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Abstract

Background. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of whole-body cryotherapy with subsequent kinesitherapy on spinal mobility parameters in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Material and methods. We enrolled 32 men with ankylosing spondylitis in a clinical trial. The subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups consisting of 16 persons, with no significant differences in age, duration, or stage of disease, treated with a cycle of 10 whole-body cryotherapy procedures with subsequent kinesitherapy or kinesitherapy alone, respectively. Routine spinal mobility parameters were determined for all patients before and after the end of the therapeutic cycle. Results. Significant improvement of spinal mobility was observed in both groups of patients, but in patients exposed to whole-body cryotherapy with subsequent kinesitherapy the percentage changes in the values of particular parameters were more distinct as compared to patients in whom kinesitherapy alone was used, mainly in respect to lumbar and thoracic spinal mobility. Conclusion. The use of whole-body cryotherapy as a component of comprehensive therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis produces significant improvements in spinal mobility parameters as compared to patients in whom kinesitherapy alone is used.
... In patients with ankylosing spondylitis it seems to be a safe method leading to improvement of rheologic properties of blood. On the other hand, in healthy volunteers a significant increase in erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit value and mean capacity of single blood corpuscle, decrease in mean concentration of haemoglobin in blood corpuscle as well as an increase in platelets count and proportion of monocytes in differential cell count (Stanek, Sieron, Cieslar, Matyszkiewicz, & Rozmus-Kuczia, 2005). ...
... The very important thing is that every kind of the cryochamber gives similar positive results in patients' health. The first and most important thing is that it leads to reduction of pain level what is the result of increased excretion of β-endorphins, the switching off the feeling receptors non-active due to cold and their connection with pro-prioreceptors and slower conduction in feeling fibres (Sieroń, Cieślar & Stanek, 2010;Stanek, Sieron, Cieslar, Matyszkiewicz, & Rozmus-Kuczia, 2005;Stanek, Cieslar, & Sieron, 2007). Another aspect of cold treatment, is the improvement of physical fitness what is important in sport's medicine. ...
... The biggest heat losses is observed on parts of the body, which are relatively big in relation to theirs volume (mainly fingers, toes, limbs). Heat loss in fingers and toes is nearly ten times higher than in trunk what also has a meaning in diagnostic value of thermal imaging (Sieroń, Cieślar, & Stanek, 2010;Stanek, Sieron, Cieslar, Matyszkiewicz, & Rozmus-Kuczia, 2005;Stanek, Cieslar, & Sieron, 2007;Stanek, Cieślar, Mrowiec, & Sieroń, 2006;Biały, Zimmer, Skrzek, & Zagrobelny, 1998). ...
Chapter
The use of low temperature on the whole human body switeched on beneficial reactions. Whole-body cryotherapy is used as a part of rehabilitation. There are repeorted studies of thermal imaging peformed due to whole body coooling in case of patients suffering from different diseases that showed a significant enhancement of the skin temperature gradient observed after cryotherapy. That explains that such therapeutic technique like whole-body cryotherapy can be used as a part of infrared thermography diagnotic procedure.
... Whole body cryotherapy, first introduced in Japan ( Yamaguchi, 1978), involves the exposure to extremely cold dry cryogenic gas, usually liquid nitrogen, in a chamber, typically with temperatures lower than -100°C. WBC can mitigate the symptoms of musculoskeletal conditions, including ankylosing spondylitis (Stanek et al., 2005), adhesive capsulitis (Ma et al., 2013) and fibromyalgia (Bettoni et al., 2013). The majority of clinical benefits reported in such studies are associated with the anti-inflammatory effect of cryotherapy as well as its pain reduction properties. ...
Thesis
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Whilst Whole Body Cryotherapy (WBC) has become an emerging tool for sport and exercise recovery, its overall efficacy remains contentious. This thesis addressed a variety of issues concerning the practice. Firstly, the impact of single WBC interventions for treating exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is unclear. Secondly, the influence of inter-individual factors on WBC outcomes post-exercise remains an under-investigated area. Therefore the first main study explored the effects of age and body fat content on responses to WBC following downhill running, a commonly utilised eccentric exercise model for inducing muscle damage. WBC participants underwent cryotherapy (3 minutes, −120°C) one hour post- downhill run and control (CON) participants passively recovered (20°C). Despite the presence of EIMD, WBC significantly blunted (p=0.04) the decrease in muscle torque 24 hours after the downhill run. This response was significantly influenced by age, with young participants (<40 years) retaining their muscle strength more than older participants (≥45 years). WBC may therefore attenuate EIMD and benefit muscle strength recovery following eccentrically biased exercise, particularly for young males. A subsequent downhill run study investigated the influence of WBC timing post-exercise, a factor that could clarify optimal treatment usage. An additional objective was to compare the effects of WBC with cold water immersions (CWI) since the verdict regarding which cold modality is superior for recovery remains an on-going area of controversy. It was revealed that WBC 4 hours post-exercise was ineffective in treating EIMD markers, so applying WBC within one hour after exercise may be preferable to delaying by several hours. However, WBC was no more effective than CWI, meaning that the cost vs. reward implications of WBC treatments would need further reviewing. Finally, the implications of repetitive WBC during training programmes require further evaluation due to the possibility of repetitive cold interfering with long term adaptations. The final study investigated the impact of two weekly WBC treatments on adaptations to a 6 week strength and endurance training programme. It was found that WBC participants significantly improved their muscle strength comparatively to the CON group. However WBC did not improve their jump height (p=0.23) in contrast to the CON group (p=0.01). In conclusion, repetitive WBC does not appear to blunt strength training adaptations, although there may be an interference effect in the development of explosive power.
