ArticleLiterature Review

An Integrative Review of Reiki Touch Therapy Research

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Abstract

Reiki touch therapy is a complementary biofield energy therapy that involves the use of hands to help strengthen the body's ability to heal. There is growing interest among nurses to use Reiki in patient care and as a self-care treatment, however, with little supportive empirical research and evidence to substantiate these practices. The purpose of this integrative review is to begin the systematic process of evaluating the findings of published Reiki research. Selected investigations using Reiki for effects on stress, relaxation, depression, pain, and wound healing management, among others is reviewed and summarized. A summary of Reiki studies table illustrates the study descriptions and Reiki treatment protocols specified in the investigations. Synthesis of findings for clinical practice and implications for future research are explored.

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... Six review articles were used to assess the effectiveness of Reiki therapy on pain throughout a total of 12 studies. [12][13][14][15][16][17] Ten studies reported that Reiki had a significant impact on relieving pain in dental surgery, 18 various chronic pain conditions, 19 20 stage I to IV cancer, 21-23 abdominal hysterectomies, 24 post-caesarean surgery, 25 26 diabetic neuropathic pain 27 and community-dwelling older adults, 28 whereas no significant difference was seen in the fybromyalgia population. 29 Further, 11 studies also reported data of a Reiki intervention in comparison with sham Reiki, standard care, a resting group or self-control. ...
... In this study, a similar decrease of pain (−16%, p<0.039) was found in a sham Reiki group, while no decrease was demonstrated in standard care (−12%, p=0.622). To sum up, Lee et al 13 and vander-Vaart et al 15 indicated that the evidence is insufficient to consider Reiki therapy as an effective treatment, while Vitale 16 requested more studies to explore the benefits of Reiki therapy. The more recent reviews by Thrane and Cohen, 14 McManus 17 and Demir Dogan 12 suggested that there is enough evidence to conclude that Reiki is effective in relieving pain. ...
... reIkI And AnxIety/depressIon Five review articles looking at 10 studies were used to investigate the effect of Reiki therapy on anxiety, stress and depression. [13][14][15][16][17] Six studies indicated that Reiki is able to decrease anxiety in healthy persons, 30 and people with various chronic pain conditions, 19 abdominal hysterectomies, 24 women with breast biopsy, 31 stage I to IV cancer 23 and community-dwelling older adults, 28 while one study showed no significant effect in patients with prostate cancer treated by radiation. 32 Moreover, five studies reported significant positive effects of Reiki therapy on depression in groups with various chronic pain conditions, 19 depressive conditions, 33 women with breast biopsies, 31 and elderly people living in community housing or nursing homes, 28 34 while two studies indicated no effects in post-stroke patients 35 and patients with prostate cancer treated by radiation. ...
Article
The use of complementary and alternative therapies is growing year after year, and Reiki therapy takes a place of choice. Reiki therapy, classed as a biofield energy therapy, raises the question of validity when applied to patients, especially in palliative care. The purpose of this review is to highlight the effects of Reiki therapy on pain, anxiety/depression and quality of life of patients, specifically in palliative care. The current article indicates that Reiki therapy is useful for relieving pain, decreasing anxiety/depression and improving quality of life in several conditions. Due to the small number of studies in palliative care, we were unable to clearly identify the benefits of Reiki therapy, but preliminary results tend to show some positive effects of Reiki therapy for the end-of-life population. These results should encourage teams working in palliative care to conduct more studies to determine the benefits of Reiki therapy on pain, anxiety/depression and quality of life in palliative care.
... In other words, they use a comprehensive set of techniques, such as meditation, body therapies, energy manipulation, art and music therapy, dietary therapy and other procedures that involve healthcare, according to the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. [1][2][3][4][5] Reiki is an ancient Japanese form of hands-on healing. The term comes from combining two Japanese words: rei, a universal spirit; and ki, meaning universal life energy. ...
... In the literature, a few studies [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] have reported that spirituality and complementary therapies have provided improvements regarding quality of life and benefits in relation to several health conditions. [6][7][8] Moreover, it has been suggested that non-pharmacological practices could be considered in order to reduce excessive use of allopathic medication in obstetrics and consequently to reduce the costs of care. ...
... It was the first-ever study to evaluate spiritual healing in relation to this issue, given that most previous studies and reviews focused on severe chronically ill patients and their quality of life. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7] It should be noted that a language restriction had to be imposed during the selection process due to lack of funds to pay for translation services prior to the search. Thus, it was necessary to restrict the current systematic review to English and Portuguese-language studies were assessed from the outset. ...
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CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: This systematic review compared reiki and prayer with drug use for relieving pain during hospitalization for cesarean, given that the popularity of integrative medicine and spiritual healing has been increasing. It had the aim of evaluating whether reiki or prayer is effective in relieving pain during cesarean section. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review with meta-analysis conducted at Botucatu Medical School, UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: The following databases were searched up to March 2016: MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS and CENTRAL. Randomized controlled trials published in English or Portuguese were included in the review. Two reviewers independently screened eligible articles, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. A GRADE table was produced to evaluate the risk of bias. RESULTS: There was evidence with a high risk of bias showing a statistically significant decrease in pain score through use of reiki and prayer, in relation to the protocol group: mean difference = -1.68; 95% confidence interval: -1.92 to -1.43; P < 0.00001; I² = 92%. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference in heart rate or systolic or diastolic blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Evidence with a high risk of bias suggested that reiki and prayer meditation might be associated with pain reduction.
... Ulusal Tamamlayıcı ve Alternatif Tıp Merkezi'nin (NCCAM) yaptığı sınıflandırmaya göre terapötik dokunma (TD) uygulaması enerji terapileri arasında yer almaktadır. TD, vücuttaki enerji alanlarına ve vücudun dışında bulunan elektromanyetik alanlara odaklanan enerji terapisi olarak tanımlanmaktadır [6,20,30,31]. ...
... Krieger ve Kunz, ellerle dokunularak yapılan TD tekniğini hemşirelere öğreterek hemşirelikte öncü olmuşlardır. Bu teknik artık dünyanın pek çok ülkesindeki hastanelerde kullanılmaktadır [30]. TD, hemşireler için geliştirilmiş bir uygulamadır. ...
... Enerji terapileri, hemşirelik uygulaması olarak Florence Nightingale döneminde uygulanmaya başlamış, günümüzde Rogers ve Watson gibi hemşire kuramcılar tarafından da ele alınmıştır. Rogers ve Watson, çevresel enerji ve insan enerjisi alanları arasındaki etkileşim nedeni ile, hemşirelik girişimleri ve eğitiminde bireylerin enerji ve enerji çevrelerine de gereken önemin verilmesi gerektiğini belirtmişlerdir [18,29,30]. ...
... 44 Bu tekniğin rahatlatıcı etkisi olduğu için stres ve ağrı giderici olduğu bildirilmektedir. [45][46][47][48] En fazla uygulanan dokunma terapisi ise reiki'dir. Reiki dokunma terapisi, insan vücudunda çakra adı verilen enerji alanlarındaki kötü enerjiyi açığa çıkarma ve bu şekilde sağlığı etkileyen elektromanyetik alanların etkisini azaltmayı amaçlayan bir dokunma terapisidir. ...
... Reiki dokunma terapisi, insan vücudunda çakra adı verilen enerji alanlarındaki kötü enerjiyi açığa çıkarma ve bu şekilde sağlığı etkileyen elektromanyetik alanların etkisini azaltmayı amaçlayan bir dokunma terapisidir. 46 Reiki, bir hemşirelik kuramcısı olan Rogers'ın "Üniter İnsan Teorisine" dayandığından bağımsız hemşirelik uygulamalarında çok önemli bir yere sahiptir. 46 Özellikle kanser gibi tedaviye dirençli hastalıkların tedavisinde yan etkisinin olmayışı, güvenli ve ucuz olması nedeniyle konvansiyel tedaviyi tamamlayıcı olarak yaygın bir şekilde kullanılmaktadır. ...
... 46 Reiki, bir hemşirelik kuramcısı olan Rogers'ın "Üniter İnsan Teorisine" dayandığından bağımsız hemşirelik uygulamalarında çok önemli bir yere sahiptir. 46 Özellikle kanser gibi tedaviye dirençli hastalıkların tedavisinde yan etkisinin olmayışı, güvenli ve ucuz olması nedeniyle konvansiyel tedaviyi tamamlayıcı olarak yaygın bir şekilde kullanılmaktadır. Konuyla ilgili çalışmalar reiki'nin ağrının azaltılmasında ve kemoterapi sonrası gelişen mide bulantılarında etkili olduğunu göstermektedir. ...
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nya Sağlık Örgütü'ne (DSÖ) göre günümüzde her yıl yaklaşık olarak 13 milyon insan kanser tanısı almaktadır ve gelecek 10 yıl içinde 84 milyon insanın kanser nedeniyle yaşamını yitireceği bildirilmektedir. 1 Özellikle gelişmiş ülkelerde kanser, mortalite açısından kalp hastalıklarından sonra ikinci sı-rada yer almaktadır. 2 Kadına özgü kanserler olarak bilinen jinekolojik kanserler ise GLOBOCAN 2012'e göre kadınlarda en sık görülen yedi kanser türü arasında yer almaktadır. 3 Ka-Turkiye Klinikleri J Obstet Womens Health Dis Nurs-Special Topics 2017;3(1) 61 Jinekolojik Onkolojide Tamamlayıcı ve Alternatif Uygulamalar Ö ÖZ ZE ET T Jinekolojik kanserli kadınlarda uzayan yaşam süresi kanser ve semptomları ile baş etmede ge-leneksel tıbbi tedavilerin dışında tamamlayıcı ve alternatif tedavi (TAT) yöntem arayışlarına yolaç-mıştır. Kanserli bireylerde TAT'lerin kullanım amacı stres, gerginlik ve anksiyeteyi azaltmak, ağrı, bulantı kusma ve cinsel işlev bozuklukları gibi kanser/tedavisinin rahatsız edici semptom/ yan etki-lerini en aza indirerek yaşam kalitesini arttırmaktır. Jinekolojik kanserlerde TAT'lerin etkinliğine iliş-kin farklı sonuçlar bildirilmiştir. Konuyla ilgili daha fazla randomize çalışmaya ve kanıta gereksinim bulunmaktadır. Ülkemizde Geleneksel, Tamamlayıcı, Alternatif Tıp Uygulamaları Yönetmeliği'ne (2014) göre TAT'lerin sertifikalı tabip veya tabip gözetiminde sertifikalı sağlık meslek mensubu tara-fından yapılması yasal hale getirilmiştir. Çalışmalar TAT'lerin bilinçsiz kullanımının pek çok riske neden olacağını göstermektedir. Literatür incelendiğinde sağlık profesyonellerinin bu konuda yeterli bilgiye sahip olmadıkları ve tıp alanında TAT'lerin kullanımına ilişkin yeterli bir literatür olmadığı gö-rülmektedir. Bu argümandan yola çıkarak planladığımız bu derlemede TAT'lerin jinekolojik onkolo-jideki yeri ve dikkat edilmesi gereken hususların güncel literatüre göre tartışılması amaçlanmıştır. A An na ah ht ta ar r K Ke el li im me el le er r: : Jinekolojik onkoloji; tamamlayıcı ve alternatif uygulamalar A AB BS ST TR RA AC CT T Prolonging life time of women with gynecological cancer provokes the need for complementary and alternative treatment (CAT) methods as well as traditional medical treatment to cope with cancer and its symptoms. The purpose of CATs for the cancerous individuals intends to decrease stress, strain and anxiety and also minimize the disruptive symptoms/side-effects of cancer treatment such as pain, nausea, vomit or sexual dysfunctions. Various results has been presented about the effects of CATs on gynecological cancers. There is a need for more randomize studies and evidences on the subject. In our country, the Traditional Complementary Alternative Medical Application Regulations (2014) legitimated that CATs must be applied by certified doctors or health professions in trust with doctors. Reviewing literature, it has been observed that health professions don't have enough knowledge on the subject and the literature of medical field don't involve enough studies on the use of CATs. Based on this argument, this review aims to discuss the place of CATs in gy-necological oncology and the points to take into consideration within the present literature. K Ke ey y W Wo or rd ds s: : Gynecological oncology; complementary and alternative treatment T Tu ur rk ki iy ye e K Kl li in ni ik kl le er ri i J J O Ob bs st te et t W Wo om me en ns s H He ea al lt th h D
... Since the time of Florence Nightingale, energy therapies have had a place in nursing practice. Modern nursing theoreticians such as Martha Rogers and Jean Watson have stated that in human energy fields, interaction with the environment is important, and this should have a place in nursing practice (Miles 2003;Vitale 2007;Vitale and O'Connor 2006). ...
