not ‘In contrast, only modified-live vaccines …’. The errors appear in the printed copies of the journal, and in online versions downloaded before November 2013. DOI of original article: 10.1177/1098612X13500429 DOI: 10.1177/1098612X13511888
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To review and summarize current information regarding the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations associated with anaphylaxis in dogs and cats. The etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis is discussed. Anaphylaxis is a systemic, type I hypersensitivity reaction that often has fatal consequences. Many of the principal clinical manifestations involve organs where mast cell concentrations are highest: the skin, the lungs, and the gastrointestinal tract. Histamine and other deleterious inflammatory mediators promote vascular permeability and smooth muscle contraction; they are readily released from sensitized mast cells and basophils challenged with antigen. Anaphylaxis may be triggered by a variety of antigens including insect and reptile venom, a variety of drugs, vaccines, and food. Anaphylaxis is a clinical diagnosis made from a collection of signs and symptoms. It is most commonly based on pattern recognition. Differential diagnoses include severe asthma, pheocromocytoma, and mastocytosis. Epinephrine is considered the drug of choice for the treatment of anaphylaxis. It acts primarily as a vasopressor in improving hemodynamic recovery. Adjunctive treatments include fluid therapy, H1 and H2 antihistamines, corticosteroids, and bronchodilators; however, these do not substitute for epinephrine. Prognosis depends on the severity of the clinical signs. The clinical signs will vary among species and route of exposure. The most severe clinical reactions are associated when the antigen is administered parenterally.
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This study describes signalment, history, antibiotic administered, clinical signs observed, therapy, and outcome of anaphylactic events within 4 h following ophthalmic administration of an antibiotic to cats. Data came from survey responses (45 cats) or Federal Drug Administration reports (16 cats). Cat age (7 weeks-19 years), breed, and gender ranged widely. Most were healthy (87%) prior to anaphylaxis. Ophthalmic antibiotics commonly were administered for conjunctival (65%) or corneal (11%) disease, or ocular lubrication (7%) and contained bacitracin, neomycin, and polymyxin B (44%), or oxytetracycline and polymyxin B (21%). Polymyxin B was present in all cases. Vaccines or other drugs were also administered to 51% of cats. In 56% cases, anaphylaxis occurred within 10 min of drug application. Most (82%) cats survived. Although a causal association was not proved, ophthalmic antibiotic administration preceded anaphylaxis in all cats. Like other drugs, ophthalmic antibiotics should be used only when indicated.
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VACCINATION practice continues to cause confusion for UK practitioners who are often perplexed by the apparently conflicting information that they receive from various sources. As little as 10 years ago, the vaccination of adult dogs and cats was perceived to be a relatively straightforward process whereby every animal enrolled with a practice received a particular combination of vaccine components every year. This practice was legally sound as all vaccines were licensed with a minimum duration of immunity (DOI) of one year. The administration of the ‘annual booster vaccine’ was regarded as the principle reason for an annual veterinary visit and it was commonplace to issue reminder cards for the ‘annual booster’. So why has this procedure changed? As the widespread and remarkably successful use of vaccines over the past few decades has resulted in a drastic reduction in the incidence of those serious infectious diseases against which we commonly vaccinate, attention has inevitably shifted to the small risk of vaccine-associated adverse reactions. Over the past 20 years, concerns have been raised over the safety of repeated administration of vaccines in both human and veterinary medicine. Although licensed vaccines have an extremely high safety profile, no product can be guaranteed safe in every patient and there is evidence that occasional adverse reactions to vaccines occur. Such reported suspected adverse reactions form a spectrum from mild and transient pyrexia and lethargy, through to allergic or autoimmune diseases, life-threatening neoplasia (the feline injection site sarcoma), or rarely death of the animal. Recent UK pharmacovigilance data suggest that the overall prevalence of canine adverse reactions is very low (18.5 per 100,000 doses of vaccine sold [VMD 2010]), while epidemiological analyses of a US corporate practice database provides figures of 30 to 50 reactions per 10,000 dogs or cats vaccinated (Moore and others …
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The safety of a non-adjuvanted inactivated fungal vaccine for the treatment of dermatophytosis in cats was investigated in two studies: a controlled laboratory study, and a placebo-controlled double-blind field study with a cross-over design in Europe. In the laboratory study, two groups of 10 cats each were administered an intramuscular twofold overdose, followed by five single 1 ml doses, of either vaccine or control product at 14-day intervals. In the field study, cats were treated with three intramuscular injections of 1 ml vaccine administered at 14-day intervals, as recommended by the manufacturer. A total of 89 cats were enrolled in the field study and divided into two groups to receive either vaccine or placebo for the first three treatments, followed by the opposite product for the final three treatments. The cats enrolled in the two studies were 12 weeks of age or older, as recommended by the manufacturer. All the cats were monitored closely for possible injection site reactions, systemic reactions (including changes in rectal body temperature) and adverse events. The results from both studies showed no significant differences between the vaccinated cats and the control or placebo-treated cats with regard to local or systemic reactions. A few mild to moderate local reactions were noted, but these were evenly distributed between the vaccinated and placebo-treated cats and resolved within a few days. No severe or serious adverse events related to the vaccinations were observed.
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Clinical signs of upper respiratory disease are common in cats. The differential diagnosis includes viral, bacterial, and fungal infections; chronic rhinosinusitis; foreign bodies; tooth root disease; neoplasia; inflammatory polyps; nasopharyngeal stenosis; and trauma. This article provides specific recommendations concerning the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the most common causes of upper respiratory diseases in cats.
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Adverse vaccinal events, or perceived vaccine-associated adverse events, are relatively uncommon in companion animal practice. These events, however, often evoke great concern to owners and veterinarians. Because of the low incidence of these events and the large number of potential antigenic causes, exact mechanisms are often difficult to elucidate. This article reviews current evidence related to the immunologic basis of adverse events seen after canine and feline vaccination.
