Restoration of Microvascular Function in the Infarct-Related Artery by Intracoronary Transplantation of Bone Marrow Progenitor Cells in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction The Doppler Substudy of the Reinfusion of Enriched Progenitor Cells and Infarct Remodeling in Acute Myocardial Infarction (REPAIR-AMI) Trial

Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.43). 08/2007; 116(4):366-74. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.671545
Source: PubMed


The Doppler Substudy of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Reinfusion of Enriched Progenitor Cells and Infarct Remodeling in Acute Myocardial Infarction (REPAIR-AMI) trial aimed to investigate the effects of intracoronary infusion of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (BMCs) on coronary blood flow regulation in patients with reperfused acute myocardial infarction.
In a total of 58 patients (BMC group, n=30; placebo group, n=28), coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the infarct artery and a reference vessel was assessed by intracoronary Doppler at the time of study therapy (4.2+/-0.1 days after acute myocardial infarction) and at the 4-month follow-up. Initial CFR was reduced in the infarct artery compared with the reference vessel in both groups (BMC: 2.0+/-0.1 versus 2.9+/-0.2, P<0.05; placebo: 1.9+/-0.1 versus 2.8+/-0.2; P<0.05). At the 4-month follow-up, CFR in the infarct artery had slightly improved in the placebo group (+0.88+/-0.18; P<0.001 versus initial) but was markedly increased by 90% (+1.80+/-0.25; P=0.005 versus placebo) in BMC-treated patients, resulting in a normalization of CFR (3.8+/-0.2; P<0.001 versus initial and placebo at 4 months). In the infarct vessel, adenosine-induced minimal vascular resistance index declined slightly in the placebo group (from 1.77+/-0.12 to 1.52+/-0.15 mm Hg x s/cm; P<0.05) but considerably decreased by -29+/-6% in the BMC group (from 1.86+/-0.19 to 1.20+/-0.12 mm Hg x s/cm; P<0.05 versus initial and placebo at 4 months).
Intracoronary BMC therapy after acute myocardial infarction restores microvascular function of the infarct-related artery, which is associated with a significant improvement in maximal vascular conductance capacity. These data provide clinical proof of concept that progenitor cell transplantation promotes vascular repair.

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    • "The mechanisms of these functional improvements are unknown, but it is unlikely that the improvements result from differentiation of the injected cells into CMCs. Growth factor and cytokine release by injected cells is frequently suggested as a potential mechanism of action [156], and improved microvascular function has been shown in the REPAIR-AMI study [157]. In clinical trials, transplantation of non-cardiac stem cells such as skeletal muscle progenitor and BMSC has results in minor improvement in left ventricle ejection fraction, but it has been also shown that induce arrhythmias [158]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although the adult mammalian heart was once believed to be a post-mitotic organ without any capacity for regeneration, recent findings have challenged this dogma. A modified view assigns to the mammalian heart a measurable capacity for regeneration throughout life. The ultimate goals of the cardiac regeneration field have been pursued by multiple strategies, including understanding the developmental biology of cardiomyocytes and cardiac stem and progenitor cells, applying chemical genetics, and engineering biomaterials and delivery methods that facilitate cell transplantation. Successful stimulation of endogenous regenerative capacity in injured adult mammalian hearts can benefit from studies of natural cardiac regeneration.
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    • "CFR provides insight into the integrity of both the epicardial conduit arteries and distal microvascular bed. The REPAIR-AMI sub study showed that BMC therapy was associated with complete restoration of intracoronary Doppler derived CFR (Erbs et al., 2007). However, coronary flow measurement may be misleading when fast deceleration time is not taken into account and a subtraction is not performed for reverse flow existing in late diastole due to permanent MI induced capillary damage (Saraste et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Beneficial mechanisms of bone marrow cell (BMC) therapy for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarct (STEMI) are largely unknown in humans. Therefore, we evaluated the feasibility of serial positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI studies to provide insight into the effects of BMCs on the healing process of ischemic myocardial damage. Methods: Nineteen patients with successful primary reteplase thrombolysis (mean 2.4 h after symptoms) for STEMI were randomized for BMC therapy (2.9 × 10(6) CD34+ cells) or placebo after bone marrow aspiration in a double-blind, multi-center study. Three days post-MI, coronary angioplasty, and paclitaxel eluting stent implantation preceded either BMC or placebo therapy. Cardiac PET and MRI studies were performed 7-12 days after therapies and repeated after 6 months, and images were analyzed at a central core laboratory. Results: In BMC-treated patients, there was a decrease in [(11)C]-HED defect size (-4.9 ± 4.0 vs. -1.6 ± 2.2%, p = 0.08) and an increase in [(18)F]-FDG uptake in the infarct area at risk (0.06 ± 0.09 vs. -0.05 ± 0.16, p = 0.07) compared to controls, as well as less left ventricular dilatation (-4.4 ± 13.3 vs. 8.0 ± 16.7 mL/m(2), p = 0.12) at 6 months follow-up. However, BMC treatment was inferior to placebo in terms of changes in rest perfusion in the area at risk (-0.09 ± 0.17 vs. 0.10 ± 0.17, p = 0.03) and infarct size (0.4 ± 4.2 vs. -5.1 ± 5.9 g, p = 0.047), and no effect was observed on ejection fraction (p = 0.37). Conclusion: After the acute phase of STEMI, BMC therapy showed only minor trends of long-term benefit in patients with rapid successful thrombolysis. There was a trend of more decrease in innervation defect size and enhanced glucose metabolism in the infarct-related myocardium and also a trend of less ventricular dilatation in the BMC-treated group compared to placebo. However, no consistently better outcome was observed in the BMC-treated group compared to placebo.
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    • "Furthermore, a larger Phase IIb study is underway to evaluate this therapy. In the Doppler substudy of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Reinfusion of Enriched Progenitor Cells and Infarct Remodeling in Acute Myocardial Infarction trial,[57] microvascular function of the infarct-related artery was restored after intracoronary transplantation of bone marrow progenitor cells in patients with reperfused acute MI. In an open-labeled prospective clinical trial, Choi et al.[58] have shown that intracoronary transplantation of autologous peripheral blood stem cells (mobilized by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) was safe in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and improved myocardial function, but could not significantly improve left ventricular function compared with standard reperfusion treatment. "
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