... According to Rogers' theory, all matter is energy, and is joined together by energy pathways. Rogers said that the human body had energy which was continuously in a state of interaction with the environment, and that humans should always be seen as a whole with their environment (Zolfaghari 2012;Aghabati et al. 2010;Pocotte and Salvador 2008;Vitale 2007). In nursing care, she began to practice holistic approaches in which humans were in energy interaction with their environment, and the use of energy therapy became widespread (Whelan and Wishnia 2003). ...
... One energy therapy, TT, is a holistic method influenced by Rogers' theory and developed in the 1970s by Dolores Krieger and Dora Kunz, working at New York University. Krieger and Kunz taught the energy characteristics of this method, which is performed by touching with the hands, at Masters level to nurses at New York University (Vitale 2007;Whelan and Wishnia 2003). TT is defined as an efficacy-proven energy therapy that focuses on the extracorporeal electromagnetic fields and intracorporeal energy fields, contributes individuals to keep their balance and regain their health, uses universal energy with a specific intention. ...
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Nurses are increasingly using energy therapies such as therapeutic touch (TT) in many countries. This research aimed at finding out the effects of TT on comfort and anxiety of nursing home residents. This research is a quasi-experimental randomized control study which was conducted to investigate the impact of TT on the comfort and anxiety of older people living in a nursing home in İzmir, Turkey, between August 2015 and 2016. The sample of the study was formed from 60 older people who fitted the selection criteria, 30 in the experimental group and 30 in the control group. Data were collected using a General Comfort Questionnaire (GCQ) and a Situational Anxiety Inventory (STAI). A statistically significant difference was found between the measurements of the TT and control groups. According to the results, TT reduces anxiety and increases the comfort level of older people (p < 0.05). Considering the positive results of TT on comfort levels and anxiety, it can be recommended as an independent nursing practice.
... 44 Bu tekniğin rahatlatıcı etkisi olduğu için stres ve ağrı giderici olduğu bildirilmektedir. [45][46][47][48] En fazla uygulanan dokunma terapisi ise reiki'dir. Reiki dokunma terapisi, insan vücudunda çakra adı verilen enerji alanlarındaki kötü enerjiyi açığa çıkarma ve bu şekilde sağlığı etkileyen elektromanyetik alanların etkisini azaltmayı amaçlayan bir dokunma terapisidir. ...
... Reiki dokunma terapisi, insan vücudunda çakra adı verilen enerji alanlarındaki kötü enerjiyi açığa çıkarma ve bu şekilde sağlığı etkileyen elektromanyetik alanların etkisini azaltmayı amaçlayan bir dokunma terapisidir. 46 Reiki, bir hemşirelik kuramcısı olan Rogers'ın "Üniter İnsan Teorisine" dayandığından bağımsız hemşirelik uygulamalarında çok önemli bir yere sahiptir. 46 Özellikle kanser gibi tedaviye dirençli hastalıkların tedavisinde yan etkisinin olmayışı, güvenli ve ucuz olması nedeniyle konvansiyel tedaviyi tamamlayıcı olarak yaygın bir şekilde kullanılmaktadır. ...
... 46 Reiki, bir hemşirelik kuramcısı olan Rogers'ın "Üniter İnsan Teorisine" dayandığından bağımsız hemşirelik uygulamalarında çok önemli bir yere sahiptir. 46 Özellikle kanser gibi tedaviye dirençli hastalıkların tedavisinde yan etkisinin olmayışı, güvenli ve ucuz olması nedeniyle konvansiyel tedaviyi tamamlayıcı olarak yaygın bir şekilde kullanılmaktadır. Konuyla ilgili çalışmalar reiki'nin ağrının azaltılmasında ve kemoterapi sonrası gelişen mide bulantılarında etkili olduğunu göstermektedir. ...
Article
Full-text available
Prolonging life time of women with gynecological cancer provokes the need for complementary and alternative treatment (CAT) methods as well as traditional medical treatment to cope with cancer and its symptoms. The purpose of CATs for the cancerous individuals intends to decrease stress, strain and anxiety and also minimize the disruptive symptoms/side-effects of cancer treatment such as pain, nausea, vomit or sexual dysfunctions. Various results has been presented about the effects of CATs on gynecological cancers. There is a need for more randomize studies and evidences on the subject. In our country, the Traditional Complementary Alternative Medical Application Regulations (2014) legitimated that CATs must be applied by certified doctors or health professions in trust with doctors. Reviewing literature, it has been observed that health professions don’t have enough knowledge on the subject and the literature of medical field don’t involve enough studies on the use of CATs. Based on this argument, this review aims to discuss the place of CATs in gynecological oncology and the points to take into consideration within the present literature.
... Reiki Energy Healing is one of the complementary medicines used worldwide (9). National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine classified Reiki as one of the ancient, Japanese energy healing methods for reducing pain and anxiety (10)(11)(12)(13). Martha Rogers-nursing educator, researcher, and theorist-introduced the energy field theory. ...
... Martha Rogers-nursing educator, researcher, and theorist-introduced the energy field theory. It is the basis to support nurses for using energy healing methods (12,13). Disruption in the patient's energy field is one of the nursing diagnoses, approved by the American Association of Nursing Diagnoses. ...
... Since the patient experience moderate-to-severe postoperative pain, lack of effective relief causes complications (17). On the other hand, Reiki has been accepted by the World Health Organization as a complementary therapy (10)(11)(12)(13). Recent studies show the effect of this method on reducing the pain severity (18). ...
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Introduction Many heart patients need Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) for their health and survival. CABG is known as the first and best choice in the treatment of these patients.the aim m this study was to study the effect of Reiki on chest pain of the patients undergoing CABG. Method and materials Forty patients after CABG were randomly assigned to Reiki and Sham Reiki groups. CABG Postoperative Chest Pain Caused by Coughing and Deep Breathing were measured before and after the interventions. The patients underwent Reiki healing energy and sham Reiki for 9 minutes. The short and modified version of the McGill pain questionnaire and the Visual Analog Scale was used for pain measurement. Results shows that 60% of the patients were male in both groups. No significant difference was found between two groups in terms of age, length of stay, and the outset of energy healing (P>0.05). No significant difference was found in terms of diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and history of smoking and drug addiction (P>0.05). Discussion According to the findings, Reiki energy healing is advised as a non-medical method, easy, inexpensive, noninvasive, and effective method for pain relief of the CABG patients. Conclusion future studies recommended are recommended to study the stability of Reiki on pain severity of patients at different times after intervention and compare the Reiki with drug therapy and other methods of complementary medicine for reducing the postoperative pain in order to provide better services for patients.
... According to the data of The National Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, there is a gradually increasing interest on energy approaches among consumers and healthcare providers [9]. Especially in the last decade, Reiki practice has increased among doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals [3]. It is commonly used in rehabilitation units, hospices, emergency care units, psychiatry clinics, surgery rooms, aged care facilities, pediatric clinics, clinics of gynecology and obstetrics, and neonatal care clinics. ...
... It is commonly used in rehabilitation units, hospices, emergency care units, psychiatry clinics, surgery rooms, aged care facilities, pediatric clinics, clinics of gynecology and obstetrics, and neonatal care clinics. Reiki can be applied by licensed or unlicensed reiki practitioners such as nurse, caregivers, family members, and patients who received first level Reiki training in hospitals and clinics [3,10]. ...
Article
Objective: Pain is one of the most common symptoms and may lead to important psychological, mental, and physiological problems in individuals. According to data by The Center for Reiki Research, Reiki is an effective approach to decrease the levels of pain, depression, and anxiety. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of Reiki on pain level. Methods: Randomized controlled clinical trials in databases of Pubmed, ISI Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar were investigated. 4 randomized controlled studies involving 212 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Results: The result obtained after the final Reiki application was evaluated in VAS pain score. When Reiki (n = 104) group was compared with control group (n = 108), standardized mean difference was observed to be -0.927 (95% CI: -1.867 to 0.0124). Reiki was observed to cause a statistically significant decrease in VAS score. Conclusion: Consequently, this meta-analysis revealed that Reiki was an effective approach in relieving the pain.
... Sia Gordon (2004) che Schiller (2003) suggeriscono, infatti, come l'uso consapevole di queste tecniche, e la loro integrazione nei processi terapeutici, stia favorendo il passaggio del ruolo che rivestono nel processo di cura, da "marginale" ad "integrante" (Vitale A., 2007). Questo dato è legato soprattutto al fatto che, mentre la medicina convenzionale si concentra principalmente sulla cura e sulla sopravvivenza dell'individuo, quella alternativa, utilizza un approccio olistico al paziente (Anderson J.G. & Taylor A.G. 2012), soprattutto nella fase palliativa durante la quale, gli stessi pazienti tendono a ricorrere a questo tipo di approccio di cura per migliorare il loro benessere, per aumentare il loro auto-controllo e per gestire meglio i diversi sintomi (Henderson J.V. & Donatelle R. J., 2004;Lengacher et al, 2002;Molassiotis et al, 2005;Pud et al, 2005;Mao et al, 2011). ...
... La BT è una disciplina che si basa sulla filosofia che considera gli esseri umani come detentori di una dimensione energetica (Anderson J.G. & Taylor A.G., 2011) e che opera, quindi, con l'obiettivo di bilanciare il dis-turbo nel campo energetico causato dai sintomi fisici e psicologici della malattia (Anderson J.G. & Taylor A.G., 2011, 2012. Questa categoria comprende tecniche come il Therapeutic Touch (TT), l'Healing Touch (HT), il Qigong, la Polarity Therapy ed il Reiki (Jain S. & Millis P. J., 2011;NCCAM, 2006;Vitale, 2007). ...