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Le concept de Médecine Préventive est en pleine évolution et ne se résume plus à la seule vaccination des chiens et chats. A cet acte toujours important s’ajoutent désormais des informations, des conseils, et des actions de prévention vis-à-vis de tout ce qui peut perturber la santé et le bien-être des animaux de compagnie, voire de leurs propriétaires. Toutes les composantes de la consultation de Médecine Préventive sont passées en revue dans cet article. Ce document a pour objectifs de défi nir la discipline médecine préventive du Chien et du Chat et de poser les bases d’une démarche commune pour tous les enseignants de cette discipline dans les quatre Écoles Nationales Vétérinaires françaises afi n d’édicter à terme des recommandations (“guidelines”) pour les vétérinaires exerçant en France.
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Vaccinations are an integral part of a comprehensive preventive health care program targeting to minimize the incidence of major canine and feline infectious diseases. Currently, vaccination practices are re-evaluated globally towards a twofold objective: to strengthen "herd immunity", which depends on the percentage of vaccinated animals in a population, and to reduce the "vaccine load" per animal in order to minimize the vaccine-associated adverse reactions. To this end, the updated canine and feline vaccination guidelines, encourage the vaccination of as many animals as possible, while at the same time classify the vaccines into core, non-core and not recommended. Core vaccines should be administered, if possible, to every dog and cat. Canine parvovirus-2, canine adenovirus-2, canine distemper virus, feline parvovirus, feline calicivirus/herpesvirus-1 and rabies vaccines fall into this category. Non-core vaccines are selectively given to dogs and cats after assessing the risk/benefit ratio. There are also vaccines for which there is currently no sufficient scientific evidence to justify their use. Importantly, after the one-year booster inoculation that follows the completion of the initial puppy/kitten vaccination series, core vaccines should be given no more frequently than every three years, as the duration of the protective immunity far exceeds this time interval. This review focuses on the updated canine and feline vaccination guidelines pertaining to the individual animal as well as to those living in groups. Important questions related to vaccination programs and to relevant adverse reactions are also answered. An effort has been made to align these guidelines according to what is considered a "norm" among the small amimal practitioners in Greece.
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Le concept de Médecine Préventive est en pleine évolution et ne se résume plus à la seule vaccination des chiens et chats. A cet acte toujours important s’ajoutent désormais des informations, des conseils, et des actions de prévention vis-à-vis de tout ce qui peut perturber la santé et le bien-être des animaux de compagnie, voire de leurs propriétaires. Toutes les composantes de la consultation de Médecine Préventive sont passées en revue dans cet article. Ce document a pour objectifs de définir la discipline médecine préventive du Chien et du Chat et de poser les bases d’une démarche commune pour tous les enseignants de cette discipline dans les quatre Écoles Nationales Vétérinaires françaises afin d’édicter à terme des recommandations (“guidelines”) pour les vétérinaires exerçant en France.
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Severe adverse reactions in cats after vaccination were examined from 316 cases reported to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) in Japan during 15-year period from April 2004 to March 2019. We found that 130 (41%) showed anaphylaxis, and 99 (76%) of the 130 cases of anaphylaxis resulted in death. Veterinarians should be well prepared to deal with vaccine-associated anaphylaxis in cats. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) as indicator of purification was detected at high levels in commercially available feline vaccines. BSA might derive from fetal calf serum in culture media. This study provides useful information about anaphylaxis including critical details of the potential clinical signs associated with adverse events to feline vaccination.
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The occurrence of vestibular disease in a cat following a wellness/vaccination visit which included routine ear cleaning is described. The cat recovered in 10 days following supportive therapy. The cause of vestibular disease was not identified but sensitivity to an ear cleaning solution or subclinical ear disease may have played a role.
Article
Objectives: Vaccination is the most important measure for prevention of feline infectious diseases. Cat owner compliance with vaccination recommendations has been investigated in the UK but not in other European countries. The aim of the present study was to determine cat owners' attitudes towards vaccination in cats in Germany, to identify factors that are associated with the vaccination status of their cats and to compare the results with those of the UK survey. Methods: The survey was conducted using an online questionnaire and was aimed at respondents throughout Germany. Respondents under 16 years of age, cats that were less than 9 weeks old and veterinarians were excluded. A total of 920 questionnaires were evaluated, and information about cats and respondents was assessed with respect to the current vaccination status of the cats using a linear logistic regression model. Results: The majority of cats (77.9%; n = 717) were vaccinated according to current guidelines; only 5.4% (n = 50; 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.00-9.00) of cats had never received a vaccine. Having visited a cattery, a cat show or travelled abroad in the past 12 months (n = 96/773; odds ratio [OR] 6.95; 95% CI 1.65-52.19) had the highest positive impact on the vaccination status of cats. In addition, detailed veterinary advice about vaccination had a positive impact (n = 275/773; OR 2.09; 95% CI 0.67-6.25) on the attitude of owners towards vaccinating their cats. Conclusions and relevance: A history of travelling abroad or visiting cat shows or a cattery, and thus regulatory requirements, had the greatest positive impact on the current vaccination status of the cats. Veterinary consultation on preventive measures, including vaccination, is crucial for protecting the cat population against infectious diseases.
Chapter
Acute allergic reactions can be divided into localized and systemic hypersensitivity reactions. Local and mild generalized hypersensitivity reactions are often referred to as allergic or hypersensitivity reactions and patients show cutaneous clinical signs (e.g. pruritus, urticaria) or signs associated with mild systemic inflammatory mediator release. In contrast, moderate and severe systemic hypersensitivity reactions comprise clinical signs of severe illness with cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal compromise and are classified as anaphylactic reactions. Hypersensitivity and anaphylactic reactions can be due to immediate (type I) hypersensitivity reactions that require previous sensitization to the antigen, or can occur on first exposure to some antigens. Multiple vasoactive mediators are responsible for cutaneous signs in mild reactions and signs of vasodilation and increased vascular permeability leading to cardiovascular collapse in animals suffering from anaphylaxis. In dogs, anaphylaxis mainly manifests as cardiovascular and gastrointestinal signs, whereas in cats respiratory signs are also common. Common substances to trigger hypersensitivity reactions and anaphylaxis in small animals include vaccines, antimicrobial agents, analgesics, and insect and reptile venoms. The treatment of hypersensitivity reactions is largely symptomatic and guided by the severity of clinical signs.
