The gastrointestinal tract stem cell niche
Histopathology Unit, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, London, UK.Stem Cell Reviews and Reports (Impact Factor: 2.77). 02/2006; 2(3):203-12. DOI: 10.1007/s12015-006-0048-1
The gastrointestinal epithelium is unique in that cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis occur in an orderly fashion along the crypt-villus axis. The intestinal crypt is mainly a proliferative compartment, is monoclonal and is maintained by stem cells. The villus represents the differentiated compartment, and is polyclonal as it receives cells from multiple crypts. In the small intestine, cell migration begins near the base of the crypt, and cells migrate from here emerging onto the villi. The basal crypt cells at position 5 are candidate stem cells. As the function of stem cells is to maintain the integrity of the intestinal epithelium, it must self-renew, proliferate, and differentiate within a protective niche. This niche is made up of proliferating and differentiating epithelial cells and surrounding mesenchymal cells. These mesenchymal cells promote the epithelial- mesenchymal crosstalk required to maintain the niche. A stochastic model of cell division has been proposed to explain how a single common ancestral stem cell exists from which all stem cells in a niche are descended. Our group has argued that these crypts then clonally expand by crypt fission, forming two daughters' crypts, and that this is the mechanism by which mutated stem cells or even cancer stem cell clones expand in the colon and in the entire gastrointestinal tract. Until recently, the differentiation potential of stem cells into adult tissues has been thought to be limited to cell lineages in the organ from which they were derived. Bone marrow cells are rare among adult stem cells regarding their abundance and role in the continuous, lifelong, physiological replenishment of circulating cells. In human and mice experiments, we have shown that bone marrow can contribute to the regeneration of intestinal myofibroblasts and thereby after epithelium following damage, through replacing the cells, which maintain the stem cells niche. Little is known about the markers characterizing the stem and transit amplifying populations of the gastrointestinal tract, although musashi-1 and hairy and enhancer of split homolog-1 have been proposed. As the mammalian gastrointestinal tract develops from the embryonic gut, it is made up of an endodermally-derived epithelium surrounded by cells of mesoderm origin. Cell signaling between these two tissue layers plays a critical role in coordinating patterning and organogenesis of the gut and its derivatives. Many lines of evidence have revealed that Wnt signaling is the most dominant force in controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis along the crypt-villus axis. We have found Wnt messenger RNAs expression in intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts and frizzled messenger RNAs expression in both myofibroblasts and crypt epithelium. Moreover, there are many other factors, for example, bone morphogenetic protein, homeobox, forkhead, hedgehog, homeodomain, and platelet-derived growth factor that are also important to stem cell signaling in the gastrointestinal tract.
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- "For example, in the human body it is believed that approximately 3 Gy of radiation is needed to harm gastrointestinal stem cells while hematopoietic stem cells are damaged at doses greater than 1 Gy. This review suggest that this is because the gastrointestinal stem cells are located inside intestinal crypts which along with other parts of the intestines are microcosms for different types of bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Escherichia (Keku et al., 2014; Yen and Wright, 2006). Lactobacillus probiotics have been routinely administered prior to radiation exposure and scientists have been led to believe that the bacteria were able to alleviate some of the inflammation of the gut caused by radiation therapy via repositioning of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathway and nuclearcytoplasmic shuttling of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and V-Rel Reticuloendotheliosis Viral Oncogene Homolog A (RelA) (Ciorba et al., 2012; Dong et al., 1987; Kelly et al., 2004). "
