Structure basis of antigenic escape of a malaria vaccine candidate

ArticleinProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104(30):12488-93 · August 2007with17 Reads
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0701464104 · Source: PubMed
Antibodies against the malaria vaccine candidate apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) can inhibit invasion of merozoites into RBC, but antigenic diversity can compromise vaccine efficacy. We hypothesize that polymorphic sites located within inhibitory epitopes function as antigenic escape residues (AER). By using an in vitro model of antigenic escape, the inhibitory contribution of 24 polymorphic sites of the 3D7 AMA-1 vaccine was determined. An AER cluster of 13 polymorphisms, located within domain 1, had the highest inhibitory contribution. Within this AER cluster, antibodies primarily targeted five polymorphic residues situated on an α-helical loop. A second important AER cluster was localized to domain 2. Domain 3 polymorphisms enhanced the inhibitory contribution of the domain 2 AER cluster. Importantly, the AER clusters could be split, such that chimeras containing domain 1 of FVO and domain 2 + 3 of 3D7 generated antisera that showed similarly high level inhibition of the two vaccine strains. Antibodies to this chimeric protein also inhibited unrelated strains of the parasite. Interstrain AER chimeras can be a way to incorporate inhibitory epitopes of two AMA-1 strains into a single protein. The AER clusters map in close proximity to conserved structural elements: the hydrophobic trough and the C-terminal proteolytic processing site. This finding led us to hypothesize that a conserved structural basis of antigenic escape from anti-AMA-1 exists. Genotyping high-impact AER may be useful for classifying AMA-1 strains into inhibition groups and to detect allelic effects of an AMA-1 vaccine in the field. • Plasmodium • apical membrane antigen-1 • invasion
    • "Experimental recombinant or subunit vaccines have been described for many apicomplexans with varying levels of efficacy obtained under controlled laboratory or experimental animal conditions. However, commercial translation has commonly been hindered by a range of factors including naturally occurring genetic diversity in field parasites, resulting in insufficient immunological protection in the vaccinated host and selection of resistant populations (Dutta et al., 2007; Blake et al., 2015). If vaccines are to be successful and remain effective in the long term it is essential to understand the impacts that parasite genetic (antigenic) diversity and population structures have on the selection of field populations capable of vaccine escape. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eimeria species cause coccidiosis, most notably in chickens where the global cost exceeds US$3 billion every year. Understanding variation in Eimeria population structure and genetic diversity contributes valuable information that can be used to minimise the impact of drug resistance and develop new, cost-effective anticoccidial vaccines. Little knowledge is currently available on the epidemiology of Eimeria species and strains in different regions, or under different chicken production systems. Recently, 244 Eimeria tenella isolates collected from countries in Africa and Asia were genotyped using a Sequenom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) tool, revealing significant variation in haplotype diversity and population structure, with a marked North/South regional divide. To expand studies on genetic polymorphism to larger numbers of E. tenella populations in other geographic regions a cheaper and more accessible technique, such as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), is desirable. We have converted a subset of SNP markers for use as PCR-RFLPs and re-analysed the original 244 isolates with the PCR-RFLPs to assess their utility. In addition, application of the PCR-RFLP to E. tenella samples collected from UK and Irish broiler chickens revealed a tightly restricted haplotype diversity. Just two of the PCR-RFLPs accounted for all of the polymorphism detected in the UK and Irish parasite populations, but analysis of the full dataset revealed different informative markers in different regions, supporting validity of the PCR-RFLP panel. The tools described here provide an accessible and cost-effective method that can be used to enhance understanding of E. tenella genetic diversity and population structure.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2016 · Vaccine
    • "The role that AMA1 plays in cellular invasion is unclear; however, it is expressed at two stages in the malaria life cycle, the hepatic stage before and during sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes and the erythrocytic stage before merozoite invasion of erythrocytes [8][9][10]. Anti-AMA1 antibodies appear to inhibit reorientation of the apical end of the merozoite to the erythrocyte surface, erythrocyte binding, and initial formation of the parasite–erythrocyte tight junction in vitro [11][12][13][14][15]. AMA1 vaccination induced protective efficacy against death and reduced levels of parasitemia after challenge in animal models [16][17][18][19][20]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) from strain 3D7, the malaria vaccine candidate FMP2.1/AS02A showed strain-specific efficacy in a Phase 2 clinical trial in 400 Malian children randomized to 3 doses of the AMA1 vaccine candidate or control rabies vaccine on days 0, 30 and 60. A subset of 10 Pf(-) (i.e., no clinical malaria episodes) AMA1 recipients, 11 Pf(+) (clinical malaria episodes with parasites with 3D7 or Fab9-type AMA1 cluster 1 loop [c1L]) AMA1 recipients, and 10 controls were randomly chosen for analysis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated on days 0, 90 and 150 were stimulated with full-length 3D7 AMA1 and c1L from strains 3D7 (c3D7) and Fab9 (cFab9). Production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, and/or IL-17A was analyzed by flow cytometry. Among AMA1 recipients, 18/21 evaluable samples stimulated with AMA1 demonstrated increased IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 derived from CD4(+) T cells by day 150 compared to 0/10 in the control group (p<0.0001). Among AMA1 vaccines, CD4(+) cells expressing both TNF-α and IL-2 were increased in Pf(-) children compared to Pf(+) children. When PBMCs were stimulated with c3D7 and cFab9 separately, 4/18 AMA1 recipients with an AMA1-specific CD4(+) response had a significant response to one or both c1L. This suggests that recognition of the AMA1 antigen is not dependent upon c1L alone. In summary, AMA1-specific T cell responses were notably increased in children immunized with an AMA1-based vaccine candidate. The role of CD4(+)TNF-α(+)IL-2(+)-expressing T cells in vaccine-induced strain-specific protection against clinical malaria requires further exploration. Identifier: NCT00460525.
    Article · Apr 2016
    • "conformational epitopes) and therefore the definition of antigenic diversity from genetic data is not straightforward. Mapping polymorphisms to three-dimensional protein structures can identify clustered residues that may form conformational epitopes [8]. Molecular epidemiological studies that track the dynamics of polymorphism in natural populations and during vaccine trials, and cross-sectional surveys which use population genetics to define regions under selection and assess the frequency of different polymorphisms and haplotypes, have been used to pinpoint the specific polymorphic amino acids that mediate immune escape [11,9,12]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prospects for malaria eradication will be greatly enhanced by an effective vaccine, but parasite genetic diversity poses a major impediment to malaria vaccine efficacy. In recent pre-clinical and field trials, vaccines based on polymorphic Plasmodium falciparum antigens have shown efficacy only against homologous strains, raising the specter of allele-specific immunity such as that which plagues vaccines against influenza and HIV. The most advanced malaria vaccine, RTS,S, targets relatively conserved epitopes on the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein. After more than 40 years of development and testing, RTS,S, has shown significant but modest efficacy against clinical malaria in phase 2 and 3 trials. Ongoing phase 2 studies of an irradiated sporozoite vaccine will ascertain whether the full protection against homologous experimental malaria challenge conferred by high doses of a whole organism vaccine can provide protection against diverse strains in the field. Here we review and evaluate approaches being taken to design broadly cross-protective malaria vaccines.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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