Sleep duration is associated with an increased risk for the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged women - The FIN-D2D survey

Department of Dental Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
Sleep Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.15). 04/2008; 9(3):221-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2007.04.015
Source: PubMed


To examine the association between sleep duration with type 2 diabetes and abnormal glucose tolerance among middle-aged men and women in Finland.
The FIN-D2D survey is a population-based cross-sectional multicentre study in Finland, with 1336 men and 1434 women aged 45-74 participating in the survey during 2004 and 2005. A health examination including an oral glucose tolerance test and sleep questionnaire was performed for all participants.
There was an independent association between abnormal sleeping times and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged women. Even after adjustments for age, body mass index, sleep apnea probability, smoking, physical activity, and central nervous system-affecting medication, sleep duration of 6h or less or 8h or longer was independently associated with type 2 diabetes. There was no increase in the prevalence of diabetes in middle-aged men with abnormal sleeping times.
Short (< or = 6h) or long (> or = 8h) sleep duration is related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged women but not in men.

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    • "Many mechanisms may be responsible for the frequently observed insulin resistance in obese individuals, including increased release of free fatty acids, leptin, and TNF-α from adipose tissue.26 We suggest that short sleep (fewer than five to six hours) may now qualify as an additional clinical factor in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes, as shown in several cross-sectional studies.27–29 A recent study of 174,542 middle-aged subjects showed that short sleepers had an OR of 1.46 (1.31–1.63) "
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    ABSTRACT: In the last 50 years, the average self-reported sleep duration in the United States has decreased by 1.5-2 hours in parallel with an increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Epidemiological studies and meta-analyses report a strong relationship between short or disturbed sleep, obesity, and abnormalities in glucose metabolism. This relationship is likely to be bidirectional and causal in nature, but many aspects remain to be elucidated. Sleep and the internal circadian clock influence a host of endocrine parameters. Sleep curtailment in humans alters multiple metabolic pathways, leading to more insulin resistance, possibly decreased energy expenditure, increased appetite, and immunological changes. On the other hand, psychological, endocrine, and anatomical abnormalities in individuals with obesity and/or diabetes can interfere with sleep duration and quality, thus creating a vicious cycle. In this review, we address mechanisms linking sleep with metabolism, highlight the need for studies conducted in real-life settings, and explore therapeutic interventions to improve sleep, with a potential beneficial effect on obesity and its comorbidities.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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    • "Epidemiological studies have indicated that both short sleep and insomnia predict weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) [7] [8] [9]. In addition, sleep deprivation activates the immune system [10] and influences glucose metabolism [11]. "
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    • "Meanwhile, previous population studies have yielded inconsistent results on gender differences in the association of sleep duration and type 2 diabetes. A multicenter study conducted in Finland[7] found short or long sleep to be related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in women only. Another prospective study found that short sleep duration is associated with an increased incidence of diabetes only in men[10]. "
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