Article
Electronic patient records from practice management software systems have been used extensively in medicine for the investigation of clinical problems leading to the creation of decision support frameworks. To date, technologies that have been utilised for this purpose such as text mining and content analysis have not been employed significantly in veterinary medicine. The aim of this research was to pilot the use of content analysis and text-mining software for the synthesis and analysis of information extracted from veterinary electronic patient records. The purpose of the work was to be able to validate this approach for future employment across a number of practices for the purposes of practice based research. The approach utilised content analysis (Prosuite) and text mining (WordStat) software to aggregate the extracted text. Text mining tools such as Keyword in Context (KWIC) and Keyword Retrieval (KR) were employed to identify specific occurrences of data across the records. Two different datasets were interrogated, a bespoke test dataset that had been set up specifically for the purpose of the research, and a functioning veterinary clinic dataset that had been extracted from one veterinary practice. Across both datasets, the KWIC analysis was found to have a high level of accuracy with the search resulting in a sensitivity of between 85.3–100%, a specificity of between 99.1–99.7%, a positive predictive value between 93.5–95.8% and a negative predictive value between 97.7–100%. The KR search, based on machine learning, was utilised for the clinic-based dataset and was found to perform slightly better than the KWIC analysis. This study is the first to demonstrate the application of content analysis and text mining software for validation purposes across a number of different datasets for the purpose of search and recall of specific information across electronic patient records. This has not been demonstrated previously for small animal veterinary epidemiological research for the purposes of large scale analysis for practice-based research. Extension of this work to investigate more complex diseases across larger populations is required to fully explore the use of this approach in veterinary practice.
Chapter
Allergic skin disease often results in wheals, so‐called urticaria. Wheals may occur with or without angioedema. Both signify that the patient is experiencing a hypersensitivity reaction that may culminate in anaphylaxis. There are many causes of anaphylaxis. IgE‐mediated anaphylaxis may stem from vaccinations, insect stings or reptile envenomation, transfusions, mast cell tumor degranulation, food allergies, or pharmaceutical agents. Time is of the essence when medically managing an anaphylactic reaction. Fatalities are possible, particularly if patient care is delayed. The shock organ for the dog is the liver and gastrointestinal tract; the shock organ for the cat is the lung. Because of these species‐specific distinctions, vomiting, and diarrhea are common sequelae of anaphylaxis in the dog‚ whereas respiratory distress is common in the cat. A successful patient outcome hinges upon the clinician's expedience in addressing the impending shock. Medical management of anaphylaxis is beyond the scope of this chapter; however, it is critical that the clinician recognize the presenting clinical signs in order to react with urgency and without deliberation. It is equally important that clinicians consider the potential for anaphylactic reactions proactively so that they are prepared to respond to adverse outcomes, whether or not they arise.
Chapter
The importance of adverse effects from vaccination must not be overstated. Vaccine benefits greatly exceed any risks from the procedure. Neither must they be minimized. Unnecessary vaccination must be discouraged. Hypersensitivity reactions to vaccine components are real and must be guarded against. Residual virulence, although a concern tends to be more a hypothetical than a real problem. Progressive improvements in animal vaccines have significantly reduced the chances of adverse effects occurring, although some issues persist. One such example is injection-site sarcomas in cats. Another issue is the influence of animal size on the prevalence of adverse events in dogs.
Article
A non adjuvanted vaccine against feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, feline panleucopenia and feline leukemia has been formulated in reduced volume (0.5 ml) with the same antigen content as the conventional 1 ml presentation. This paper reports studies evaluating the safety and the immunogenicity of this reduced volume vaccine in comparison with the conventional volume vaccine. The safety of both vaccines was evaluated in a small sized laboratory trial. It was further tested in a randomized controlled field trial on a total of 398 cats. Immediate and delayed local and systemic adverse events were monitored after vaccination. The immunogenicity of each vaccine was also checked by serological antibody responses against the vaccines antigens during the laboratory trial. These studies showed that the 0.5 ml vaccine was well tolerated in cats, inducing less local events, while keeping the same immunogenicity as the corresponding 1 ml vaccine. Reducing the volume of the vaccine is a way to improve the convenience of administration and to help following vaccination guidelines with the aim of reducing the incidence of adverse events following vaccination.
Chapter
Feline Panleukopenia is a highly contagious, potentially fatal disease of cats. Feline Panleukopenia virus is the causative agent of an extremely contagious disease that has been known by a variety of names such as feline distemper, feline infectious enteritis, feline parvoviral enteritis, pseudomembranous enteritis, laryngoenteritis, feline agranulocytosis, and show fever, among others. There are four recognized forms of the clinical disease: subacute, peracute, acute, and peri‐natal. The pathogenicity of the strain and the dose of pathogen also play a role in morbidity and mortality, with kitten deaths reported in households of fully vaccinated kittens, possibly due to exposure to large amounts of virus in the environment. At the time of adoption, transfer, relocation or placement in foster care, caregivers should always be provided with the cat's complete medical history in writing, including vaccinations, deworming, treatment and any other information pertinent to the animal's health.