ABSTRACT: Utilization of environmental stimuli for growth is the main factor contributing to the evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, independently and mutualistically. Epigenetics describes an organism's ability to vary expression of certain genes based on their environmental stimuli. The diverse degree of dose-dependent responses based on their variances in expressed genetic profiles makes it difficult to ascertain whether hormesis or oncogenesis has or is occurring. In the medical field this is shown where survival curves used in determining radiotherapeutic doses have substantial uncertainties, some as large as 50% (Barendsen, 1990). Many in-vitro radiobiological studies have been limited by not taking into consideration the innate presence of microbes in biological systems, which have either grown symbiotically or pathogenically. Present in-vitro studies neglect to take into consideration the varied responses that commensal and opportunistic pathogens will have when exposed to the same stimuli and how such responses could act as stimuli for their macro/microenvironment. As a result many theories such as radiation carcinogenesis explain microscopic events but fail to describe macroscopic events (Cohen, 1995). As such, this review shows how microorganisms have the ability to perturb risks of cancer and enhance hormesis after irradiation. It will also look at bacterial significance in the microenvironment of the tumor before and during treatment. In addition, bacterial systemic communication after irradiation and the host's immune responses to infection could explain many of the phenomena associated with bystander effects. Therefore, the present literature review considers the paradigms of hormesis and oncogenesis in order to find a rationale that ties them all together. This relationship was thus characterized to be the microbiome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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- "Our previous works have suggested GTD, like many other solid tumours, involves stem cell dysregulation –. The HH signalling pathway has long been known to be important for stem cell self-renewal by contributing to the establishment of stem cell niche . Activation of HH signalling is evident in various human malignancies . "
ABSTRACT: The kinesin protein Kif7 has been recognized as an integral component of hedgehog signalling. Aberrant activation of hedgehog signalling has been implicated in many human solid tumours. Gestational trophoblastic disease includes frankly malignant choriocarcinoma and potentially malignant hydatidiform mole. Here we investigated the hedgehog signalling components expression profiles in gestational trophoblastic disease. Downregulation of Gli1, Gli2, Gli3 and Kif7 was demonstrated in clinical samples of choriocarcinoma and hydatidiform moles as well as choriocarcinoma cell lines when compared with normal placentas. Ectopic expression of Kif7 in two choriocarcinoma cell lines JAR and JEG-3 led to a decrease in cell growth and increase in apoptosis demonstrated by MTT and TUNEL assays, respectively. Overexpression of Kif7 also led to suppressed cell migration through transwell assay. In contrast, knocking down Kif7 in HTR-8/SVneo, an immortalized trophoblast cell line, increased cell number over time and increased the migratory ability of the cells. Taken together, Kif7 may contribute to pathogenesis of gestational trophoblastic disease through enhancing survival and promoting dissemination of trophoblasts.
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- "These cells have an apical surface facing the intestinal lumen and a basolateral surface facing the underlying basement membrane and the lamina propria. IECs provide a physical barrier that separates commensal bacteria in the lumen from the underlying lamina propria and deeper intestinal layers (1). In addition, IECs are a central component of the immune system of the gut. "
ABSTRACT: Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) detect bacterial and viral associated molecular patterns via germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and are responsible for maintaining immune tolerance to the communities of resident commensal bacteria while being also capable to mount immune responses against pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major class of PRRs expressed on IECs and immune cells, which are involved in the induction of both tolerance and inflammation. In the last decade, experimental and clinical evidence was generated to support the application of probiotics with immunoregulatory capacities (immunobiotics) for the prevention and treatment of several gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders in which TLRs exert a significant role. The majority of these studies were performed in mouse and human cell lines, and despite the growing interest in the bovine immune system due to the economic importance of cattle as livestock, only few studies have been conducted on cattle. In this regard, our group has established a bovine intestinal epithelial (BIE) cell line originally derived from fetal bovine intestinal epitheliocytes and used this cell line to evaluate the impact of immunobiotics in TLR-mediated inflammation. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in the regulation of intestinal inflammation/infection in cattle. Especially, we discuss the role of TLRs and their negative regulators in both the inflammatory response and the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in bovine IECs. This review article emphasizes the cellular and molecular interactions of immunobiotics with BIE cells through TLRs and gives the scientific basis for the development of immunomodulatory feed for bovine healthy development.
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