While the functions and mechanisms of action of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) are well established and are the basis of the action of a large number of successful pharmaceuticals, the role of a third naturally occurring cyclic nucleotide, cytidine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cCMP), remains to be elucidated. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) was used to selectively extract proteins phosphorylated in mouse brain in response to challenge by cAMP, cGMP and cCMP, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToFMS) and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) of tryptic digests to identify Rab23 as the first protein reported to be phosphorylated only in response to cCMP.
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"Stability of cCMP against PDEs may result in sufficiently high cCMP concentrations that mediate physiological effects. cCMP-dependent phosphorylation was detected in mouse brain  , and Rab23 was cCMP-dependently phosphorylated  . This observation could lead to identification of specific cCMP-dependent protein kinases which may, e.g. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We analysed the function and intracellular signalling of the cyclic pyrimidinic nucleotide cCMP. The membrane-permeable cCMP analogue dibutyryl-cCMP mediated mouse aorta relaxation. cCMP activated purified cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) Iα and Iβ and stimulated cGK in aorta lysates. cCMP-induced relaxation was abolished in cGKI-knockout tissue. Additionally, deletion of inositol-trisphosphate receptor associated cGKI substrate (IRAG) suppressed cCMP-mediated relaxation. Signalling of cCMP via cGKI/IRAG appears to be of broader physiological importance because cCMP-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation was absent in cGKI- and IRAG-deficient platelets. These results demonstrate that cCMP acts as intracellular messenger molecule, most unexpectedly utilizing the cGMP signal transduction pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: An automated online immobilized metal affinity chromatography/high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometric (IMAC-HPLC/MS/MS) method was developed to study cytidine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cCMP)-specific protein phosphorylation, analogous to a previously successful offline IMAC method using microvolume IMAC pipette tips. The optimized method identified murine brain phosphoproteins selectively modified by challenge with cCMP, using manual interpretation of the results to confirm both phosphorylation and selectivity of response to cCMP. A number of proteins identified by this strategy have potential roles in hyperproliferation, a previously reported response to elevated levels of cCMP.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Small GTPases of the Rab family act as essential regulators of vesicle transport pathways. Five Rab cDNA clones (BRab1, 7, 8, 11 and 14) from Bombyx mori were expressed in Escherichia coli as a thioredxin or glutathione sulfotransferase fusion protein. After purification, the fusion protein was tested for phosphorylation using protein kinase C (PKC). Results indicate that all of them were phosphorylated in vitro. The phosphorylation site of BRab1 was determined by mass-spectrometric analysis, which identified that Ser-17 of BRab1 was phosphorylated by PKC. Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis indicated that Ser-111of BRab8, in addition to Ser-17, was newly phosphorylated. Further immunohistochemical analysis using antibodies against Rab8 indicated that there are some Rab8 immunoreactive cells close to the neuropeptide secreting cells. This result suggests that in insects Rab proteins are regulated by phosphorylation and at least some of them are involved in neuropeptide secretion.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · European Journal of Entomology