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The Vaccine Safety Datalink is a collaborative project involving the National Immunization Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and several large health maintenance organizations in the USA. The project began in 1990 with the primary purpose of rigorously evaluating concerns about the safety of vaccines. Computerized data on vaccination, medical outcome (e.g. outpatient visits, emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and deaths) and covariates (e.g. birth certificates, census data) are prospectively collected and linked under joint protocol at multiple health maintenance organizations for analysis. Approximately 6 million persons (2% of the population of the USA) are now members of health maintenance organizations participating in the Vaccine Safety Datalink, which has proved to be a valuable resource providing important information on a number of vaccine safety issues. The databases and infrastructure created for the Vaccine Safety Datalink have also provided opportunities to address vaccination coverage, cost-effectiveness and other matters connected with immunization as well as matters outside this field.
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To examine local reactions and short-term cytologic responses of cats to administration of rabies virus (RV); FeLV; and combined feline rhinotracheitis, calicivirus, and panleukopenia virus (FRCPV) vaccines. 9 healthy 6- to 7-month-old specific-pathogen-free cats. One-milliliter doses of the aforementioned vaccines were administered SC (at different sites) to healthy, specific-pathogen-free cats. Each cat also received 1 ml of sterile saline solution SC as a control. Injection sites were visually examined and palpated daily for 4 weeks. Palpable lesions were measured by use of calipers. Temperature of the vaccination sites was measured weekly by use of a thermocouple. Aspirates were taken from vaccination sites weekly, and smears were submitted for cytologic analysis. There were no significant differences in lesion surface temperature among injection sites at any time. Injections of saline solution and FeLV vaccine resulted in no palpable lesions. The FRCPV vaccine elicited a minor reaction in 1 of the 9 cats. The RV vaccine caused palpable lesions in all cats. Smears of the aspirates from the sites of saline injection were poorly cellular. Cellularity of aspirates from the sites of FRCPV and FeLV vaccinations was moderate at week 1, and decreased with time. Inflammatory infiltrates were composed principally of lymphocytes, with fewer neutrophils and macrophages. In contrast, cellularity of aspirates from RV vaccination sites increased for 21 days and was characterized by increasing numbers of lymphocytes and macrophages. RV vaccine used in this study induced palpable lesions in many cats. In contrast, FRCPV and FeLV vaccines elicited less severe lesions. Subcutaneous administration of killed virus vaccines in cats may result in palpable lesions that are detected by clients or clinicians. Aspiration cytologic examination may reveal a different characteristic pattern of cells that is dependent on the individual vaccine and time elapsed from vaccination.
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Mild local and systemic reactions to vaccines are to be expected as a natural consequence of vigorously stimulating the immune system. Dramatic adverse reactions to vaccines are occasionally due to mistakes during the production or handling of vaccines. More often, they are due to not following label instructions, particularly the restriction to only use vaccines in healthy animals. It is important to publish well-documented instances of adverse vaccine reactions so that producers and users of vaccines can all learn from the experience and avoid similar problems. Vaccine failure to protect from disease is usually due to problems with either client education or compliance with good animal management practices. It is important for clients to understand the proper timing and method of vaccine administration, what to realistically expect for vaccine efficacy, and the importance of minimizing immunosuppressive factors and exposure to high doses of infectious agents in vaccinated animals. Veterinary vaccines have produced dramatic benefits in terms of animal health, human health, and efficiency of food production. Advances in research and the accumulating experience with vaccines are leading to safer and more effective vaccines. Proper usage of vaccines and adherence to good management practices will continue to be essential to achieve maximal vaccine safety and efficacy.
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Early histologic changes in lesions at vaccine sites were compared in cats, mink, and ferrets. Twenty-four 4-month-old cats, 20 4-month-old mink, and 20 12-month-old ferrets were vaccinated with three rabies virus vaccines, two feline leukemia virus vaccines, alum adjuvant, and saline. Injection sites were excised at selected time points up to 21 days postvaccination. Histologic examination of the tissue revealed significant differences among the cats, mink, and ferrets in the local response to the commercial vaccines. When compared with ferrets and mink, cats had more lymphocytes in response to all three rabies vaccines. Production of fibroblasts, collagen, and macrophages differed among the three killed aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines in cats but did not differ significantly in mink or ferrets. Cats produced fewer binucleate cells than did mink or ferrets in response to the two adjuvanted leukemia virus vaccines. Differences seen in early tissue response of cats to commercial vaccines may be related to the increased predisposition of cats to vaccine-associated sarcomas.
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To determine incidence rates and potential risk factors for vaccine-associated adverse events (VAAEs) diagnosed within 3 days of administration in dogs. Retrospective cohort study. 1,226,159 dogs vaccinated at 360 veterinary hospitals. Electronic records from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2003, were searched for possible VAAEs (nonspecific vaccine reaction, allergic reaction, urticaria, or anaphylaxis) diagnosed within 3 days of vaccine administration. Information included age, weight, sex, neuter status, and breed. Specific clinical signs and treatments were reviewed in a random sample of 400 affected dogs. The association between potential risk factors and a VAAE was estimated by use of multivariate logistic regression. 4,678 adverse events (38.2/10,000 dogs vaccinated) were associated with administration of 3,439,576 doses of vaccine to 1,226,159 dogs. The VAAE rate decreased significantly as body weight increased. Risk was 27% to 38% greater for neutered versus sexually intact dogs and 35% to 64% greater for dogs approximately 1 to 3 years old versus 2 to 9 months old. The risk of a VAAE significantly increased as the number of vaccine doses administered per office visit increased; each additional vaccine significantly increased risk of an adverse event by 27% in dogs < or = 10 kg (22 lb) and 12% in dogs > 10 kg. Young adult small-breed neutered dogs that received multiple vaccines per office visit were at greatest risk of a VAAE within 72 hours after vaccination. These factors should be considered in risk assessment and risk communication with clients regarding vaccination.
