Total IgE levels and peripheral eosinophilia - Correlation with mucosal disease based on computed tomographic imaging of the paranasal sinus
To evaluate the relationship among peripheral eosinophilia, total IgE, and paranasal sinus mucosal disease based on computed tomography (CT) of the sinus.
Retrospective review of a large medical information database from a tertiary referral medical center.
Tertiary referral medical center specializing in respiratory disorders.
Consecutive patients having total IgE and peripheral eosinophil levels and sinus CT imaging available for review. Patients 18 years or older were included; subjective or objective evidence of chronic rhinosinusitis was not used as selection criteria. A total of 303 patients were found to have peripheral eosinophil levels and CT imaging for review; 288 patients had total IgE levels and CT imaging.
Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate (1) the correlation between peripheral eosinophil level and CT stage of sinus disease and (2) the correlation between total IgE level and CT stage of sinus disease. The CT scans were graded using the Lund-MacKay scoring system.
There was a significant positive correlation between sinus CT stage and peripheral eosinophil levels (r=0.60, P<.05). Eighty-nine percent of the abnormal eosinophil counts (>550 cells/microL) were associated with CT scores higher than 12. Total IgE did not correlate with CT stage of disease (r=0.05, P>.05).
The presence of peripheral eosinophilia indicates a high likelihood of mucosal sinus disease based on CT imaging. No correlation was noted between total IgE levels and CT stage of mucosal disease. These data support a link between eosinophilia and the presence of paranasal sinus mucosal inflammation.
Available from: Saulius Vaitkus
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ABSTRACT: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with and without nasal polyps represent different stages of one chronic inflammatory disease of the mucosa of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Coexistence of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and asthma and rather similar characteristics of inflammation support assumption that chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps and asthma may be, at least in part, the same disease process. We therefore aimed to evaluate the differences of sinus radiologic findings, systemic inflammation and allergy markers, pulmonary function of chronic rhinosinusitis associated with nasal polyps and asthma. A total of 121 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis referred to tertiary center were evaluated; 23 healthy persons served as controls. Sinus CT scans and nasal endoscopy were performed. Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed according to history and positive skin prick tests to common inhalant allergens. Asthma was diagnosed according to GINA by history and pulmonary function tests. Aspirin intolerance was assessed by history. Total IgE, Aspergillus fumigatus-specific IgE levels, leukocyte and eosinophil count in the peripheral blood were measured. Nasal polyps were detected in 84 patients (69.4%), asthma diagnosed in 48 patients (39.6%), associated with nasal polyps (91.7%) and allergic rhinitis in 45.5% of patients. Forty-four patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and having nasal polyps and asthma were characterized by older age (P<0.01), greater duration of nasal symptoms (P<0.001), higher number previous surgeries (P<0.01), more severe sinus disease on CT scan (P<0.001), greater blood leukocyte and eosinophil count, total IgE level (P<0.01), bronchial obstruction (P<0.05), incidence of allergic rhinitis (P<0.01), and sensitivity to house dust mite D. pteronyssinus (47.7%, P<0.01) and mold allergens (29.5%, P<0.01) comparing to the patients with isolated chronic rhinosinusitis. The extent of sinus CT changes was greater in asthmatics and correlated with greater duration of asthma (P<0.0001), higher number of previous surgeries (P=0.001), leukocyte count in blood (P=0.025), and age (P=0.039). CONCLUSION. Our data indicate that patients with chronic rhinosinusitis compose clinically heterogeneous group and when associated with nasal polyps and asthma constitutes the most severe form of unified respiratory tract disease, which is characterized by older age of the patients, greater duration of nasal symptoms, extent of sinus radiological changes, more prominent systemic inflammation markers, greater bronchial obstruction, incidence of perennial allergic rhinitis.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) show a high percentage of eosinophilic infiltration in the paranasal sinus mucosa. It is well documented that topical steroids have a beneficial effect in ECRS with nasal polyposis. We investigated mucosal distribution and cellular localization of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform expression in human paranasal sinuses in relation to the clinical characteristics of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) patients.
Mucosal specimens were obtained from 20 sinusitis patients by endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Quantitative fluorescence immunohistochemical analysis was employed to examine the degree of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform expression in sinus mucosa specimens. An RT-PCR procedure was performed to determine the relative quantities of mRNA for the human GRalpha and GRbeta genes.
Patients in the ECRS group showed significant increases in peripheral blood eosinophils as compared to the non-ECRS group (16.98% vs. 2.31%). Positive immunoreactivity of GRbeta expression was predominantly found to be positive in inflammatory cells. The absolute number of GRbeta-positive cells in the ECRS group was increased in comparison with that in the non-ECRS group. The difference was statistically significant both in the maxillary (179.7 cells/mm(2) vs. 82.5 cells/mm(2)) and ethmoid sinus (302.0 cells/mm(2) vs. 61.5 cells/mm(2)) mucosa. The GRbeta/GRalpha cell ratio in the ECRS group was elevated when compared with that in the non-ECRS group both in the maxillary and the ethmoid sinus mucosa, with the latter difference being significant.
The presence of high peripheral eosinophilia indicates a high likelihood of ECRS disease. Our results support the association of GRbeta expression with ECRS. The expression of GRbeta immunoreactivity, an endogenous inhibitor of steroid action previously associated with steroid insensitivity, may be one of major contributing factors in ECRS.
Available from: Peter John Wormald
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ABSTRACT: Through recent advances in research, our understanding of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has evolved to consider it as an inflammatory condition of the mucosa brought about by multiple factors. However, surgical management is still ruled by the classical concepts of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), which emphasizes the importance of ostial obstruction and sinus ventilation. These concepts fail to provide sufficient explanation for the presence of a subset of patients with refractory CRS who fail to respond to conventional FESS. Recent outcome studies have shown that high-grade mucosal inflammation often results in a poor outcome and that this patient group may show improved results with more radical surgery. This review examines the "inflammatory load hypothesis" as a possible explanation. We hypothesize that the grade of the inflammation is the most important predictor of long-term outcomes. Surgery, therefore, has a significant role not only in reestablishing ventilation, but also with removing the inflammatory load in the affected sinuses. We suspect that in these severely diseased patients, a more radical removal of local proinflammatory factors during surgery may improve patient outcomes.
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