Donor Myocardial HIF-1? Is an Independent Predictor of Cardiac Allograft Dysfunction: A 7-Year Prospective, Exploratory Study

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
American Journal of Transplantation (Impact Factor: 5.68). 09/2007; 7(8):2012-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2007.01875.x
Source: PubMed


Knowledge on interplay between the cardiac molecular response to transplantation-induced stress and primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is limited. A cDNA array identified HIF-1, EGR-1, NAB-2, VEGF-A and uPA as mediators of cardiac tissue response to transplantation-induced stress. mRNA expression of these molecules was measured in left ventricular biopsies from 200 donors before and after aortic cross-clamping and at 10-, 30- and 60-min reperfusion by real-time RT-PCR. HIF-1alpha expression at two time points was significantly associated with PGD, as shown by univariate analysis, receiver operating characteristic curve and multivariate logistic regression. At a cut-off level of 200 arbitrary units, HIF-1alpha after aortic cross-clamping in donors (78% sensitivity, 83% specificity) and at 10-min reperfusion (85% sensitivity, 83% specificity) identified PGD. HIF-1alpha demonstrates the potential to be a predictive marker for PGD; however, as multiple factors were tested at different time points, prospective evaluation is clearly necessary to confirm this observation.

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Available from: Georg Wieselthaler, May 26, 2015
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    • "It affects an estimated 10 to 25% of all lung transplants [5]. Ischemia reperfusion injury is known to prime transplanted organs to be more susceptible for later rejection episodes [6–8]. Preventing the occurrence of such reperfusion damages might be an important therapeutic strategy in conserving the organ’s long-term function [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The lung is, more than other solid organs, susceptible for ischemia reperfusion injury after orthotopic transplantation. Corticosteroids are known to potently suppress pro-inflammatory processes when given in the post-operative setting or during rejection episodes. Whereas their use has been approved for these clinical indications, there is no study investigating its potential as a preservation additive in preventing vascular damage already in the phase of ischemia. To investigate these effects we performed orthotopic lung transplantations (LTX) in the rat. Prednisolone was either added to the perfusion solution for lung preservation or omitted and rats were followed for 48 hours after LTX. Prednisolone preconditioning significantly increased survival and diminished reperfusion edema. Hypoxia induced vasoactive cytokines such as VEGF were reduced. Markers of leukocyte invasiveness like matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2, or common pro-inflammatory molecules like the CXCR4 receptor or the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)-2 were downregulated by prednisolone. Neutrophil recruitment to the grafts was only increased in Perfadex treated lungs. Together with this, prednisolone treated animals displayed significantly reduced lung protein levels of neutrophil chemoattractants like CINC-1, CINC-2α/β and LIX and upregulated tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. Interestingly, lung macrophage invasion was increased in both, Perfadex and prednisolone treated grafts, as measured by MMP-12 or RM4. Markers of anti-inflammatory macrophage transdifferentiation like MRC-1, IL-13, IL-4 and CD163, significantly correlated with prednisolone treatment. These observations lead to the conclusion that prednisolone as an additive to the perfusion solution protects from hypoxia triggered danger signals already in the phase of ischemia and thus reduces graft edema in the phase of reperfusion. Additionally, prednisolone preconditioning might also lead to macrophage polarization as a beneficial long-term effect.
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    • "After restoration of the normal blood flow (reperfusion), the resulting increased concentration of pulmonary VEGF leads to an increased vascular permeability resulting in early post transplantation dysfunction [33], [34], [35], [36], [37]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The main goal of adequate organ preservation is to avoid further cellular metabolism during the phase of ischemia. However, modern preservation solutions do rarely achieve this target. In donor organs hypoxia and ischemia induce a broad spectrum of pathologic molecular mechanisms favoring primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after transplantation. Increased hypoxia-induced transcriptional activity leads to increased vascular permeability which in turn is the soil of a reperfusion edema and the enhancement of a pro-inflammatory response in the graft after reperfusion. We hypothesize that inhibition of the respiration chain in mitochondria and thus inhibition of the hypoxia induced mechanisms might reduce reperfusion edema and consecutively improve survival in vivo. In this study we demonstrate that the rotenoid Deguelin reduces the expression of hypoxia induced target genes, and especially VEGF-A, dose-dependently in hypoxic human lung derived cells. Furthermore, Deguelin significantly suppresses the mRNA expression of the HIF target genes VEGF-A, the pro-inflammatory CXCR4 and ICAM-1 in ischemic lungs vs. control lungs. After lung transplantation, the VEGF-A induced reperfusion-edema is significantly lower in Deguelin-treated animals than in controls. Deguelin-treated rats exhibit a significantly increased survival-rate after transplantation. Additionally, a downregulation of the pro-inflammatory molecules ICAM-1 and CXCR4 and an increase in the recruitment of immunomodulatory monocytes (CD163+ and CD68+) to the transplanted organ involving the IL4 pathway was observed. Therefore, we conclude that ischemic periods preceding reperfusion are mainly responsible for the increased vascular permeability via upregulation of VEGF. Together with this, the resulting endothelial dysfunction also enhances inflammation and consequently lung dysfunction. Deguelin significantly decreases a VEGF-A induced reperfusion edema, induces the recruitment of immunomodulatory monocytes and thus improves organ function and survival after lung transplantation by interfering with hypoxia induced signaling.
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