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The higher prevalence of autoimmune disease among women compared with men suggests that steroids impact immune regulation. To investigate how sex steroids modulate cellular immune function, we conducted a randomized trial in 12 healthy men aged 35-55 yr treated for 28 days with placebo, a GnRH antagonist, acyline to induce medical castration, or acyline plus daily testosterone (T) gel to replace serum T, followed by a 28-day recovery period. Serum hormones were measured weekly and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were collected biweekly for analyses of thymus-derived lymphocyte (T cell) subtypes and natural killer (NK) cells. Compared with the other groups and to baseline throughout the drug exposure period, men receiving acyline alone had significant reductions in serum T (near or below castrate levels), dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol (P < 0.05). Medical castration significantly reduced the percentage of CD4+ CD25+ T cells (P < 0.05), decreased mitogen-induced CD8+ T cell IFN-gamma expression, and increased the percentage of NK cells without affecting the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ T cells and the expression of NK cell-activating receptor NKG2D or homing receptor CXCR1. No changes in immune composition were observed in subjects receiving placebo or acyline with replacement T. These data suggest that T and/or its metabolites may help maintain the physiological balance of autoimmunity and protective immunity by preserving the number of regulatory T cells and the activation of CD8+ T cells. In addition, sex steroids suppress NK cell proliferation. This study supports a complex physiological role for T and/or its metabolites in immune regulation.
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The report provided here was developed by the AAFP Feline Vaccine Advisory Panel to aid practitioners in making decisions about appropriate care of patients with respect to currently available vaccines. The Advisory Panel included experts in immunology, infectious disease, internal medicine, and clinical practice. As much as possible, the information reported here was based on information from studies in peer-reviewed publications. When such information was not available, the Advisory Panel depended on clinical experience, technical judgments, and results of unpublished studies. Although the information contained herein is intended to be accurate, thorough, and comprehensive, it is subject to change in light of developments in research, technology, and experience. As such, this document should not be construed as dictating exclusive protocols, courses of treatment, or procedures. Other techniques and procedures may be warranted on the basis of the needs of the patient, available resources, and limitations unique to the setting. The AAFP thanks the members of the Feline Vaccine Advisory Panel for their devotion to this project. The AAFP also appreciates the openness and assistance provided by manufacturers of feline vaccines.
Article
Concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured in serum samples obtained from 100 dogs. Groups (n = 25/group) consisted of sexually intact and ovariohysterectomized bitches and sexually intact and castrated male dogs. Mean (+/- SD) concentrations of LH in the serum of sexually intact and ovariohysterectomized bitches were 1.2 (+/- 0.9) and 28.7 (+/- 25.8) ng/ml, respectively. Mean concentrations of FSH in the serum of sexually intact and ovariohysterectomized bitches were 98 (+/- 49) and 1,219 (+/- 763) ng/ml, respectively. Mean concentrations of LH in the serum of sexually intact and castrated male dogs were 6.0 (+/- 5.2) and 17.1 (+/- 9.9) ng/ml, respectively. Mean concentrations of FSH in the serum of sexually intact and castrated male dogs were 89 (+/- 28) and 858 (+/- 674) ng/ml, respectively. In addition to history, physical examination results, and other laboratory values, the measurement of serum gonadotropin concentrations may aid in determining whether dogs have been neutered.
Article
Within the past 2 years, a putative causal relationship has been reported between vaccination against rabies and the development of fibrosarcomas at injection sites in cats. A retrospective study was undertaken, involving 345 cats with fibrosarcomas diagnosed between January 1991 and May 1992, to assess the causal hypothesis. Cats with fibrosarcomas developing at body locations where vaccines are typically administered (n = 185) were compared with controls (n = 160) having fibrosarcomas at locations not typically used for vaccination. In cats receiving FeLV vaccination within 2 years of tumorigenesis, the time between vaccination and tumor development was significantly (P = 0.005) shorter for tumors developing at sites where vaccines are typically administered than for tumors at other sites. Univariate analysis, adjusted for age, revealed associations between FeLV vaccination (odds ratio [OR] = 2.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.54 to 5.15), rabies vaccination at the cervical/interscapular region (OR = 2.09; 95% CI = 1.01 to 4.31), and rabies vaccination at the femoral region (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 0.65 to 5.10) with fibrosarcoma development at the vaccination site within 1 year of vaccination. Multivariate analysis, adjusted for age and other vaccines, also revealed increased risks after FeLV (OR = 5.49; 95% CI = 1.98 to 15.24) and rabies (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 0.72 to 5.54) vaccination.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
The safety profile of a new controlled-titer feline panleukopenia-rhinotracheitis-calicivirus-Chlamydia psittaci vaccine was compared to that of a currently-marketed vaccine. Of particular interest were delayed reactions (previously unreported in the literature in felines) occurring 7 to 21 days after vaccination, and the effect of concurrent vaccinations and cat age on the delayed reaction rate. Nineteen hundred twenty-four doses of the new vaccine and 364 doses of the comparison vaccine were administered in 42 participating veterinary practices. The postvaccination evaluation period was 21 days. Reactions (anaphylaxis, short- and long-term lethargy, inappetence, pain, upper respiratory inflammation, delayed fever, anorexia, and miscellaneous events) were reported in 3.33% of cats receiving the controlled-titer vaccine and in 3.02% of cats receiving the comparison vaccine. The difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.45). Reaction rate of the controlled-titer vaccine and that of the vaccine currently accepted by veterinarians appear to be equivalent.
Article
To obtain an estimate of the yearly prevalence of injection-site sarcomas in cats. Mail survey of members of the American Association of Feline Practitioners. A questionnaire was sent to 1,112 veterinarians. 235 responses were sufficiently complete for inclusion in the study. Overall, responding veterinarians reported 744,993 cat visits in 1992, representing 434,638 individual cats (1.7 visits/cat). The estimated overall prevalence of injection-site sarcomas during 1992 was 0.00021 cases/cat visit (2.1 cases/10,000 cat visits) or 0.00036 cases/cat (3.6 cases/10,000 cats). Results suggest that injection-site sarcomas were rare during 1992.
