The genetic basis of essential hypertension
Department of Internal Medicine, Cardioangiology, Hepatology, University of Bologna, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy. Acta cardiologica
(Impact Factor: 0.65).
07/2007; 62(3):281-93. DOI: 10.2143/AC.62.3.2020818
During the last few years the studies on the genetic basis of essential hypertension (EH) have been numerous, allowing however only a partial understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. The most used techniques were the candidate gene approach, genome-wide scanning, the intermediate phenotype approach and comparative-genomics in animal models. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may play a prominent role in the genesis of hypertension, and polymorphisms of the genes coding for angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II type 1 and 2 receptors, and aldosterone synthase have been widely studied. Other mechanisms may involve the KLK 1 gene of tissue kallikrein, gene variants of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and polymorphisms of the endothelin-1 gene. Finally, a number of studies have highlighted the potential contribution of polymorphisms of genes coding for inflammatory cytokines, adrenergic receptors and intracellular G proteins, which can activate Na+/K+ exchangers. Further important information might derive from proteomic analysis and the study of mitochondrial genome. Overall, results have often been discordant, sometimes suggesting a different expression of the same gene variants in different populations. EH is a highly polygenic condition, caused by the combination of small changes in the expression of many genes, in conjunction with a variable collection of environmental factors.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Identification of factors for genetic risk of hypertension is thus essential for risk prediction of cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes. Several genes have shown association with essential hypertension either in the candidate gene studies or GWAS but the results have often been discordant (Cowley 2006; Sharma and McNeill 2006; Puddu et al. 2007; Adeyemo et al. 2009). "
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ABSTRACT: Renalase is a novel, recently identified, flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent amine oxidase. It is secreted by the kidney and metabolizes circulating catecholamines. Renalase has significant hemodynamic effects, therefore it is likely to participate in the regulation of cardiovascular function.The aim of our study was to investigate the involvement of renalase gene polymorphisms in hypertension in type 2 diabetes patients. A total of 892 patients and 400 controls were genotyped with three SNPs in the renalase gene. The C allele of rs2296545 SNP was associated with hypertension (P < 0.01). For rs2576178 SNP, frequencies in hypertensive patients differed from controls, but not from normotensive patients. For rs10887800 SNP, the differences in the G allele frequencies were observed in hypertensive patients with stroke, with 66% of patients being GG homozygotes. To confirm observed association we later genotyped 130 stroke patients without diabetes. The OR for risk allele was 1.79 (95% CI 1.33-2.41). In conclusion, the renalase gene polymorphism was associated with hypertension in type 2 diabetes patients. The most interesting result is a strong association of the rs10887800 polymorphism with stroke in patients with and without diabetes. The G allele of this polymorphism might thus be useful in identifying diabetes patients at increased risk of stroke.
Available from: Alexander M Kulminski
- "The analyses were first performed with adjustment for sex (when necessary) and age. Then the models were adjusted for such potential effect-mediators as systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures (mm Hg), smoking (ever smoked), diabetes, body-mass index (BMI; kg/m 2 ), total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (mg/100 ml) (Jalba et al., 2008; Petrone et al., 2006; Pinelli et al., 2006; Puddu et al., 2007). The absolute values of SBP, DBP, TC, and HDL were used in the regression models with increments of 10 mm Hg for SBP and DBP, and 10 mg/100 ml for TC and HDL cholesterol. "
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ABSTRACT: The Gln(27)Glu polymorphism but not the Arg(16)Gly polymorphism of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene appears to be associated with a broad range of aging-associated phenotypes, including cancers at different sites, myocardial infarction (MI), intermittent claudication (IC), and overall/healthy longevity in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort. The Gln(27)Gln genotype increases risks of cancer, MI and IC, whereas the Glu(27) allele or, equivalently, the Gly(16)Glu(27) haplotype tends to be protective against these diseases. Genetic associations with longevity are of opposite nature at young-old and oldest-old ages highlighting the phenomenon of antagonistic pleiotropy. The mechanism of antagonistic pleiotropy is associated with an evolutionary-driven advantage of carriers of a derived Gln(27) allele at younger ages and their survival disadvantage at older ages as a result of increased risks of cancer, MI and IC. The ADRB2 gene can play an important systemic role in healthy aging in evolutionary context that warrants exploration in other populations.
Available from: Hsin-Chou Yang
- "The identification of hypertension susceptibility genes and an understanding of the hypertension genetic mechanism may contribute to the development of genetic prevention, counseling and treatment for hypertension in the future. Efforts to identify hypertension genes have been ongoing for several decades . Some susceptibility genes have been located using different mapping strategies. "
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ABSTRACT: Young-onset hypertension has a stronger genetic component than late-onset counterpart; thus, the identification of genes related to its susceptibility is a critical issue for the prevention and management of this disease. We carried out a two-stage association scan to map young-onset hypertension susceptibility genes. The first-stage analysis, a genome-wide association study, analyzed 175 matched case-control pairs; the second-stage analysis, a confirmatory association study, verified the results at the first stage based on a total of 1,008 patients and 1,008 controls. Single-locus association tests, multilocus association tests and pair-wise gene-gene interaction tests were performed to identify young-onset hypertension susceptibility genes. After considering stringent adjustments of multiple testing, gene annotation and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) quality, four SNPs from two SNP triplets with strong association signals (-log(10)(p)>7) and 13 SNPs from 8 interactive SNP pairs with strong interactive signals (-log(10)(p)>8) were carefully re-examined. The confirmatory study verified the association for a SNP quartet 219 kb and 495 kb downstream of LOC344371 (a hypothetical gene) and RASGRP3 on chromosome 2p22.3, respectively. The latter has been implicated in the abnormal vascular responsiveness to endothelin-1 and angiotensin II in diabetic-hypertensive rats. Intrinsic synergy involving IMPG1 on chromosome 6q14.2-q15 was also verified. IMPG1 encodes interphotoreceptor matrix proteoglycan 1 which has cation binding capacity. The genes are novel hypertension targets identified in this first genome-wide hypertension association study of the Han Chinese population.
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