... liquid nitrogen) typically below -100 °C. WBC has been shown to mitigate the symptoms of musculoskeletal conditions, including ankylosing spondylitis [7], adhesive capsulitis [8] and fibromyalgia [9], demonstrating influential effects on soft tissue injury repair. The clinical benefits are principally associated with the anti-inflammatory effect of cryotherapy as well as its pain reduction properties, which are potential mechanisms by which sports recovery can be enhanced. ...
... diminution significativement plus importante de l'EVA douleur comparativement au groupe contrôle colchicine + corticothérapie et faisait diminuer significativement le nombre de leucocytes dans le liquide articulaire[46]. Concernant les spondyloarthrites, les données sont plus éparses mais la cryothérapie corps entier pourrait avoir des effets sur l'EVA douleur, les mobilités rachidiennes et le BASDAI[47].La cryothérapie est également en cours d'évaluation dans d'autres pathologies rhumatologiques. Dans la fibromyalgie, la cryothérapie corps entier semble avoir des effets sur la qualité de vie[48] et sur le phénotype des lymphocytes T circulants[49]. ...
Thesis
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La cryothérapie est utilisée de manière large et empirique à visée adjuvante dans les rhumatismes inflammatoires, avec un niveau de preuve faible. Dans une revue systématique de la littérature, en poolant les données de 6 études non contrôlées, nous avons pu démontrer que la cryothérapie (locale ou corps entier) appliquée deux fois par jour pendant 7 à 15 jours réduisait significativement l'EVA douleur et le score d'activité DAS25 dans la polyarthrite rhumatoïde. La cryothérapie locale (glace ou gaz froide) montrait par ailleurs des effets taille intra-classes supérieurs à ceux obtenus en utilisant la cryothérapie corps entier. L'objectif de ce travail était de mesurer les effets de la cryothérapie locale sur al douleur, l'inflammation synoviale et systémique chez les patients arthritiques et dans le modèle murin d'arthrite à l'adjuvant. Dans les études randomisées CDRI et ALGGAR, nous avons évalué les effets de deux applications locales de froid (glace versus gaz froid) sur la douleur, l'activité Doppler et les taux protéiques de cytokines intra-articulaires controlatéraux non souffrant d'arthrites de genou non septiques. Les genoux arthritiques controlatéraux non traités étaient utilisés comme contrôles. Nous avons par ailleurs étudié in vitro les effets de l'hypothermie modérée (30°C pendant 2heures) sur l'expression protéique des cytokines dans un modèle de culture de rotules de rats arthritiques. Nous avons enfin étudié in vitro dans l'arthrite à l'adjuvant les effets de l'application sub-chronique de glace ou de gaz froid (2 fois par jour pendant 14 jours versus contrôles arthritiques non traités) sur le score d'arthrite, le diamètre de cheville, la transcription des gènes codant pour les cytokines pro-inflammatoires dans les pattes arrières (Q-RT-PCR) et l'expression protéique des cytokines dans le plasma (Multiplex et ELISA) après 14 jours de traitement. Dans l'étude CDRI, la cryothérapie locale (glace et gaz froid) réduisait significativement l'EVA douleur ainsi que le score Doppler dans les genoux traités, ces effets persistant le lendemain des deux applications. Dans une analyse intermédiaire des résultats de l'étude ALGGAR, en combinant les deux groupes de traitement (glace et gaz de froid), nous avons observé une baisse des taux d'IL-6, d'IL-1β et de VEGF dans le liquide articulaire arès deux applications. dans les cultures d'explants de rotules de rats arthritiques, l'hypothermie ponctuelle réduisait significativement les taux d'IL-6, IL-17A et IL-1β dans les pattes arrières après 14 jours de traitement. Les deux modalités réduisaient significativement les niveaux plasmatiques d'IL-17A et la glace réduisait en outre les taux d'IL-6 et de VEGF. Nous n'avons observé aucun effet de la cryothérapie locale sur le voie du TNF-α chez l'homme ni chez l'animal. Nos résultats démontrent pour la première fois un effet thérapeutique et anti-inflammatoire de la cryothérapie locale dans l'arthrite. Les effets biologiques était IL-6/IL-147 dépendants et TNF-α indépendants. Des études complémentaires permettront de mieux caractériser les mécanismes moléculaires sous-jacents et de déterminer su la cryothérapie locale pourrait être une alternative aux AINS et corticoïdes dans les rhumatismes inflammatoires.
