Expression of SODD and P65 in ALL of children and its relationship with chemotherapeutic drugs
The expression of silence of death domains (SODD) and its clinical significance and relationship with phospho-NF-kappaB-p65 proteins in bone marrow cells of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) were explored, and the expression of SODD and phospho-NF-kappaB-p65 in Jurkat cells treated with chemotherapeutic drugs was detected in order to find a new chemotherapeutic target. The expression of SODD and phospho-NF-kappaB-p65 proteins in bone marrow cells was detected by immunohistochemistry in 25 children with ALL. The apoptosis rate was measured by Annexin-V-Fluorescence/PI double-labeling flow cytometry and the expression of SODD and phospho-NF-kappaB-p65 proteins determined by Western blotting in the Jurkat cells. It was found that the expression of SODD and active P65 in ALL was significantly higher than that in normal control group (P<0.05). The expression of the SODD and phospho-NF-kappaB-p65 proteins in the high-risk (HR) group was significantly higher than that in the standard-risk (SR) group (P<0.05). The Pearson rank correlation analysis revealed that there was a positive correlation between SODD and phospho-NF-kappaB-p65 expression (P<0.01, r=0.69). VCR could effectively induce the apoptosis of Jurkat cells, and down-regulate the expression of SODD and phospho-NF-kappaB-p65 proteins in a time-dependent manner, but DNR could not down-regulate the expression of SODD effectively. It was concluded that SODD may be closely related to the clinical classification and prognosis of ALL in children. The expression of SODD and phospho-NF-kappaB-p65 had a definite synergistic relationship with the onset and development of ALL. VCR could down-regulate the expression of SODD and inhibit the NF-kappaB activation, which could recover the sensibility of apoptosis in leukemic cells.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to apoptosis remains a significant problem in drug resistance and treatment failure in malignant disease. NO-aspirin is a novel drug that has efficacy against a number of solid tumours, and can inhibit Wnt signaling, and although we have shown Wnt signaling to be important for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell proliferation and survival inhibition of Wnt signaling does not appear to be involved in the induction of ALL cell death. Treatment of B lineage ALL cell lines and patient ALL cells with NO-aspirin induced rapid apoptotic cell death mediated via the extrinsic death pathway. Apoptosis was dependent on caspase-10 in association with the formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) incorporating pro-caspase-10 and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1). There was no measurable increase in TNF-R1 or TNF-α in response to NO-aspirin, suggesting that the process was ligand-independent. Consistent with this, expression of silencer of death domain (SODD) was reduced following NO-aspirin exposure and lentiviral mediated shRNA knockdown of SODD suppressed expansion of transduced cells confirming the importance of SODD for ALL cell survival. Considering that SODD and caspase-10 are frequently over-expressed in ALL, interfering with these proteins may provide a new strategy for the treatment of this and potentially other cancers.0Comments 2Citations
- "The pro-survival signals activated by NF-kB are known to limit the cytotoxic effects of TNF-a and other death ligands . Over expression of SODD would be expected to further enhance ALL cell survival by preventing signalling through TNF-R1 and other death receptors such as Fas and DR3, but not TNF-R2 [6,41]. It is tempting to speculate that the potency of para-NO-ASA results from activation of signalling through TNF-R1, due to suppression of SODD, in the absence of any increase in NF-kB signalling through TNF-R2 (Fig 7). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melanoma is an aggressive cancer that metastasizes rapidly and is refractory to conventional chemotherapies. Identifying microRNAs (miRNAs) that are responsible for this pathogenesis is therefore a promising means of developing new therapies. We identified miR-26a through microarray and quantitative reverse-transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments as an miRNA that is strongly downregulated in melanoma cell lines as compared with primary melanocytes. Treatment of cell lines with miR-26a mimic caused significant and rapid cell death compared with a negative control in most melanoma cell lines tested. In surveying targets of miR-26a, we found that protein levels of SMAD1 (mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 1) and BAG-4/SODD were strongly decreased in sensitive cells treated with miR-26a mimic as compared with the control. The luciferase reporter assays further demonstrated that miR-26a can repress gene expression through the binding site in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of SODD (silencer of death domains). Knockdown of these proteins with small interfering RNA (siRNA) showed that SODD has an important role in protecting melanoma cells from apoptosis in most cell lines sensitive to miR-26a, whereas SMAD1 may have a minor role. Furthermore, transfecting cells with a miR-26a inhibitor increased SODD expression. Our findings indicate that miR-26a replacement is a potential therapeutic strategy for metastatic melanoma, and that SODD, in particular, is a potentially useful therapeutic target.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 29 November 2012; doi:10.1038/jid.2012.400.0Comments 20Citations
- "In addition, SODD is known to interact with Hsp70, death receptor 3, and the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 (Jiang et al., 1999; Antoku et al., 2001; Brockmann et al., 2004). SODD is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and leads to resistance of TNF-a-induced cell death (Ozawa et al., 2000), and increased SODD is correlated with the severity of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children, and the downregulation of SODD and NF-kB induces apoptosis (Tao et al., 2007). As the balance between pro-and anti-apoptotic signaling in TNF receptor 1 activation is critical in melanoma (Ivanov et al., 2003), it is likely that SODD acts to tip the balance away from cell death and toward NF-kB activation, which is constitutively active in melanoma and important in its progression (Poser and Bosserhoff, 2004; Madonna et al., 2012). "
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) regulates cell polarity and migration by generating phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P(3)) at the leading edge of migrating cells. The serine-threonine protein kinase Akt binds to PI(3,4,5)P(3), resulting in its activation. Active Akt promotes spatially regulated actin cytoskeletal remodeling and thereby directed cell migration. The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (5-ptases) degrade PI(3,4,5)P(3) to form PI(3,4)P(2), which leads to diminished Akt activation. Several 5-ptases, including SKIP and SHIP2, inhibit actin cytoskeletal reorganization by opposing PI3K/Akt signaling. In this current study, we identify a molecular co-chaperone termed silencer of death domains (SODD/BAG4) that forms a complex with several 5-ptase family members, including SKIP, SHIP1, and SHIP2. The interaction between SODD and SKIP exerts an inhibitory effect on SKIP PI(3,4,5)P(3) 5-ptase catalytic activity and consequently enhances the recruitment of PI(3,4,5)P(3)-effectors to the plasma membrane. In contrast, SODD(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibit reduced Akt-Ser(473) and -Thr(308) phosphorylation following EGF stimulation, associated with increased SKIP PI(3,4,5)P(3)-5-ptase activity. SODD(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibit decreased EGF-stimulated F-actin stress fibers, lamellipodia, and focal adhesion complexity, a phenotype that is rescued by the expression of constitutively active Akt1. Furthermore, reduced cell migration was observed in SODD(-/-) macrophages, which express the three 5-ptases shown to interact with SODD (SKIP, SHIP1, and SHIP2). Therefore, this study identifies SODD as a novel regulator of PI3K/Akt signaling to the actin cytoskeleton.0Comments 5Citations