Article
Background: Cancer patients often report symptoms related to therapeutic treatment, whose management is based on traditional medicine. In recent years, however, there has been growing interest towards adopting some form of complementary medicine, among these, Reiki. The aim of this study is to evaluate how this type of discipline can contribute to managing radiotherapy-related symptoms in patients with head and neck cancer. Method: The study was performed in the Radiotherapy Department at the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute in Rome. To assess QoL, the FACT-H N questionnaire was used, while the CTCAE Scale was adopted to evaluate mucositis, cutaneous toxicity and salivation. Results: 10.5% of patients were reported to experience strong pain in the fifth week, compared to 21.1% of patients in the previous week; a degree of mucositis equal to G3 was also found in 15.5% of cases according to the clinical evaluation, as well as in 10.5% of patients according to the functional one. Only one case (5.3%) of grade 3 cutaneous toxicity was registered. Conclusion: The study shows how the Reiki treatment benefits patients in most cases, with both psychological support to help deal with the therapeutic process together with integrated support towards pain therapy.
... Quantum-Touch is a technique that focuses on the breathwork, intentions, energy experiences and touch of the practitioner. Reiki is a technique in which the practitioner channels universal energy into the patient's body through their hands [10]. Qigong is a type of exercise that restores body balance by synchronizing body motions with breathing and meditation. ...
... Reiki is a vibrating, throbbing universal energy that pervades and infuses all living things. Reiki is an energy-based touch therapy that allows the body's natural healing mechanism to function at its optimum by allowing life force energy, or Chi, to recharge, realign, and rebalance the human energy fields [10]. ...
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Energy Healing techniques are considered as one of the age-old practices dating its origin back to the ancient scriptures, to be precise much earlier than those. Scientific technology has been incorporated on a small scale into these in recent decades, beginning in the twentieth century. Even in the twenty-first century, little progress has been made in this area. This literature review is an eye-opener for the world to get familiarized with various energy healing techniques and their basic functionality. The various technical devices used for the detection and treatment of the biofield are depicted in brief in this review. The modalities in which Artificial Intelligence is used in various energy healing techniques are introduced here. The review culminates with a note on the future scope of the Energy Healing techniques on a wider horizon incorporating Artificial Intelligence wherever necessary.
... Evidence has shown that massage therapy has positive effects on symptoms of pain, nausea/vomiting, and anxiety [22,23]. Finally, Reiki is a therapy that claims to provide healing energy to recharge and rebalance the human energy fields, creating optimal conditions needed by the body's natural healing system [24]. Reiki has been shown to be effective for symptoms of pain and anxiety [24][25][26]. ...
... Finally, Reiki is a therapy that claims to provide healing energy to recharge and rebalance the human energy fields, creating optimal conditions needed by the body's natural healing system [24]. Reiki has been shown to be effective for symptoms of pain and anxiety [24][25][26]. Despite the evidence that exists, pediatric data on integrative approaches to health care delivery are needed. ...
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Symptoms of pain, nausea/vomiting, and anxiety (PNVA) are highly prevalent in pediatric inpatients. Poorly managed symptoms can lead to decreased compliance with care, and prolonged recovery times. Pharmacotherapy used to manage PNVA symptoms is of variable effectiveness and carries safety risks. Complementary therapies to manage these symptoms are gaining popularity due to their perceived benefits and low risk of harm. Pediatric integrative medicine (PIM) is the combination of complementary therapies with conventional medicine in pediatric populations. A two-arm, cluster-controlled, pragmatic clinical trial was carried out to compare the effectiveness of a PIM service in conjunction with usual care, versus usual care only to treat PNVA symptoms in hospitalized pediatric patients. The primary outcome was the improvement of PNVA symptom severity using a 10-point numerical rating scale. Participant enrollment occurred between January 2013 and January 2016. A total of 872 participants (usual care n = 497; PIM n = 375) were enrolled. The PIM therapies significantly reduced PNVA symptom severity (p < 0.001). This study found that a hospital-based PIM service is both safe and effective for alleviating PNVA symptoms. Future research should carry out this work in other pediatric inpatient divisions, and in other sites to determine the reproducibility of findings.
... Also, due to the challenges encountered by the researchers in this area, most of the studies have small samples and methodological limitations [3,6]. Five articles published between 2007 and 2014 conducted systematic reviews of clinical trials using Reiki therapy [1,3,[12][13][14][15]. They used online search, specific criteria for inclusion, and comparative review of the studies. ...
... The authors concluded that there is evidence to support the claim that Reiki therapy may be effective for pain and anxiety. to 2006 was undertaken by Vitale [12]. Of these studies, 7 showed efficaciousness of Reiki therapy for stress reduction and depression [27], anxiety reduction [6,26,28] and pain reduction [6,25,29,30]. ...
Article
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Reiki is a noninvasive, nondiagnostic, and nondirective hands-on healing therapy which is believed to promote healing and a state of well-being in all living things. In recent years, its popularity has increased and as a biofield or energy therapy it is being used as a complementary modality with the conventional medical care in a variety of settings. Reiki is a Japanese term meaning universal life force which is believed to flow from the hands of a practitioner to a willing recipient's body facilitating physical, emotional, or spiritual healing depending on the needs of the recipient. This article provides a comprehensive review of the information available about Reiki in the areas of its history and development, nature of training and treatment protocol, practice ethics, empirical research and challenges for the researchers, guidelines for future research, and current applications. There is a vast amount of anecdotal, published, unpublished, and Internet information available on the subject of Reiki and its use as a healing modality with discrepancies among many sources. This article attempts to sort out and present only that information which is accepted by majority of the Reiki practitioners and as such is an informative reading for all health practitioners.
... There is a growing interest amongst nurses for the use of Reiki in assisting patients especially in relation to self-help. Research being integrative and revisionary selected investigations using Reiki to reduce stress, to relax, to treat depression, pain and the healing of injuries (9) . ...
... The majority were female (66%) with a distribution inter-group homogeneity (p = 0.738) and in relation to the activities of the professionals there were military personnel (30), health care professionals (15), students(9) and others (47). The average age of the participants oscillated around 35 years old ( ...
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ABTRACT Objective to evaluate the effectiveness of massage and reiki in the reduction of stress and anxiety in clients at the Institute for Integrated and Oriental Therapy in Sao Paulo (Brazil). Method clinical tests randomly done in parallel with an initial sample of 122 people divided into three groups: Massage + Rest (G1), Massage + Reiki (G2) and a Control group without intervention (G3). The Stress Systems list and the Trace State Anxiety Inventory were used to evaluate the groups at the start and after 8 sessions (1 month), during 2015. Results there were statistical differences (p = 0.000) according to the ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) for the stress amongst the groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.014) with a 33% reductions and a Cohen of 0.78. In relation to anxiety-state, there was a reduction in the intervention groups compared with the control group (p < 0.01) with a 21% reduction in group 2 (Cohen of 1.18) and a 16% reduction for group 1 (Cohen of 1.14). Conclusion Massage + Reiki produced better results amongst the groups and the conclusion is for further studies to be done with the use of a placebo group to evaluate the impact of the technique separate from other techniques. RBR-42c8wp
... 10 Reiki therapy has been used for many years, particularly for pain and psychosocial symptoms. [11][12][13][14][15][16][17] Birocco et al 18 investigated the effects of Reiki therapy on pain and anxiety in patients attending a day oncology and infusion services unit. They found that the sessions were considered helpful in improving well-being (70%), relaxation (88%), pain relief (45%), and sleep quality (34%), and in reducing anxiety, with a pain reduction of 50% in mean values after each treatment, and statistical significance between the first and the fourth treatment. ...
... In a search strategy, various electronic databases were searched in a systematic review of 24 studies involving 1153 participants. There have been 5, 16, and 3 studies on healing touch, therapeutic touch, and Reiki, respectively. In one study it was reported that more experienced practitioners appeared to achieve greater effects in pain reduction, and that more studies on healing touch and Reiki in relieving pain were needed. ...
Article
This study was conducted to determine the effects of Reiki on pain and vital signs when applied for 15 minutes to the incision area of the body after cesarean section surgery. The study was single-blinded, randomized, and double-controlled (Reiki, sham Reiki, and control groups). Forty-five patients, equalized by age and number of births, were randomly assigned to the Reiki, sham Reiki, and control groups. The treatment, which was applied to the patients in these 3 groups, was applied for 15 minutes to the incision area of body in the first 24 and 48 hours after the operation within 4 to 8 hours of the application of standard analgesics. The study data were collected using a patient follow-up form and a visual analog scale. Mean visual analog scale measurement values were significantly different from each other according to groups and times (P < .05). A reduction in pain of 76.06% was determined in the Reiki group patients between day 1 pre-Tx and after application on the second day (day 2 post-Tx) measurements. Mean breathing rate and systolic blood pressure measurement values were significantly different from each other according to groups (P < .05). The Reiki group was observed to use fewer analgesics throughout the study and to need them after a longer time than the sham Reiki and control groups (P < .05). It was concluded that Reiki applied for 15 minutes to the incision area after a cesarean operation had the expected effects on pain and the need for the use of analgesics, but it had no effect on vital signs.
... 9 More rigorous scientific studies are required to assess Reiki's value and usefulness as a scientific and evidence-based practice. The evidence is not strong regarding the efficacy of Reiki in reducing pain and improving anxiety management regarding hospitalized, surgical patients, [8][9][10] but over the last several years, a body of work is emerging. ...
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This blinded, controlled pilot study investigated the effects of Reiki on 46 patients undergoing knee replacement surgery. Of the 3 groups, Reiki, Sham Reiki, and Standard of Care, only the Reiki group showed significant reductions in pain, blood pressure, respiration rate, and state anxiety, which provides evidence for a full-scale clinical study.
... Energy therapies are fundamental to Nursing practice and are recognized in the Nursing Intervention Classification Code [27] . The American Holistic Nurses Association (AHNA) endorses use of energy modalities as valid nursing interventions for self-care and for care of others [28,29] . This organization incorporates a separate standard for self-care in holistic nursing. ...
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Diseases, illness, injuries, mental and physical problems are all caused by disturbance in the energy field. Once these disturbances can be corrected a person can come back to a state of health. The spiritual nursing care or energy healing can be provided through therapeutic communication. Therapeutic communication is holistic and patient centered, and engages the totality of the patient’s condition – environmental, spiritual, psychological, as well as physiological elements. The practice of therapeutic communication helps to form a health-focused and stress-reducing collaborative relationship; its primary goal is the establishment of trust in order to create a healing exchange between nurse and patient. Spiritual life force energy works to heal and harmonize all the energy systems in all parts of the body. Spiritual life force energy goes to the root of whatsoever part that needs healing at the time of its application. This article seeks to illuminate the foundation for spiritual-energy care nursing, the interconnectedness of therapeutic communication and spiritually guided life force energy, the principles of life force energy, establishing nurse-client relationship for energy healing and the role of nurses in energy care.
... Many nurses have also integrated energy therapies into their routine care applications. 43,[46][47][48] Healing touch, which is one of the energy therapies, is a complementary treatment method that can be used in critical care environments as a nursing intervention. Intensive care unit patients often find themselves in an unfamiliar and loud environment that is equipped with advanced technology. ...
