Normality and impairment following profound early institutional deprivation: a longitudinal follow-up into early adolescence.

Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Research Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, England. .
Developmental Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.21). 07/2007; 43(4):931-46. DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.4.93
Source: PubMed


Longitudinal analyses on normal versus impaired functioning across 7 domains were conducted in children who had experienced profound institutional deprivation up to the age of 42 months and were adopted from Romania into U.K. families. Comparisons were made with noninstitutionalized children adopted from Romania and with nondeprived within-U.K. adoptees placed before the age of 6 months. Specifically, the validity of the assessment, the degree of continuity and change in levels of functioning from 6 to 11 years, and the factors in the pre- and postadoption environment accounting for heterogeneity in outcome were examined. Pervasive impairment was significantly raised in children experiencing institutional deprivation for > or =6 months of life, with a minority within this group showing no impairment. There was no additional significant effect of duration of deprivation beyond the 6-month cutoff, and few other predictors explained outcome. The pattern of normality/impairment was mainly established by 6 years of age, with considerable continuity at the individual level between 6 and 11 years. The findings are discussed in terms of the possibility of a sensitive period for development.

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    • "ll, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; E-mail: This research was funded by Grants HD 050212 and 39017 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (to R.B.M. and C.J.G.). The interpretations and opinions expressed are those of the authors, not the funder.Kreppner et al., 2007), approximately 18 months for those departing less severe institutions such as those in Russia (Hawk & McCall, 2011;Merz & McCall, 2010Merz, McCall, & Groza, 2013), and perhaps 24–27 months or later for children from the relatively better institutions of China and South Korea (Merz, McCall, & Groza, 2013)."
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 149 children, who spent an average of 13.8 months in Russian institutions, were transferred to Russian families of relatives and nonrelatives at an average age of 24.7 months. After residing in these families for at least 1 year (average = 43.2 months), parents reported on their attachment, indiscriminately friendly behavior, social–emotional competencies, problem behaviors, and effortful control when they were 1.5–10.7 years of age. They were compared to a sample of 83 Russian parents of noninstitutionalized children, whom they had reared from birth. Generally, institutionalized children were rated similarly to parent-reared children on most measures, consistent with substantial catch-up growth typically displayed by children after transitioning to families. However, institutionalized children were rated more poorly than parent-reared children on certain competencies in early childhood and some attentional skills. There were relatively few systematic differences associated with age at family placement or whether the families were relatives or nonrelatives. Russian parent-reared children were rated as having more problem behaviors than the US standardization sample, which raises cautions about using standards cross-culturally.
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    • "However, not all studies found this association (Groza, Ryan, & Cash, 2003; Juffer & Van IJzendoorn, 2005; Miller et al., 2009). Romanian adoptees adopted after severe deprivation in institutional care beyond six months of age, had significantly more behavioural problems than children adopted before the age of six months (Kreppner et al., 2007). For children adopted from psychosocially depriving institutions in the FSU more behavioural problems were reported for children adopted at 18 months or older, than for children adopted before the age of 18 months (Hawk & McCall, 2011; Merz & McCall, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Behavioural problems in adoptees have been related to adverse circumstances prior to adoption. We examined pre-adoptive risk factors and post-adoptive behavioural problems in children adopted from Poland. Dutch adoptive parents of 133 Polish adoptees (M-age = 8.7 years, range 2.8-15.2; M-ageadoption = 3.0 years, range .4-6.9) answered the Child Behaviour Checklist and questions regarding pre-adoptive risk factors, such as institutionalization, neglect and abuse. Polish adoptees in our sample were four times more likely to have clinical behavioural problems than non-adopted children. Compared with a group of children adopted from various countries, predominantly from Asia, Polish adoptees had higher levels of behavioural problems as well. Multiple pre-adoptive risk factors were present. Only a history of abuse was found to be associated with behavioural problems after adoption. Special attention and support after adoption are needed for these children and their adoptive parents, especially when a pre-adoptive history of abuse is known.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · European Journal of Developmental Psychology
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    • "Between-studies comparisons have revealed that higher rates of behavioral problems occur for those adopted after 6 to 24 months than for earlier adoptees (Hawk & McCall, 2011; Julian, 2013). Children from globally depriving Romanian institutions internationally adopted after 6 months show a heightened risk of later behavioral problems than do those adopted before 6 months (Kreppner et al., 2007). Studies of the parent-reported behavioral functioning of children from socioemotionally depriving institutions of the Russian Federation adopted into advantaged American families have found that children adopted before 18 months had significantly lower problem scores than did children adopted after 18 months of age (Hawk & McCall, 2011; Merz & McCall, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Behavior problems were studied in fifty 5- to 8-year-old children transferred from a socioemotionally depriving Russian institution to domestic families. Results indicated that the postinstitutional (PI) sample as a whole had higher clinical/borderline behavior problem rates on the parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18 (T.M. Achenbach & L.A. Rescorla, 2001) aggressive and lower rates on the withdrawn/depressed and internalizing problems scales than did non-institutionalized (non-I) children reared in Russian families. Compared with the U.S. standardization sample, PI children had significantly higher rates for aggressive, externalizing, and social problems; the non-I children had higher rates for withdrawn/depressed and internalizing problems; and both groups had higher rates for rule-breaking behavioral problems. PI children placed in domestic families at 18 months or older had higher rates of problems than did the U.S. non-I standardization sample, but children placed at younger ages did not. PI children transferred to nonbiological families had lower rates of problems compared to U.S. norms than did children transferred to biological families. Thus, prolonged early socioemotional deprivation was associated with a higher percentage of behavior problems in children placed in domestic families, especially if transferred to biological families. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Infant Mental Health Journal
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