... Il est naturel que les kinésithérapeutes s'y intéressent. Les chambres cryogéniques en corps entier [5] ont montré leur intérêt sur la douleur [7,8], l'inflammation [9][10][11], la mobilité articulaire [12,13], la récupération musculaire [14,15] et la complémentarité avec la kinésithérapie [13,16]. La durée des protocoles utilisés varie de 120 s à 240 s en fonction des études [10,[17][18][19]. ...
Article
Cet article pose les bases d’une modélisation théorique visant à déterminer une loi d’évolution de la température cutanée d’un sujet, au cours d’une séance de cryothérapie en corps entier (CCE). L’étude se focalise sur les quelques minutes pendant lesquelles le corps humain est soumis à un choc thermique. À notre connaissance, aucune donnée n’est documentée dans la littérature sur la température de la peau pendant la phase de refroidissement. La validation de cette démarche scientifique ouvre une voie large à des études de plus grande ampleur dans le but de proposer des protocoles de cryothérapie pouvant être à la fois individualisés mais également destinés à des populations cibles.
... In WBC group Ott test, modified Schober test, and chest expansion increased about 60%, 83%, and 53% in comparison to the input value, whereas in the kinesiotherapy group Ott test, modified Schober test, and chest expansion increased only about 26%, 16%, and 26% in comparison to the input value. We observed similar results in AS patients who underwent WBC procedures in the cryogenic chamber with cold retention [33]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated whether whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) procedures could potentially have more beneficial effects on index of BASDAI and BASFI, pain intensity, and spine mobility parameters: Ott test, modified Schober test, chest expansion in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients, than kinesiotherapy procedures used separately. AS patients were exposed to a cycle of WBC procedures lasting 3 minutes a day, with a subsequent 60 minutes of kinesiotherapy or 60 minutes of kinesiotherapy only, for 10 consecutive days excluding weekend. After the completion of the cycle of WBC procedures with subsequent kinesiotherapy in the AS patients, BASDAI index decreased about 40% in comparison with the input value, whereas in the group of patients who received only kinesiotherapy it decreased only about 15% in comparison with the input value. After the completion of the treatment in theWBC group, BASFI index decreased about 30% in comparison with the input value, whereas in the kinesiotherapy group it only decreased about 16% in comparison with the input value.The important conclusion was that, inWBC group with subsequent kinesiotherapy, we observed on average about twice better results than in the group treated only by kinesiotherapy.
Article
Background: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of conventional and cryotherapy-based rehabilitation with respect to its impact on selected clinical parameters in AS patients. Material and methods: Fifty working males aged 22-66 years were included in this study. Twenty-five of them underwent cryotherapy-based rehabilitation (cryogenic chamber, local cryotherapy; individual, instrumental, and nonweight-bearing exercises) for 3 weeks. The others received 3 weeks of conventional rehabilitation (magnetic field therapy; electrotherapy; individual and instrumental exercises). The patients were examined at three time points: before rehabilitation, immediately after its completion and at a three-month follow-up visit. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) was used to assess disease severity, the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) was used to assess musculoskeletal function and a visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess pain. A global health index was also employed to assess patients' overall well-being. Results: Cryotherapy-based rehabilitation improved the following parameters: BASDAI (P<0.001, P<0.001), BASFI (P<0.001, P=0.007), VAS (P<0.007, P=0.001) and global health index (P<0.001, P<0.001) at the second and third assessment, respectively. Conventional rehabilitation improved the BASDAI (P<0.001), VAS (P=0.029), and overall well-being (P<0.030) at the second assessment. Cryotherapy-based rehabilitation was more effective than conventional rehabilitation with respect to BASFI [F(2, 82)=6.571; P=0.004; eta2=0.120] and overall well-being [F(2, 96) =5.018; P=0.008; eta2=0.095)]. Conclusions: 1. Comprehensive rehabilitation in ankylosing spondylitis has a positive effect on patients' clinical status. 2. Rehabilitation involving cryotherapy is more effective in improving musculoskeletal function and overall well-being compared to conventional rehabilitation. 3. Cryotherapy-based rehabilitation significantly reduces the intensity of pain experienced by AS patients and decreases disease activity, with the positive effect maintained at 3 months post rehabilitation.
Article
Exposure to extreme cold in whole body cryotherapy is growing worldwide and is growing interest. The general effects of cold on the body have been known for a long time, and the WBC seems to serve as a catalyst for all these effects. Many positive physiological reactions are observed and in several areas of care. Rhumathology, sports medicine, and pain are the first fields explorations studied to understand particular action systemic anti-inflammatory, analgesic and oxidizing after a session of whole body cryotherapy. Level of evidence not applicable.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of cryogenic temperatures used for whole-body cryotherapy on inflammatory markers in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and healthy volunteers. The study involved 32 male persons: 16 patients with AS and 16 healthy volunteers. All subjects were exposed to a cycle of 10 daily procedures of whole-body cryotherapy at a temperature of -120°C lasting 2 minutes with subsequent kinesitherapy In both groups before and after a cycle of whole-body cryotherapy with subsequent kinesitherapy serum C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, mucoprotein, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were estimated. The results of this study indicate that cryogenic temperatures used for whole-body cryotherapy decrease level of inflammatory markers both in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and healthy volunteers.
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