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Intensive care units are care centers where, in order to provide the maximum benefit to individuals whose life is in danger, many lifesaving technological tools and devices are present, and morbidity and mortality rates are high. In the intensive care unit, when classic treatments fail or become unbearable because of side effects, complementary methods have been suggested to be the best alternative. Complementary health approaches are methods that are used both for the continuation and the improvement of the well-being of an individual and as additions to medical treatments that are based on a holistic approach. These applications are especially helpful in the treatment of the stresses, anxieties, and other symptoms of unstable patients in the intensive care unit who do not tolerate traditional treatment methods well, increasing their psychological and physiological well-being, helping them sleep and rest. In intensive care patients, in order to decrease the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation, antiemetic and medicine needs, mechanical ventilation duration, and the intensity of the disease as well as to cope with symptoms such as pain, anxiety, physiological parameters, dyspnea, and sleep problems, body-mind interventions such as massage, reflexology, acupressure, aromatherapy, music therapy, energy therapies (healing touch, therapeutic touch, the Yakson method), and prayer are used as complementary health approaches.
... al., 2008). Forskare (Lee et al., 2008) som undersöker energimedicinska metoder och pläderar för att endast hålla sig till kvantitativa metoder med i förväg bestämda forskningshypoteser har för lite grundläggande kunskap om Reikimetoden. Undertecknad instämmer med de forskare (Ann L Baldwin et al., 2010;Herron-Marx et al., 2008;Miles & True, 2003;A. Vitale, 2007) som anser att mixed design är bästa metoden, då kvantitativa data berikas med kvalitativa forskningsmetoder så att mottagarens hela upplevelse inkluderas i studien. ...
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Finns det vetenskap och beprövad erfarenhet bakom Reiki? I studien beskrivs hur Reiki används inom klinisk vård och vad det finns för vetenskaplig grund för metoden.
... Reiki is a touch therapy or a bio-field energy therapy that is performed with hands of the practitioner to help the patient's body to become strong and improve its ability to heal [11]. While not many empirical studies have been conducted to assess the impact of Reiki, it has been found to alleviate symptoms of stress, pain and improve Stage 1: Release, Relaxation, or Rejuvenation -involves vivid physical experiences and dreams. ...
Article
Limited research has been conducted on the integration of flower essences therapy and intuition into a holistic life coaching practice. The objective for the current qualitative case study was to examine the clients’ experiences, beliefs, and perceptions regarding the integration of flower essences and intuition in a holistic life coaching context? Clients who elected to participate in the study kept a weekly reflection journal regarding their insights and any key spiritual experiences. Twice a month, clients had either in-person or phone intuitive life coaching sessions and reported their experiences with the flower essences in each 30-day cycle. After three to six months of intuitive life coaching, clients completed an interim survey regarding their experiences. At the end of their intuitive life coaching program, clients completed their final survey regarding their experiences. Themes extracted were related to flower essences, intuition, emotional healing, meditation, personal power, and general wellness from the data: online surveys, monitoring notes, and weekly journals. There were 8 emerging themes that were coded and analyzed. Evidence from each theme included a narrative revealing what the clients experienced with flower essences, intuition, and other alternative medicine and holistic practices in the study. The findings revealed that flower essences therapy was effective with emotional healing, body image, intuition, and meeting both personal and professional goals as it relates to the body, mind, and spirit.
... The current study discusses the effect of Reiki on the intensity and sensory and affective qualities of pain in the saphenous vein incision after CABG. [10][11][12][13], which is supported by the finding of the current study. The findings are in line with many laboratory and clinical studies that highlight the impact of Reiki on pain management. ...
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ABSTRACT Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effect of energy therapy on saphenous vein incision pain after coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG]. Methods: Forty patients after CABG were randomly assigned to Reiki and Sham Reiki groups. The intensity and sensory as well as affective qualities of pain were measured before and after the interventions. The patients underwent Reiki healing energy and sham Reiki for 9 minutes. The short and modified version of the McGill pain questionnaire and the Visual Analog Scale was used for pain measurement. Results: There was a significant difference between the Reiki and sham Reiki groups in the mean scores of pain sensory quality in the legs. However, no statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in the mean scores of pains severity and affective quality of pain in the legs [P>0.05]. Conclusion: Reiki could be used as a simple and cost-effective nursing intervention for managing sensory dimension of pain quality in the patients' after CABG. Abdollahimohammad A et al Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2017, 9 [1]:100-109 ______________________________________________________________________________ 101 Scholar Research Library
... Children and their parents/caregivers may wish to explore non-pharmacological options to augment care. Various complementary therapies have demonstrated safety and efficacy for pain [22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29], nausea and vomiting [25,30], and anxiety [31,32], but robust pediatric data are lacking. ...
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Background: Some pediatric tertiary care centres in North America supplement conventional care with complementary therapies, together known as pediatric integrative medicine (PIM). Evidence to support the safety and efficacy of PIM is emerging, but the cost-effectiveness of an inpatient PIM service has yet to be assessed. Methods/Design: This study is a pragmatic cluster controlled clinical trial. Usual care will be compared to usual care augmented with PIM in three pediatric divisions; oncology, general medicine, and cardiology at one large urban tertiary care Canadian Children's Hospital. The primary outcome of the feasibility study is enrolment; the primary outcome of the main study is cost-effectiveness. Other secondary outcomes include the prevalence and severity of key symptoms (i.e. pain, nausea/vomiting and anxiety), efficacy of PIM interventions, patient safety, and parent satisfaction. Discussion: This trial will be the first to evaluate the comparative effectiveness, both clinical and cost, of a PIM inpatient service. The evidence from this study will be useful to families, clinicians and decision makers, and will describe the clinical and economic value of PIM services for pediatric patients admitted to hospital.
... 2 Reiki, a Japanese term for ''universal life energy,'' is an ancient traditional energy therapy designed to help the body's natural healing system through rebalancing of the energy fields of the body. 3 Hospitalized patients often experience distressing symptoms secondary to their disease process, and over the years there has been an increased interest in the use of complementary alternative medical approaches, such as reiki and massage therapy, to address these symptoms particularly due to the lack of significant side effect profile associated with these generally nonpharmacological approaches. In a recent study of hospitalized patients, 82% of interviewed patients (n = 100) perceived massage therapy as being helpful and 70% were willing to pay for this service. ...
Article
Objectives: There is an increasing demand for and use of alternative and complementary therapies, such as reiki and massage therapy, in hospital-based settings. Most controlled studies and practice-based reports include oncology and surgical patient populations; thus the effect in a more heterogeneous hospitalized patient population is hard to estimate. We examined the immediate symptom relief from a single reiki or massage session in a hospitalized population at a rural academic medical center. Design: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on demographic, clinical, process, and quality of life for hospitalized patients receiving massage therapy or reiki. Settings/location: A 396-bed rural academic and tertiary medical center in the United States. Subjects: Hospitalized patients requesting or referred to the healing arts team who received either a massage or reiki session and completed both a pre- and post-therapy symptom questionnaire. Interventions: First session of routine reiki or massage therapy during a hospital stay. Outcome measures: Differences between pre- and postsession patient-reported scores in pain, nausea, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and overall well-being using an 11-point Likert scale. Results: Patients reported symptom relief with both reiki and massage therapy. Analysis of the reported data showed reiki improved fatigue (-2.06 vs. -1.55 p < 0.0001) and anxiety (-2.21 vs. -1.84 p < 0.001) statistically more than massage. Pain, nausea, depression, and well being changes were not statistically different between reiki and massage encounters. Immediate symptom relief was similar for cancer and noncancer patients for both reiki and massage therapy and did not vary based on age, gender, length of session, and baseline symptoms. Conclusions: Reiki and massage clinically provide similar improvements in pain, nausea, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and overall well-being while reiki improved fatigue and anxiety more than massage therapy in a heterogeneous hospitalized patient population. Controlled trials should be considered to validate the data.
... While several reviews of randomized RCTs of Reiki's effectiveness have been conducted (Vitale, 2007;Lee et al., 2008;VanderVaart et al., 2009;Joyce and Herbison, 2015;Zimpel et al., 2020;Morero et al., 2021), only one focused solely on studies controlling for placebo (McManus, 2017); however, it did not conform to the systematic review (SR) methodology. The present study aimed to provide an up-to-date review of RPCTs on the influence of Reiki on mental health symptoms in adults that conformed to the SR methodology and included an assessment of the risk of bias (ROB) and the GRADE criteria. ...
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Background Reiki is an energy healing technique or biofield therapy in which an attuned therapist places their hands on or near the client’s body and sends energy to the client to activate the body’s ability to heal itself and restore balance. It was developed in Japan at the end of the 19th century by Mikao Usui of Kyoto. Given the enormous international socioeconomic burden of mental health, inexpensive, safe, and evidenced-based treatments would be welcomed. Reiki is safe, inexpensive, and preliminary research suggests it may assist in treating a wide variety of illnesses. Given that Reiki is a biofield therapy, growing in use, and not yet accepted by the dominant biomedical paradigm, it is important to establish its effectiveness over placebo. This study aimed to examine Reiki’s effectiveness over placebo in treating symptoms of mental health and to explore parameters for its effectiveness. Method A systematic review of randomized placebo-controlled trials (RPCTs) examining Reiki’s effectiveness in treating symptoms of mental health in adults was conducted through a systematic search of PubMed, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, and ProQuest. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria, and risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane’s Revised ROB 2 assessment tool. This was followed by a grading of recommendations, assessment, development and evaluations (GRADE) assessment. Results The evidence to date suggests that Reiki consistently demonstrates a greater therapeutic effect over placebo for some symptoms of mental health. The GRADE level of evidence is high for clinically relevant levels of stress and depression, moderate to high for clinically relevant levels of anxiety, low to moderate for normal levels of stress, and low to moderate for burnout, and low for normal levels of depression and anxiety. Conclusion The results suggest that, Reiki may be more effective in treating some areas of mental health, than placebo, particularly if symptoms are clinically relevant. To date, there are a small number of studies in each area, therefore findings are inconclusive and, more RCTs controlling for placebo in Reiki research are needed. Most included studies were also assessed as having a risk of bias of some concern. Incorporating Reiki as a complementary treatment to mainstream psychotherapy for depression, stress, and anxiety may be appropriate. Systematic Review Registration [ https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/ ], identifier [CRD42020194311].
... Therapeutic touch (TT) is a method of the complementary and holistic medicine, the validity of which has proven validity, which allows individuals to find their inner balance, and uses the energy in the universe with a certain intention and compassion. TT was developed by Dolores Krieger and Dora Kunz in the 1970s, who were influenced by Rogers' theory (Vitale 2007;Whelan and Wishnia 2003). ...
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This study was carried out to investigate the effect of therapeutic touch on sleep quality in the elderly people living in the nursing homes. The study is a randomized controlled experimental study (pretest–posttest control group). The sample of the research consisted of 25 elderly people. As a result of the study, although there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the sleep quality of each group, no significant difference was found between the groups (p > 0.05). Therapeutic touch is an effective method of improving the sleep quality of the elders living at a nursing home.
... The project intended to investigate if Reiki may be an effective and safe option for improving wellbeing in patients with blood cancer. Reiki therapy has been used for a variety of health issues and studies have demonstrated different effects: (1) a significant reduction of pain, depression, and anxiety in chronically ill people who received Reiki treatments compared with sham Reiki (Dressin & Singg, 1998); (2) hands-on Reiki or distance Reiki significantly reduced mild depression and stress (Shore, 2004); (3) Reiki was effective as a self-care intervention based on interviews with 11 nurses trained in Reiki (Vitale, 2007), and (4) Reiki significantly reduced physiological effects of stress in rats compared with sham Reiki (Baldwin, Wagers & Schwartz, 2008). We were interested in studying this topic because the members of the Alarcão team are all Reiki Masters, and are convinced of the added value of Reiki therapy on the quality of life of patients with blood cancer. ...