Article
A reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a 235 bp hypervariable region of the feline calicivirus (FCV) genome which encodes part of the capsid protein. Sequence from this region was used to compare viruses used in three attenuated vaccines to viruses isolated from vaccinated cats with clinical signs of FCV-infection (vaccine failures). All three vaccine viruses contained sequence similar to that published for FCV strain F9 (Carter et al. 1992, Virology 190, 443-448). However, two of the three vaccines contained a separate sequence which was 20.67% distant (number of nucleotide substitutions per 100 bases) from F9. The sequences derived from isolates obtained from vaccine failures fell into two categories. Most were distinct (21.33-38.00% distant) from vaccine sequence. However, in some cases, sequences were sufficiently similar to the vaccines' (0.00-5.33% distant) to suggest that the isolate may have originated from the vaccine. In addition, comparison of sequence determined for isolates from the same disease outbreak showed them to be closely related (0.00-1.33% distant), whereas epidemiologically unrelated isolates were 20.67-38.00% distant.
Article
In addition to their effects on sexual differentiation and reproduction, sex hormones influence the immune system. This results in a gender dimorphism in the immune function with females having higher immunoglobulin levels and mounting stronger immune responses following immunization or infection than males. The greater immune responsiveness in females is also evident in their increased susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. However, a clear understanding of the myriad of effects that sex hormones have on the immune system is lacking. Studies in normal mice show that estrogen treatment induces polyclonal B cell activation with increased expression of autoantibodies characteristic of autoimmune diseases. Several mechanisms appear to contribute to the break in tolerance and the increase in plasma cell activity including a reduction of the mass of the bone marrow and the thymus, the emergence of sites of extramedullary hematopoiesis and altered susceptibility of B cells to cell death. In addition, sex hormone levels in both humans and experimental models correlated with the activity of their cytokine-secreting cells indicating that sex hormones influence the cytokine milieu and suggesting that altered sex hormonal levels in autoimmune patients contribute to the skewed cytokine milieu characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). While sex hormones alone do not cause autoimmune disease, abnormal hormone levels may provide the stage for other factors (genetic, infectious) to trigger disease. Understanding the physiology of the interaction between sex hormones and immune function and its potential pathological consequences may provide insight into the autoimmune diseases and new directions for their treatment.
Article
Although vaccination plays a vital role in maintaining animal health, there are risks associated with this medical procedure. Veterinarians are beginning to reexamine dogmatic vaccine protocols and consider both risks and benefits of vaccination, with special emphasis on adverse event information generated by practitioner experience. The current status of postmarketing surveillance for commercially available veterinary vaccines is presented, along with a discussion of the strengths and limitations of surveillance programs. An overview of adverse events commonly reported by veterinarians is included, along with practical information on how veterinarians can share their observations and learn about adverse events reported by their colleagues.
Article
Estrogens are important for bone homeostasis and are classified as anti-resorptive agents. In ovariectomized rats, mast cell changes occurred during the activation of resorption. In addition, quantitative changes occurred in mast cell population residing near the site undergoing resorption. Considering these studies, mast cells may play a role in osteoporosis. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to study mast cell cytokine production also in the presence or absence of estrogen. When cultured in the absence of estrogen, human mast cells treated with PMA or A23187 demonstrated significantly greater release of TNF-alpha and IL-6 than cells grown under estrogen-depleted condition. Our results show that treatment of mast cells with estrogen prevented PMA or A23187-stimulated TNF-alpha or IL-6 release. These data provide evidence for a potent inhibition of cytokines by estrogen in human mast cells. This study may help to explain the association between mast cells and osteoporosis.
Article
* The working group was set up by the Veterinary Products Committee in response to current concern in both the public domain and in the scientific community about possible health risks related to the routine vaccination of cats and dogs. The working group concluded that vaccination plays a very valuable role in the prevention and control of the major infectious diseases in cats and dogs. Although adverse reactions to vaccination, including lack of efficacy, occasionally occur, the working group concluded that the overall risk/benefit analysis strongly supports their continued use. * Although for some diseases there is evidence of a longer duration of immunity following vaccination than the one year which is typically recommended on the product literature, there is currently insufficient information to propose revaccination intervals other than those proposed by the manufacturer and approved by the regulatory process. * Notwithstanding this, in view of the occasional occurrence of adverse reactions, the working group recommends that the product literature indicates that the regime for booster vaccinations is based on a minimum duration of immunity rather than a maximum. The working group further recommends that the product literature should state that a risk/benefit assessment should be made for each individual animal by the veterinary surgeon in consultation with the owner with respect to the necessity for each vaccine and the frequency of its use. * The evidence suggests that cats appear to be susceptible to the occasional development of sarcomas at sites of injection and there is some further evidence to suggest that, although other products may be involved, this may be more associated with the use of vaccines containing aluminium-based adjuvants. The working group therefore recommends that a generic warning to this effect should appear on the product literature for all feline vaccines administered by injection. The working group also highlighted the need for professional and educational bodies in the UK to bring to the attention of veterinary practitioners appropriate methods for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this serious condition. * The working group considered in depth the monitoring of adverse reactions, including the advantages and disadvantages of surveillance schemes. A range of options for carrying out further epidemiological (analytical) studies was also considered. However, the working group emphasised that surveillance schemes, and the UK Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) Suspected Adverse Reaction (SAR) Surveillance Scheme in particular, provided a very valuable resource. The large database within the VMD scheme (collected since 1985) was analysed as part of this report. Figures were derived in terms of incidence (reporting rate) of certain clinical signs per 10,000 doses, and risk factors as identified by statistical analysis. However, due to a number of constraints, the analysis was not fully comprehensive and the interaction of possible risk factors was not determined. * Product-related control charts were developed in order to detect changes in incidence rates of adverse reactions (per 10,000 doses sold) both within and between different vaccines. Such charts provide a powerful way to detect changing trends in incidence and, when used in conjunction with product characteristics, they may identify possible causes. In general, the data showed that the incidence of adverse reactions to cat and dog vaccines per 10,000 doses of product sold was relatively low. Although under-reporting is a feature of such surveillance schemes, it does appear that, overall, vaccination of cats and dogs should be considered safe and effective. * Finally, the working group was conscious, while preparing this report, of the extensive media coverage that has been given to the issue of the safety of human vaccines, in particular the mumps, measles and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The working group emphasises that the conclusions and recommendations included in this report relate only to the vaccines used in cats and dogs. The issues identified are specific to the diseases and species examined and no attempt should be made to draw analogous conclusions in relation to vaccines administered to humans.