... As same as another study reported that Reiki reduced physiological effects of stress (Baldwin et al., 2008). In another study reported that Reiki there were persuasive reductions in the total Stress Scale score which were greater than in the Non Reiki group (Bowden et al., 2010).This preliminary study and our study supports Reiki may be useful in reducing the anxiety, stress response and promoting relaxation (Vitale, 2007;Miles, 2003;Bullock, 1997;Barnett and Chambers, 1996). ...
... This limitation was reinforced by the small number of RCTs, methodological concerns, and the lack of standardized Reiki therapy program (i.e., number of sessions, frequency, duration, etc.). Overall, the seven reviews [20][21][22][23][24][25][26] available in the literature failed to establish strong evidence of the effectiveness of Reiki therapy to relieve pain in various CP conditions. Although a high level of evidence through RCTs is still needed to establish Reiki therapy as an effective practice, people having experienced hetero-or self-Reiki have reported globally positive pain management. ...
Article
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While the world faces an unprecedented situation with the pandemic, other chronic diseases such as chronic pain continue to run their course. The social distancing and restrictive displacement imposed by the pandemic situation represents a new barrier to access to pain management and tends to reinforce chronification process. Given this context, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) might offer new opportunities to manage CP, notably with a hand-touch method, such as self-Reiki therapy. Although Reiki administered by a practitioner has shown promising results to reduce pain and psychological distress, and to improve quality of life, self-Reiki practice needs evidence-based medicine to be disseminated. Overall, self-Reiki could bring positive results in addition to, and without interfering with, conventional medicine approaches in patients experienced chronic pain.
... It involves physical contact by a therapist's hands to channel vital energy to the patient, promoting energy balance, physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual well-being. In addition, such therapy may collaborate in the process of self-healing and decreasing the signs of pain in the treated individual (VITALE, 2007). ...
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This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Reiki therapy on postoperative pain in bitches undergoing elective minimally invasive ovariohysterectomy (OVH). Thirty bitches were randomly assigned to three groups: Control, Placebo, or Reiki. All dogs received methadone as preanesthetic medication (PAM), meloxicam in the preoperative period, propofol for anesthetic induction, and isoflurane for anesthetic maintenance. Immediately after OVH, the dogs in the Reiki were submitted to a single session of Reiki therapy, dogs in the Placebo received simulated Reiki therapy from a non-therapist, and dogs in the Control received no treatment. All dogs were evaluated for pain using short-form Glasgow composite measure pain scale (CMPS-SF) and visual analog scale (VAS) before (M0) and 2 (M2), 4 (M4), 8 (M8), 12 (M12), and 24 hours (M24) after administration of PAM. Comparing the CMPS-SF scores between the groups, at M2 Reiki scores were lower than those of the Placebo and at M4 those in the Reiki were lower than those of the Control or Placebo groups. Comparing the VAS scores, at M4 and M8, Reiki scores were lower than those of the Control or Placebo groups. Additional analgesia (morphine 0.2 mg.kg-1 intramuscularly) was administered to three bitches in Control and to four bitches of the Placebo. Reiki did not require additional opioid analgesia in the postoperative period. It was concluded that Reiki therapy provided analgesic effect and contributed to improve postoperative comfort of bitches submitted to elective OVH.
... Reiki mulai diminati oleh perawat, dokter, dan ahli rehabilitasi, khususnya di Amerika. Mereka mengkombinasikan Reiki dengan terapi medis dalam menyembuhkan pasien (Vitale, 2007). Tercatat hingga akhir 2002 kurang lebih 50 rumah sakit dan klinik-klinik di Amerika Serikat telah menawarkan Reiki kepada pasien-pasiennya (DiNucci, 2005). ...
Article
AbstrakReiki merupakan terapi komplementer untuk menurunkan kadar glukosa darah. Terapi ini menggunakan energi alami yangdisalurkan pada tubuh pasien dengan tujuan menyelaraskan energi yang tidak seimbang dalam tubuhnya. Penelitian untukmengetahui pengaruh Reiki terhadap penurunan glukosa darah dan mengidentifikasi apakah faktor stres dan berat badan(obesitas) berperan dalam penurunan KGD pasien Diabetes Melitus tipe 2 dilakukan di Klub Diabetes sebuah RS di Jakarta.Desain penelitian pre-eksperimental dengan pendekatan one-group pretest-posttest design. Sejumlah 18 sampel dipilih denganteknik purposive sampling. Terapi dilakukan selama tiga puluh hari dengan dua metode, secara langsung dan jarak jauh. Hasilpenelitian menunjukkan perbedaan bermakna antara glukosa darah sebelum dan setelah intervensi Reiki (p= 0,000; α= 0,05).Penelitian ini menyarankan penggunaan Reiki dalam asuhan keperawatan.Kata Kunci: diabetes melitus tipe 2, kadar glukosa darah, Reiki, terapi komplementerAbstractReiki is one of the complementary therapies that are used to decrease blood glucose level. The therapy transfers naturalenergy into the patient’s body to synchronize the energy imbalance in the body. The research to examine the effect of Reiki andthe role of the stress and weight factor to decrease blood glucose level of DM type 2 patients was held in a hospital-baseddiabetic club in Jakarta. The design of this study was pre-experimental with the one-group pretest-posttest design. Eighteenpatients were selected with the purposive sampling technique. Reiki therapy was performed in 30 days using two methods:direct and distant healing method. The result revealed that there was a significant difference in random blood glucose levelbefore and after the Reiki intervention (p= 0.000; α= 0.05). It is recommended to incorporate the Reiki therapy in nursingcare.Keywords: type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, blood glucose level, Reiki, complementary therapy
Article
Background: Pediatric integrative medicine (PIM) refers to the combination of treatments from conventional medicine and complementary therapies for which there is evidence of safety and effectiveness. As pediatric use of complementary therapies increases, it is important to determine parental views on the use of these therapies by their children. Objective: To describe parental experiences with a PIM service for management of pain, nausea/vomiting and anxiety in the context of an inpatient pediatric cardiology unit. Design: Telephone interviews were carried out with the parents of pediatric cardiology inpatients. The interviews focused on their and their child's experiences with the PIM service while in the hospital. Interviews were transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Data saturation was reached after nine interviews conducted during the period between June 2015 and January 2016. Parents self-reported that the PIM service was particularly helpful at alleviating symptoms of anxiety in their children. Moreover, because their children were more at ease, parents also felt less anxiety. Conclusion: Pediatric integrative medicine as an adjunct to conventional care is seen as beneficial by parents of children admitted to a pediatric cardiology unit.
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This blinded, controlled pilot study investigated the effects of Reiki on 46 patients undergoing knee replacement surgery. Of the 3 groups, Reiki, Sham Reiki, and Standard of Care, only the Reiki group showed significant reductions in pain, blood pressure, respiration rate, and state anxiety, which provides evidence for a full-scale clinical study.
Article
The main aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two psychotherapeutic approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and a complementary medicine method Reiki, in reducing depression scores in adolescents. We recruited 188 adolescent patients who were 12–17 years old. Participants were randomly assigned to CBT, Reiki or wait-list. Depression scores were assessed before and after the 12 week interventions or wait-list. CBT showed a significantly greater decrease in Child Depression Inventory (CDI) scores across treatment than both Reiki (p<.001) and the wait-list control (p<.001). Reiki also showed greater decreases in CDI scores across treatment relative to the wait-list control condition (p=.031). The analyses indicated a significant interaction between gender, condition and change in CDI scores, such that male participants showed a smaller treatment effect for Reiki than did female participants. Both CBT and Reiki were effective in reducing the symptoms of depression over the treatment period, with effect for CBT greater than Reiki. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for treatment of depression using both cognitive and complementary medicine approaches. However, research that tests complementary therapies over a follow-up period and against a placebo treatment is required.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the role that intentional touch therapies play in supporting women through pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum, including learned labor support techniques, massage therapy, and the energy therapies of Therapeutic Touch (TT), Healing Touch (HT), and Reiki. With the advent of increased awareness of integrative modalities and research to support integrative therapy use, all touch therapies can be reexamined within the context of clinical practice. The introduction of touch therapies into clinical practice not only adds another dimension to hands-on care but also invites a reconceptualization of intentional touch. The chapter ends with three case studies. Each case study illustrates the role that touch therapies play in providing comfort and support, reducing the normal stressors that accompany pregnancy and childbirth.
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Children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) commonly experience unpleasant symptoms such as pain, anger, and sadness. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study, guided by the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms (TOUS), was to examine the practicality and impact of delivering Reiki Therapy (RT) in homes over an 8-week intervention phase to children with CP. Thirteen pediatric participants were recruited, ranging in age from 5 to 16 years. Reiki Therapy was administered by a Level 3 Reiki Therapist in the home for 8 consecutive weeks. Parents completed on-line questionnaires addressing their children's unpleasant symptoms. Hair cortisol was measured as an indicator of stress. Nearly all study procedures were completed by the participants, indicating that the methods are feasible for a larger study. Reiki Therapy significantly decreased pain while lying down (3.09 vs. 2.00; p = .002) but not while sitting (2.55 vs. 2.09; p = .40). Anger symptoms showed a trend towards improvement in the participants. These preliminary findings demonstrate that Reiki is a therapeutic modality worthy of further investigation in the CP pediatric population.
Chapter
Integrative medicine, or integrative health care, is a field of medicine that unites a strong focus on lifestyle medicine and prevention with the inclusion of safe and effective options from a wide range of complementary and alternative disciplines. Given the high percentage of patients seeking out integrative approaches, as well as the increasing presence of integrative medicine in US hospitals, health care systems, and academic medical centers, it is essential that health care providers be familiar with the available options, risk–benefit data, and trusted resources for information. This chapter provides an overview of the evolving field of integrative medicine, its relation to lifestyle medicine, and how current research might be used to counsel a patient with type 2 diabetes with regard to dietary supplements, mind–body medicine, manual therapies, energy medicine, and whole healing systems.
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Purpose: Pain is a problem for individuals undergoing hemodialysis. Renal disease, comorbidities, concurrent symptoms, and dialysis procedures pose barriers to adequate pain management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate feasibility, examine construct validity of The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) computerized adaptive testing (CAT) instruments, and explore pain benefits of Reiki sessions conducted during hemodialysis. Design: A one group, repeated-measures design was used. Method: Fifteen participants received Reiki for 20 minutes, twice a week for 4 weeks. Pain, fatigue, and depression were evaluated using established symptom scales and PROMIS CAT instruments. Findings: Participants reported general relaxation feelings with Reiki and acceptability of using a touch-screen device to respond to web-based measures. Although staff were initially reluctant to engage patients for Reiki, they reported Reiki did not interfere with workflow and thought Reiki could be integrated into the practice setting. Significant, strong correlations with established symptom scales support construct validity of PROMIS CAT instruments. There was a significant decrease in mean symptom scores after four weeks of Reiki. Effect size values suggest a range of practical significance. Conclusions: Findings suggest Reiki provides symptom relief for individuals receiving hemodialysis, and randomized clinical trials to establish Reiki's pain benefits in this population are warranted.
Article
The review provides generalized data on the verification of the effectiveness of the method of alternative bioenergetic medicine Reiki of non-traditional bioenergy medicine Reiki with the tools of modern evidence-based medicine over the past two decades. The general principles of the therapy, the history of the method emergence and its spread in Japan, the USA and European countries are described. The purpose of the study. The study was conducted in order to determine the possibility of using the Reiki method in physical therapy and rehabilitation of patients. The most large-scale studies of Reiki effectiveness in pain overcoming, restoring the anatomical integrity of tissues and organs, functional range of motion and sensitivity recovery have been identified. It was noted that in small studies of Reiki effectiveness for overcoming anxiety, pain, depression, in the complex rehabilitation of victims of violence, some positive effects of the method were found, which are almost never taken into account by the authors of systematic and meta-analyzes due to the incomprehensible design of primary studies, low level of evidence, small groups of examined patients. There was no evidence of the effectiveness of the Reiki method in physical therapy and rehabilitation in contact, non-contact and remote execution. Even the existence of a "biofield", the correction of which is carried out by Reiki masters, is considered by most medical scientists to be fiction. However, individual facts about the improvement of the psychological state of patients, changes in biochemical parameters, as well as interest in the method by researchers from different countries over the past decades, are the basis for continuing research on the effectiveness of the method. Conclusion. The subjective satisfaction of some of the patients for whom the Reiki method was applied in rehabilitation and physical therapy exceeds the clinical effects verified by the methods of a double placebo-controlled randomized trial. Therefore, the Reiki method cannot be recommended as the only therapeutic method, but can be included in the complex of physical therapy methods as an additional method and provided that its action is understood as a placebo. Further studies of the method can be considered appropriate due to the good acceptance by many patients in the described studies, which were analyzed in the review, the interest of researchers from different countries and the absence of harm to patients
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the facilitators to integrating complementary therapies in conventional pediatric hospital practice based on the experiences of parents, healthcare providers, and conventional therapy providers. Design: This study is part of a larger research study that examined the introduction of a pediatric integrative medicine service in an acute care children's hospital in Canada. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted using semi-structured one-on-one telephone and in-person interviews with a sample of parents of children, as well as healthcare providers and conventional therapy providers. Results: A total of 50 individuals, from key-stakeholder groups, were interviewed between May 2014 and January 2016. This study identified the following facilitators for the integration of complementary therapies within conventional care: 1) stakeholders’ open-mindedness and familiarity with care practices outside of their experiences; 2) stakeholders’ open communication, respect for eachothers’ roles in the process of care, and appreciation for the role of complementary therapies within conventional medicine; and 3) stakeholders’ receptiveness to redefining the meaning of a ‘positive outcome’ in the context of hospital care. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate that some of the existing barriers to the integration of complementary therapies and conventional hospital care could be mediated by creating an environment where the fundamental value of commitment to patient wellbeing is equally shared by all stakeholders.
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This systematic review evaluated whether reiki had an impact on patients undergoing chemo-therapy, with possible improvement of the following outcomes: fatigue, pain, anxiety and quality of life. Method: Systematic review study with meta-analysis conducted at a tertiary care center. The following databases were searched until July 2020: MEDLINE, LILACS and CENTRAL. Two re-viewers independently examined eligible articles, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane tool. Results: The analyzes included eight studies and showed that there was a sta-tistically significant for anxiety control (MD = -2-09; 95% CI: -3.00 to -1.19; I2 = 51%) and Quality of life (MD = -5.97; 95% CI: -10.70 to -1.25; I2 = 97%) but no statistically significant difference was found for the other outcomes analyzed. An analysis of the risk of bias has uncertain methodological limitations in the studies. Conclusions: Although there is anxiety control and improved quality of life, there is a need for the elaboration of randomized clinical trials with larger populations to verify their real performance in controlling some side effects during chemotherapy.
Article
Mind-body interventions have gained increasing popularity for use with anxiety symptoms; however, it is unclear what role they play in the treatment of anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder. Although psychopharmacology and psychotherapy treatment interventions are available, mind-body interventions may be low-stigma options that can serve as effective alternatives. The goal of this review is to provide clinicians with an overview of high-quality studies for the most well researched mind-body interventions. This review involved a search of the primary literature, including meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs), that evaluated mind-body interventions for the treatment of anxiety disorders. When published evidence was limited, lower-quality studies were reviewed. Overall, data were limited on the efficacy of most mind-body modalities for anxiety disorders. The highest-quality data existed for yoga, mindfulness-based interventions, and applied relaxation for anxiety disorders. However, findings were sometimes inconsistent across studies, and some studies were limited by small sample sizes, poorly defined randomization and blinding procedures, and inadequate control groups. Although not enough data exist to recommend mind-body interventions as primary treatment options, they may be considered as part of a larger treatment plan given their relatively low levels of risk. Future steps for researchers include conducting additional RCTs with adequate control groups, comparing mind-body treatments with existing treatments, and examining long-term effects of mind-body interventions.
Article
Objectives: To describe mind-body interventions used in the management of chronic cancer pain including their mechanisms of action, dosing, and delivery methods based on available evidence to date. Data sources: Peer-reviewed publications. Conclusion: Further high-quality research is needed to establish the effectiveness and mechanisms of actions for mind-body interventions in chronic cancer pain management. Implications for nursing practice: Mind-body interventions for chronic cancer pain management are generally safe and well-accepted by individuals with cancer. Nurses need to be knowledgeable about these interventions to explain their level of effectiveness and any safety issues with patients.
Article
In recent years there has been increased interest in the study of pain in children and its treatment. It is known that when facing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures similar to those performed on adults, children either do not receive specific pain treatment or receive it on a significantly lower scale. However, recent research suggests a change in attitude and an improvement in the current treatment of children's pain. Although current knowledge demonstrates the falsity of many preconceived ideas about pain and its management, our results suggest that attitudinal change towards childhood pain remains slow and that real improvement in the training and practical application of the pediatrician who has to treat childhood pain is urgently needed. In this context this manuscript has prepared standards and guidelines to improve pain management practices in a large number of national and international professional settings.
Article
Introduction Touching ensures physical, emotional and spiritual relaxation, confidence, peace, calmness and well-being, and increases self-esteem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of therapeutic touch on labour pain, anxiety and childbirth attitude. Methods This randomized controlled trial consisted of 80 (intervention group: 40; control group: 40) women attending the maternity unit of a public hospital in Sivas, Turkey between 1 July and 30 December 2019. The first therapeutic touch application was performed in the active phase of the first stage of labour, for 15 min and the second was conducted during the second stage of labour. Data were collected using a Personal Information Form, Visual Analogue Scale, State Anxiety Inventory and Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire. The forms were completed twice, in the latent phase of the first stage of labour (first follow-up) and in the fourth stage of labour (second follow-up). The results were evaluated with a 95% confidence interval and effect size. Results Effect size at 95% confidence interval after therapeutic touch was determined as -1.65 (-2.14 / -1.13) for Visual Analogue Scale, -3.33 (-3.96 / -2.62) for State Anxiety Inventory and -2.98 (-3.59 / -2.32) for Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire. Conclusion Women in the intervention group reported a decrease in pain and anxiety levels, and more positive attitudes towards childbirth after therapeutic touch. The control group showed an increase in pain scores, and no change in anxiety and attitude scores.
Article
More Americans are embracing complementary and integrative healing modalities such as Reiki to enhance the efficacy of allopathic medicine. It is important that nurses and other health care professionals be knowledgeable about these modalities. Reiki is a wellness practice that offers whole-person healing of body, mind, and spirit. The study of Reiki offers nurses an opportunity to care for themselves as well as create an optimal healing environment for their patients. This article offer nurses a comprehensive overview of the system of Reiki; it includes the core elements of Reiki, its history, Reiki training, and examples of its applications.
Article
Health care organizations are responding to consumer demand by offering more complementary and integrative health services in inpatient, outpatient, and clinic settings. Nursing has long embraced energy-based modalities such as Reiki and has been at the forefront of introducing body, mind, and spirit healing practices into health care settings. This article describes how nurses can integrate Reiki into both their personal lives for self-care as well as their professional patient care practices. An overview of Reiki's integration into hospital systems is presented as well as Reiki's use with various patient populations. The status of Reiki research is discussed.
Article
Aim: This systematic review was carried out to evaluate the studies about therapeutic touch which were conducted after the year of 2000. Methodology: The databases such as Pubmed, Cochrane and Medline were searched to find related articles. Key words such as touch, therapeutic touch, nursing, therapeutic touch nursing and touch therapy were used to search. 25 studies were found in accordance with the inclusion criteria between January 2017 and May 2017. Results: When the studies were examined, pain (in 10 studies), anxiety and agitation (in 7 studies), psychological and behavioral symptoms (in 4 studies), vital signs (in 3 studies), cortisol levels (in 3 studies), sleep quality (in 2 studies), fatigue (in 2 studies), vomiting intensity (in 1 study), hemoglobin and hematocrit levels (in 1 study) and life quality (in 1 study) were investigated. Six of the studies were conducted with the pre- and post-operative patients; five of them were conducted with the elderly individuals; four of them were conducted with the ecancer patients; four of them conducte with the individuals with dementia; three of them were conducted with the neonates; one of them was conducted with the pregnant women. Conclusion: In conclusion, it has been thought that nurses can include therapeutic touch into care in order to provide more effective care because it can be easily applied and give effective results. Key Words: Touch, Therapeutic Touch, Nursing, Complementary Therapies.
Article
Many of the treatments except the modern and scientific treatments in general, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is expressed as. Many of today's women as patients, the treatment of diseases, alleviation of symptoms or eliminating the CAM method is used. Despite the very limited evidence about the effectiveness of many CAM methods have been increasing all over the world. Health care professionals interested in increasing the CAM, the increase in the number of patients who use these treatment methods play an important role. In this article, alternative/complementary health of bull usage and effectiveness of women in accordance with the literature will be discussed.
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Touch therapies, including Reiki, are increasingly popular complementary therapies. Previous studies of touch therapies have yielded equivocal findings. Exploring the experiences of Reiki recipients contributes to understanding the popularity of touch therapies and possibly elucidates variables for future studies. Descriptive study with quantitative and qualitative data. This report focuses on qualitative interview data. Thematic analysis was used to discern patterns in the experience. All Reiki treatments were given in a sound proof windowless room by one Reiki master. Audiotaped interviews were conducted immediately after the treatment in a quiet room adjoining the treatment room. Generally healthy volunteers (N=23) who were naive to Reiki. Standardized, 30-minute Reiki session. Interview data supported by quantitative data. Participants described a liminal state of awareness in which sensate and symbolic phenomena were experienced in a paradoxical way. Liminality was apparent in participants' orientation to time, place, environment, and self Paradox also was seen in participants' symbolic experiences of internal feelings, cognitive experience, and external experience of relationship to the Reiki master. Liminal states and paradoxical experiences that occur in ritual healing are related to the holistic nature and individual variation of the healing experience. These findings suggest that many linear models used in researching touch therapies are not complex enough to capture the experience of participants.