Article
To determine the effect of vaccination on serum concentrations of total and antigen-specific IgE in dogs. 20 female Beagles. Groups of 5 dogs each were vaccinated repeatedly between 8 weeks and 4 years of age with a multivalent and rabies vaccine, a multivalent vaccine only, or a rabies vaccine only. A fourth group of 5 dogs served as unvaccinated controls. Serum concentrations of total immunoglobulins and antigen-specific IgE were determined following vaccination. -The multivalent vaccine had little effect on serum total IgE concentrations. The concentration of IgE increased slightly following vaccination for rabies at 16 weeks and 1 year of age and increased greatly after vaccination at 2 and 3 years of age in most dogs, with a distinct variation between individual dogs. Vaccination had no effect on serum concentrations of IgA, IgG, and IgM as measured at 2 and 3 years of age. The rabies vaccine contained aluminum adjuvant in contrast to the multivalent vaccine. An increase of IgE that was reactive with vaccine antigens, including bovine serum albumin and bovine fibronectin, was detected in some of the dogs vaccinated for rabies. There was no significant correlation between serum concentrations of total IgE and antigen-specific IgE following vaccination. Serum total IgE concentration rapidly returned to preimmunization concentrations in most dogs, but high concentrations of antigen-specific IgE persisted. Vaccination of dogs for rabies increases serum concentrations of total IgE and induces IgE specific for vaccine antigens, including tissue culture residues. Vaccination history should be considered in the interpretation of serum total IgE concentrations.
Article
To quantify incidence of vaccination practices, postvaccinal reactions, and vaccine site-associated sarcomas in cats. Epidemiologic survey. Animals-31,671 cats vaccinated in the United States and Canada by veterinarians with World Wide Web access. Veterinarians used secure Web-based survey forms to report data regarding administered vaccines, postvaccinal inflammatory reactions, vaccine site-associated sarcomas, and detailed information and history on each sarcoma. Data were collected from Jan 1, 1998 to Dec 31, 2000, allowing a 1- to 3-year follow-up of vaccinated cats. Participants reported administering 61,747 doses of vaccine to 31,671 cats; postvaccinal inflammatory reactions developed in 73 cats (11.8 reactions/10,000 vaccine doses), and qualifying vaccine site-associated sarcomas developed in 2 cats (0.63 sarcomas/10,000 cats; 0.32 sarcomas/10,000 doses of all vaccines). These findings indicate that the incidence of vaccine site-associated sarcomas is low and is not increasing. Thoughtful consideration of the relative risks and benefits of specific vaccines remains the best means of reducing the incidence of sarcomas. It is not necessary to remove postvaccinal granulomas unless malignant behavior is apparent or they persist > 4 months.
Article
Combined administrative databases are referred to as 'large linked databases' because of their relatively large size and the need for linkage of different data sets that were created separately from each other. Such linked databases have become popular in vaccine safety surveillance. Whereas their use offers some unique opportunities, their increasingly widespread use can also lead to wrongful linkage of vaccines to adverse events. We review the opportunities and hazards of using large linked databases for vaccine safety surveillance and propose some guidelines to increase the reliability of the outcomes. We also offer our opinion on the future use of large linked databases for vaccine safety surveillance purposes.
Article
The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) is administered by the Food and Drug Administration and CDC and is a key component of postlicensure vaccine safety surveillance. Its primary function is to detect early warning signals and generate hypotheses about possible new vaccine adverse events or changes in frequency of known ones. VAERS is a passive surveillance system that relies on physicians and others to voluntarily submit reports of illness after vaccination. Manufacturers are required to report all adverse events of which they become aware. There are a number of well-described limitations of such reporting systems. These include, for example, variability in report quality, biased reporting, underreporting and the inability to determine whether a vaccine caused the adverse event in any individual report. Strengths of VAERS are that it is national in scope and timely. The information in VAERS reports is not necessarily complete nor is it verified systematically. Reports are classified as serious or nonserious based on regulatory criteria. Reports are coded by VAERS in a uniform way with a limited number of terms using a terminology called COSTART. Coding is useful for search purposes but is necessarily imprecise. VAERS is useful in detecting adverse events related to vaccines and most recently was used for enhanced reporting of adverse events in the national smallpox immunization campaign. VAERS data have always been publicly available. However, it is essential for users of VAERS data to be fully aware of the strengths and weaknesses of the system. VAERS data contain strong biases. Incidence rates and relative risks of specific adverse events cannot be calculated. Statistical significance tests and confidence intervals should be used with great caution and not routinely. Signals detected in VAERS should be subjected to further clinical and descriptive epidemiologic analysis. Confirmation in a controlled study is usually required. An understanding of the system's defined objectives and inherent drawbacks is vital to the effective use of VAERS data in vaccine safety investigations.