Chapter
• Complementary and alternative medicine encompasses a wide array of interventions, including diets, dietary supplements, and herbal products. • Scientific evidence does not support a substantial role of special diets in the treatment of the majority of patients with rheumatic disease, but various dietary manipulations may be beneficial when combined with standard medical therapy. • Long-term safety of dietary and herbal supplements is a legitimate concern and patients should always be cautioned about their use of these products. • Observed benefits in disease activity owing to short-term trials may be more reflective of the natural history of rheumatic disease rather than true differences in long-term outcome.
Article
The effect of Therapeutic Touch, Reiki, LeShan, and Qigong Therapy in combination on haematological measures was examined in an exploratory pilot study utilizing a randomized, double-blind, within-subject, crossover design. Fourteen subjects were randomly assigned to treatment and control conditions for two one-hour evaluation sessions separated by a 24-hour period. Six blood samples were taken from each subject — three during the treatment condition and three during the control condition — for a total of 84 separate analyses. Blood samples were taken prior to the commencement of each evaluation session as well as at 30- and 60-minute intervals and analyzed using an i-STAT point-of-care clinical analyzer. Treatment intervention included a distant healing element — with Reiki and LeShan healers working conjunctively — as well as an inperson healing period wherein a Qigong and Therapeutic Touch practitioner worked independently through a one-way mirror. The subjects were blinded to the treatment intervention as well as to the nature of the experimental protocol in order to control for suggestion, expectation of healing, and the placebo effect. The results demonstrated that the treatment had a significant effect versus the control condition for urea nitrogen values at time point two (P = 0.02), as well as significance for blood glucose values at time point one (P = 0.03) and time point two (P = 0.0001). The findings of the study are considered preliminary in nature, however, due to the fact that the significant effects demonstrated may have been influenced by several factors other than the treatment intervention including: psychophysiological factors, the incorporation of meditation into the experimental protocol, dietary and measurement variability elements, the experimenter effect, and the utilization of subjects who were students/patients of the Qigong practitioner.
Article
This study utilized a randomized, double-blind, within subject, crossover design to examine the effect of Reiki and LeShan healing in combination on iatrogenic pain experienced after unilateral operative extraction of the lower third molar. Two separate operations were performed on 21 patients with bilateral, asymptomatic, impacted lower third molar teeth. The patients were randomly assigned to the treatment or control condition prior to the first operation. For the second operation, patients crossed over to the opposite condition - i.e. those subjects who were in the treatment group for the first operation became control group subjects for the second operation, and those subjects who were in the control group for the first operation became treatment group subjects for the second operation.All pre-operative and postoperative conditions were identical for the treatment and control groups for both operations, with the exception that the treatment group received Reiki and LeShan healing postoperatively. The patients assessed their pain intensity using a 100 mm visual analogue scale for postoperative hours 3 through 9, and pain relief using a 5 point scale for hours 4 through 9. A statistically significant difference was found between the treatment and control groups in both the level of pain intensity and degree of pain relief experienced for postoperative hours 4 through 9.
Article
Healing therapies which employ touch and are based on the premise of a human energy field are gaiping in popularity and support. Reiki, a Tibetan healing art, is one such modality. But Reiki has not yet been submitted to close scientific scrutiny. Using Krieger's protocol for hemoglobin studies within the context of Therapeutic Touch, forty-eight adults participating in First Degree Reiki Training were tested. Findings revealed a statistically significant change in the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels of the participants at the P =.01 level. A comparable control group, not experiencing the training, demonstrated no change within an identical time frame. Further research is necessary to clarify the physiologic effects of touch healing.
Article
Studied the ability of 3 mental healing practitioners who specialized in a particular method of "energy" healing (Reiki) to influence volunteer Ss who had no particular health complaints. During the experimental sessions, Ss' skin resistance was monitored, and a polygraph readout of that activity was displayed to the healer, who was isolated in a separate room 20 m away. Each session included 10 30-sec influence periods (during which the healer would attempt to calm the S's autonomic activity through various mental strategies) and 10 30-sec control periods (during which the healer would either do nothing or would attempt to activate the physiological activity of the S). While overall results were not statistically significant, the study provided extensive qualitative ethnographic and phenomenological data on Reiki healing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The effect of non-contact therapeutic touch (NCTT) in isolation and in combination with Reiki, LeShan, and Intercessory Prayer on the healing rate of full thickness human dermal wounds was examined utilizing a randomized, double-blind, within subject, crossover design. The protocol incorporated an integral biofeedback, guided imagery, and visualization/relaxation component in order to assess the influence of psychophysiological factors on the healing process. Biopsies were performed on the lateral deltoid in healthy subjects and assessed by two independent physicians for the rate of reepithelialization at day 5 and day 10. Subjects met as a group on odd numbered days for a one hour visualization/relaxation session which incorporated guided imagery with either a specific intent to heal their biopsy wound or a specific intent to relax. Treatment intervention included two NCTT healers or two mimic practitioners who worked in-person for a duration of 6 minutes per subject. LeShan and Intercessory Prayer healers worked at a distance and a Reiki healer worked in-person with the NCTT healers. On even numbered days, subjects were trained in hand temperature biofeedback with either a specific intent to heal or a specific intent to relax. Results showed significance for the treated versus the control group but in the opposite direction from that expected. Several factors could have contributed to the nonsignificance obtained including: (a) the natural healing ability of the two mimic practitioners; (b) the subjects' increased proficiency with the self-regulatory techniques; and (c) a carryover effect from the two NCTT healers and/or the Reiki, LeShan, or Intercessory Prayer healers.
Article
This article explicates current perspectives on Rogers' science of unitary human beings. Possibilities for nursing in the 21st century are elaborated upon. Attention is called to the increasingly rapid social changes which will have an impact on nursing science.
Article
Tom was diagnosed with a very aggressive cancer and received only palliative radiation and medication. At the time of diagnosis, his symptoms suggested that he had a very limited life expectancy. With the Reiki and his intent, he was able to achieve his goal of long-term stability with freedom from immobilizing pain and swelling. Tom's comfort and quality of life improved dramatically, and he is living well with his cancer. Reiki has been associated with dramatic results for many patients. The importance of the patient's intent during Reiki treatments cannot be overemphasized. Some general trends seen with Reiki include: periods of stabilization in which there is time to enjoy the last days of one's life; a peaceful and calm passing if death is imminent; and relief from pain, anxiety, dyspnea and edema. Reiki is a valuable complement in supporting patients in their end-of-life journey, enhancing the quality of their remaining days.
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore the usefulness of Reiki as an adjuvant to opioid therapy in the management of pain. Since no studies in this area could be found, a pilot study was carried out involving 20 volunteers experiencing pain at 55 sites for a variety of reasons, including cancer. All Reiki treatments were provided by a certified second-degree Reiki therapist. Pain was measured using both a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a Likert scale immediately before and after the Reiki treatment. Both instruments showed a highly significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in pain following the Reiki treatment.
Article
Reiki is one type of alternative therapy that is increasing in popularity. It is advocated by its practitioners as a precise method for connecting universal life energy with the body's innate process of healing through hands-on techniques. The claim of Reiki practitioners is that Reiki reduces a variety of physical problems and improves psychospiritual well-being. There are abundant anecdotal records that support the previous claim, and a few pioneer scientific studies are starting to emerge. Although the Reiki research in totality supports the anecdotal records, the absence of randomized and placebo-controlled trials precludes the interpretation of the outcomes as resulting from specific effects as opposed to placebo effects plus natural history. Authorities in the field indicate that researchers interested in placebo-controlled studies should have the placebo treatment look exactly like the real intervention in every respect. Because no studies could be found in the literature that tested standardization procedures for real and placebo Reiki, the decision was made to conduct one. The purpose of this study was to test the standardization procedures developed by our research team for placebo Reiki, before going ahead and conducting our planned full-scale randomized and placebo-controlled Reiki efficacy study. This study used a 4-round, crossover experimental design in which 20 blinded subjects (12 students, 4 breast cancer survivors, and 4 observers) were exposed to a combination of 2 interventions (Reiki plus Reiki, or placebo plus placebo, or Reiki plus placebo, or placebo plus Reiki); and were then asked to evaluate the interventions using a self-administered questionnaire. The blinded observers were used in round number 4. Two real Reiki practitioners in the Usui system were chosen first, then 2 placebo practitioners who closely resembled them were recruited. The placebo practitioners were trained in Reiki by the study Reiki Master and the principal investigator, but were not initiated. The belief in Reiki is that only practitioners that are initiated could give Reiki, thus making it possible to have a placebo arm in efficacy studies. The findings of the study indicate that the developed standardization procedures were successful because none of the final participants in round 4 (4 breast cancer patients and 4 observers) could differentiate between the identity of placebo and Reiki practitioners. The qualitative comments expressed by the participants further con-firmed the quantitative data. It was concluded based on these findings that it is safe to go ahead and conduct the planned randomized 3-arm Reiki efficacy clinical trial. It is recommended that scholars interested in Reiki research could incorporate our techniques to strengthen their designs by adding a placebo arm.
Article
Nursing has been dedicated throughout its history to addressing the physical, psychologic, and spiritual aspects of the patient that influence the healing process. Current nursing practice in acute care is focused increasingly on monitoring equipment, giving medications, and administering medical treatments in a fast-paced environment that affords few opportunities for the deeper human connectedness between the nurse and the one who is ill and suffering. Healing touch (HT) is an energy-based complementary therapy fostering that nurse-patient connection. Nurses are beginning to use HT with their patients to assist in easing pain and anxiety, promote relaxation, accelerate wound healing, diminish depression, and increase a patient's sense of well-being. This article reports a conceptual framework for use of HT in acute care settings, describes specific HT techniques, and reviews numerous studies that have reported positive outcomes of HT as a noninvasive complementary therapy.
Article
Despite the popularity of touch therapies, theoretical understanding of the mechanisms of effect is not well developed and there is limited research measuring biological outcomes. The aim of this study was to test a framework of relaxation or stress reduction as a mechanism of touch therapy. The study was conducted in 1996 and involved the examination of select physiological and biochemical effects and the experience of 30 minutes of Reiki, a form of touch therapy. A single group repeated measure design was used to study Reiki Touch'ssm effects with a convenience sample of 23 essentially healthy subjects. Biological markers related to stress-reduction response included state anxiety, salivary IgA and cortisol, blood pressure, galvanic skin response (GSR), muscle tension and skin temperature. Data were collected before, during and immediately after the session. Comparing before and after measures, anxiety was significantly reduced, t(22)=2.45, P=0.02. Salivary IgA levels rose significantly, t(19)=2.33, P=0.03, however, salivary cortisol was not statistically significant. There was a significant drop in systolic blood pressure (SBP), F(2, 44)=6.60, P < 0.01. Skin temperature increased and electromyograph (EMG) decreased during the treatment, but before and after differences were not significant. These findings suggest both biochemical and physiological changes in the direction of relaxation. The salivary IgA findings warrant further study to explore the effects of human TT and humeral immune function.
Article
To clarify the effect of the using the intrauterine device on fertility in nulliparous women. Prospective cohort study of two groups of nulliparous women, one recruited while using an intrauterine device and the other while using an oral contraceptive. Seventeen family planning clinics in England and Scotland. 1,071 nulliparous, married women, aged 18-40 years, 558 of whom contributed information to the main objective of the study. The women were recruited between 1982 and 1985 and followed up annually to 1994. Dates and reasons for any contraceptive method changes (which were most frequently to barrier methods) were recorded, together with the outcome of any pregnancies, at each follow up. The number of nulliparous women giving birth at term after stopping contraception (oral contraceptive, intrauterine device or barrier method) in order to conceive. Women who stopped using a barrier method to achieve a planned pregnancy conceived most quickly: 54% were delivered after one year vs 39% of intrauterine device and 32% of oral contraceptive users (log rank P = 0.002). There was no association between fertility and duration of oral contraceptive use: However, short term intrauterine device users (< 42 months) showed a fertility pattern more favourable than seen in those discontinuing oral contraceptives, with increasing duration of intrauterine device use being associated with decreasing fertility (linear trend P = 0.005); the fertility of women who had used the intrauterine device for 78 + months was the most impaired (28% were delivered by 12 months vs 46% of short term users; at 36 months the corresponding figures were 79% vs 91%). This association remained after adjusting for potential confounding factors, including maternal age, husband's social class, and history of gynaecological illnesses, factors which themselves had independent associations with fertility. Long term intrauterine device use in nulliparous women appears to be associated with an increased risk of fertility impairment.
Article
1. Reiki is an ancient healing art involving the gentle laying on of hands. It can be practiced anytime and anywhere. 2. Reiki can be used as a complementary treatment to medical protocols. 3. Hand positions customarily correspond to the body's endocrine and lymphatic systems and major organs, focusing on seven main chakras. 4. More research investigating the effects of Reiki on persons with psychiatric and medical disorders is necessary.
Article
The purpose of this article is to explore the adequacy of published scientific evidence supporting therapeutic touch as a nursing intervention. Meta-analytic techniques were used to integrate the research-based literature published in the past decade. The results seem to indicate that therapeutic touch has a positive, medium effect on physiological and psychological variables. It is impossible to make any substantive claims at this time because there is limited published research and because many of the studies had significant methodological issues that could seriously bias the reported results. Resolving these methodological issues is imperative for therapeutic touch research to move forward.
Article
The metaphor "hands-on" has been used throughout the history of nursing, highlighting internal conflict and reflecting the centrality of patient care. Connection with the intent to heal suggests the deeper meaning of the metaphor. Nurses have struggled to maintain a holistic approach to patient care while reflecting larger social values. Some nurses have moved from holistic care of the client to a holistic use of self as healer. This unified approach of head, heart, and hands is exemplified in healers using touch therapies. Head and heart unite with the action of the hand with intent to heal.
Article
The three objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of Reiki as an adjunctive treatment for patients with subacute stroke who were receiving standard rehabilitation as inpatients, (2) to evaluate a double-blinded procedure for training Reiki practitioners, and (3) to determine whether or not double-blinded Reiki and sham practitioners could determine which category they were in. A modified double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial with an additional historic control condition. The stroke unit of a major rehabilitation hospital. Fifty (50) inpatients with subacute ischemic stroke, 31 male and 19 female. There were four conditions: Reiki master, Reiki practitioner, sham Reiki, and no treatment (historic control). Subjects received up to 10 treatments over a 2(1/2)-week period in addition to standard rehabilitation. Functional independence measure (FIM), and Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression (CES-D) measure. No effects of Reiki were found on the FIM or CES-D, although typical effects as a result of age, gender, and time in rehabilitation were detected. Blinded practitioners (sham or reiki) were unable to determine which category they were in. Sham Reiki practitioners reported greater frequency of feeling heat in the hands compared to Reiki practitioners. There was no reported difference between the sham and the real Reiki practitioners in their ability to feel energy flowing through their hands. Post hoc analyses suggested that Reiki may have had limited effects on mood and energy levels. Reiki did not have any clinically useful effect on stroke recovery in subacute hospitalized patients receiving standard-of-care rehabilitation therapy. Selective positive effects on mood and energy were not the result of attentional or placebo effects.
Reiki is a vibrational, or subtle energy, therapy most commonly facilitated by light touch, which is believed to balance the biofield and strengthen the body's ability to heal itself. Although systematic study of efficacy is scant thus far, Reiki is increasingly used as an adjunct to conventional medical care, both in and out of hospital settings. This article will describe the practice and review the history and theory of Reiki, giving readers a context for the growing popularity of this healing modality. Programs that incorporate Reiki into the clinical setting will be discussed, as well as important considerations in setting up such a program. Finally, the research literature to date on Reiki will be reviewed and evaluated, and directions for future Reiki research will be suggested.
Article
This study evaluates how nurses who gave Reiki therapy perceived the benefit of this therapy on their clients and on themselves concurrently as providers of the therapy. As an adjunct, the study's purpose was to enhance the understanding and credibility of nurse/Reiki practitioners. In an extensive review of the literature, fewer than 10 studies were found in the last 12 years regarding Reiki therapy. 1–6 Reiki therapy is used as a complementary healing method to enhance an overall sense of well being, reduce pain, decrease stress, and foster relaxation. 7
Article
Representing the largest published sample size of therapeutic touch (TT) outcomes to date, data from this continuous quality improvement (CQI) clinical study suggests that TT, when provided in the clinical setting, promotes comfort, calmness, and well-being among hospitalized patients. In addition, patients are highly satisfied with TT. The newly developed Patient Satisfaction Survey and TT Performance Improvement Tool provide an effective means by which to evaluate a TT program. Therapeutic touch (TT) is a holistic healing practice used to help activate the self-healing processes of the individual. 1,2 Research supports TT as a nursing intervention that has a positive, moderate effect. 3,4 The introduction of an inpatient, hospital-based TT program led to the development of TT-related continuous quality improvement (CQI) activities. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) requires institutions seeking accreditation to maintain CQI activities. 5
Reiki is a complementary, energy-based healing modality. It has ancient roots, but is uniquely suited to modern nursing practice. Reiki training offers a precise technique for tapping into healing energy, or ki, and transmitting it through touch. Reiki treatments are gently balancing and provide energy that supports the well-being of the recipient in a holistic and individualistic way. Relaxation, pain relief, physical healing, reduced emotional distress, and a deepened awareness of spiritual connection are among the benefits attributed to Reiki in anecdotes, case studies, and exploratory research, as summarized in this review of literature. Reiki is easily adaptable to nursing practice in a variety of settings, and can provide support for the practitioners of Reiki themselves, as well as benefiting those they treat with Reiki.
The long-term effects of energetic healing were examined in an experimental design employing a 3 x 3 factorial MANOVA on symptoms of psychological depression and self-perceived stress as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness, and Perceived Stress scales. Forty-six participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: hands-on Reiki, distance Reiki, or distance Reiki placebo, and remained blind to treatment condition. Each participant received a 1 to 1.5 hour treatment each week for 6 weeks. Pretest data collected prior to treatment demonstrated no preexisting significant differences among groups. Upon completion of treatment, there was a significant reduction in symptoms of psychological distress in treatment groups as compared with controls (P < .05; Eta square ranging from .09-.18), and these differences continued to be present 1 year later (P < .05; Eta square ranging from .12-.44).
Article
To review studies of healing touch and its implications for practice and research. A review of the literature from published works, abstracts from conference proceedings, theses, and dissertations was conducted to synthesize information on healing touch. Works available until June 2003 were referenced. The studies were categorized by target of interventions and outcomes were evaluated. Over 30 studies have been conducted with healing touch as the independent variable. Although no generalizable results were found, a foundation exists for further research to test its benefits.
Article
to investigate if a complementary therapy, Reiki, has any effect on indices of autonomic nervous system function. Blind trial. Quiet room in an out-patient clinic. Forty-five (45) subjects assigned at random into three groups. Interventions: Three treatment conditions: no treatment (rest only); Reiki treatment by experienced Reiki practitioner; and placebo treatment by a person with no knowledge of Reiki and who mimicked the Reiki treatment. Quantitative measures of autonomic nervous system function such as heart rate, cardiac vagal tone, blood pressure, cardiac sensitivity to baroreflex, and breathing activity were recorded continuously for each heartbeat. Values during and after the treatment period were compared with baseline data. Heart rate and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the Reiki group compared to both placebo and control groups. The study indicates that Reiki has some effect on the autonomic nervous system. However, this was a pilot study with relatively few subjects and the changes were relatively small. The results justify further, larger studies to look at the biological effects of Reiki treatment.
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by US adults increased substantially between 1990 and 1997, yet little is known about more recent trends. Compare CAM therapy use by US adults in 2002 and 1997. Comparison of two national surveys of CAM use by US adults: (1) the Alternative Health/Complementary and Alternative Medicine supplement to the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, N = 31,044) and (2) a 1997 national survey (N = 2055), each containing questions about 15 common CAM therapies. Prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, and insurance coverage of CAM use. The most commonly used CAM modalities in 2002 were herbal therapy (18.6%, representing over 38 million US adults) followed by relaxation techniques (14.2%, representing 29 million US adults) and chiropractic (7.4%, representing 15 million US adults). Among CAM users, 41% used two or more CAM therapies during the prior year. Factors associated with highest rates of CAM use were ages 40-64, female gender, non-black/non-Hispanic race, and annual income of dollar 65,000 or higher. Overall CAM use for the 15 therapies common to both surveys was similar between 1997 and 2002 (36.5%, vs. 35.0%, respectively, each representing about 72 million US adults). The greatest relative increase in CAM use between 1997 and 2002 was seen for herbal medicine (12.1% vs.18.6%, respectively), and yoga (3.7% vs. 5.1%, respectively),while the largest relative decrease occurred for chiropractic (9.9% to 7.4%, respectively). The prevalence of CAM use has remained stable from 1997 to 2002. Over one in three respondents used CAM in the past year, representing about 72 million US adults.
Article
The purpose of this pilot study was to compare reports of pain and levels of state anxiety in 2 groups of women after abdominal hysterectomy. A quasi-experimental design was used in which the experimental group (n = 10) received traditional nursing care plus three 30-minute sessions of Reiki, while the control group (n = 12) received traditional nursing care. The results indicated that the experimental group reported less pain and requested fewer analgesics than the control group. Also, the experimental group reported less state anxiety than the control group on discharge at 72 hours postoperation. The authors recommend replication of this study with a similar population, such as women who require nonemergency cesarian section deliveries.
Article
This trial compared pain, quality of life, and analgesic use in a sample of patients with cancer pain (n=24) who received either standard opioid management plus rest (Arm A) or standard opioid management plus Reiki (Arm B). Participants either rested for 1.5 hr on Days 1 and 4 or received two Reiki treatments (Days 1 and 4) one hour after their first afternoon analgesic dose. Visual analogue scale (VAS) pain ratings, blood pressure, heart rate, and respirations were obtained before and after each treatment/rest period. Analgesic use and VAS pain scores were reported for 7 days. Quality of life was assessed on Days 1 and 7. Participants in Arm B experienced improved pain control on Days 1 and 4 following treatment, compared to Arm A, and improved quality of life, but no overall reduction in opioid use. Future research will determine the extent to which the benefits attributed to Reiki in this study may have been due to touch.
The Original Reiki Handbook of Dr
  • M Usui
  • Petter
Usui M, Petter FA. The Original Reiki Handbook of Dr. Mikao Usui. Twin Lakes, Wis: Lotus Light; 2003.
A study of Reiki, an energy field treatment, using Rogers science.
  • Thornton
Thornton L. A study of Reiki, an energy field treatment, using Roger's science. Rogerian Nurs Sci News. 1996;8(3):14–15.