Article
Allergic reactions after vaccination are considered as an important practical problem in dogs; however, their immunological mechanism has not been well understood. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between IgE reactivity to the vaccines and immediate-type allergic reactions after vaccination in dogs. Sera from 10 dogs that developed immediate-type allergic reactions such as circulatory collapse, cyanosis, dyspnea, facial edema, and vomiting within 1h after vaccination with non-rabies monovalent or combined vaccines and sera from 50 dogs that did not develop allergic reactions after vaccination were collected. Serum IgE reactivity to the injected vaccines was measured by fluorometric ELISA using a mouse monoclonal anti-dog IgE antibody. Then, IgE reactivity to fetal calf serum (FCS) and stabilizer proteins (gelatin, casein, and peptone) included in the vaccines was measured in sera that had high levels of IgE to the vaccines. Levels of serum specific IgE to the vaccines in dogs with immediate-type allergic reactions (59-4173 fluorescence units [FU], mean +/- S.D.: 992.5 +/- 1181.9 FU) were significantly higher than those in control dogs (38-192 FU, 92.4 +/- 43.3 FU) (P < 0.001). Of the eight dogs that developed immediate-type allergic reactions and had high levels of serum specific IgE to the vaccines, seven had specific IgE directed to FCS. The IgE reactivity to the vaccines in sera from these dogs was almost completely inhibited by FCS. The other one dog had serum IgE directed to gelatin and casein included in the vaccine as stabilizers. The results obtained in this study suggest that immediate-type allergic reactions after vaccination in dogs were induced by type I hypersensitivity mediated by IgE directed to vaccine components. In addition, FCS, gelatin, and casein included in vaccines could be the causative allergens that induced immediate-type allergic reactions after vaccination in dogs.
Article
Previous work from this lab has shown that estrogen attenuates inflammatory cytokine production following brain lesions in young adult female rats, but not in older, reproductive senescent females. The present study was designed to elucidate whether these effects result from estrogen's actions on brain-resident immune cells (microglia) or on circulating immune cells recruited to the brain from blood. Microglia, harvested from the olfactory bulbs of ovariectomized young adult and reproductive senescent animals, were pretreated with 17beta-estradiol and subsequently with the bacterial endotoxin LPS. LPS treatment significantly increased the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta in microglial cultures harvested from young and senescent females, but estrogen treatment had no effect on cytokine expression in either group. In young adult-derived microglia, LPS treatment also increased nitric oxide (NO), which was attenuated by estrogen, and MMP-9, which was not affected by estrogen. Reproductive senescent-derived microglia cultures had higher basal expression of NO and MMP-9 activity as compared to those from young adult microglial cultures, although LPS did not further stimulate these inflammatory markers. In blood cultures, LPS stimulated a dose-dependent increase in the inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha expression in both young adult and reproductive senescent animals. Estrogen replacement significantly attenuated TNF-alpha induction by LPS in blood cultures derived from young adult females. Paradoxically, estrogen replacement increased LPS-induced TNF-alpha expression in blood cultures derived from reproductive senescent animals as compared to age-matched controls. The age and estrogen dependent effects on circulating immune cells found in whole blood cultures closely mimic the effects of estrogen on cytokine expression in the young and senescent animals that we reported in vivo, supporting the hypothesis that the immunosuppressive actions of estrogen replacement on neural injury may result from hormone-action on circulating immune cells.
Article
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common condition in cats characterised by infiltration of inflammatory cells into the intestinal mucosa. In this study, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to quantify cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in intestinal biopsies from cats. Biopsies were collected from seven cats with chronic diarrhoea and histologically confirmed IBD, five cats with chronic diarrhoea due to non-IBD gastrointestinal (GI) disease, and nine clinically normal cats with or without subclinical inflammatory changes in small intestine. Real-time RT-PCR was developed for quantification of mRNA encoding interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p35 and p40), IL-18, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as a 'housekeeper' gene. All real-time PCR efficiencies were>90% (range 90.4-102%) with correlation coefficients >0.99 (range 0.998-1). The results of the study were analyzed on the basis of either clinical presentation or histopathological evidence of intestinal inflammation. The former analysis showed that mRNA encoding IL-10 and TGF-beta (immunoregulatory cytokines), and IL-6, IL-18, TNF-alpha and IL-12 p40 (Th1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines) was significantly higher in clinically normal cats and cats with IBD when compared to cats with other GI diseases. IL-5 mRNA was significantly higher in cats with IBD compared to clinically normal cats. IL-2 mRNA was significantly lower in cats with non-IBD GI disease than in clinically normal cats. Analysis on the basis of histopathological change revealed that cats with intestinal inflammation had significantly more transcription of genes encoding IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta than those with normal intestinal morphology. The results suggest that immune dysregulation plays a role in feline IBD and that IBD in cats has a complicated pathogenesis with both pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory features.
Veterinary Products SMALL ANIMALS 100 Scientific Reports: Retrospective Study JAVMA Committee working group report on feline and canine vaccination
  • Rm Gaskell
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Gaskell RM, Gettinby G, Graham SJ, et al. Veterinary Products SMALL ANIMALS 100 Scientific Reports: Retrospective Study JAVMA, Vol 231, No. 1, July 1, 2007 Committee working group report on feline and canine vaccination. Vet Rec 2002;150:126–134.
Committee working group report on feline and canine vaccina-tion
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rSMALL ANIMALS 100 Scientific Reports: Retrospective Study JAVMA, Vol 231, No. 1, July 1, 2007 Committee working group report on feline and canine vaccina-tion. Vet Rec 2002;150:126–134
Sex hormones as immunomodulators in health and disease
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Verthelyi D. Sex hormones as immunomodulators in health and disease. Int Immunopharmacol 2001;1:983–993.
Risks of vaccination
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Povey RC, Carman PS. Risks of vaccination. In: Pastoret PP, ed. Veterinary vaccinology. New York: Elsevier, 1997;546–551.
Veterinary Products Scientific Reports
  • Rm Gaskell
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Gaskell RM, Gettinby G, Graham SJ, et al. Veterinary Products Scientific Reports: Retrospective Study JAVMA, Vol 231, No. 1, July 1, 2007