Coexpression of receptor-tyrosine-kinases in gastric adenocarcinoma--a rationale for a molecular targeting strategy?

Department of General and Abdominal Surgery, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
World Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 2.37). 08/2007; 13(26):3605-9.
Source: PubMed


To define the (co-)expression pattern of target receptor-tyrosine-kinases (RTK) in human gastric adenocarcinoma.
The (co-)expression pattern of VEGFR1-3, PDGFR alpha/beta and EGFR1 was analyzed by RT-PCR in 51 human gastric adenocarcinomas. In addition, IHC staining was applied for confirmation of expression and analysis of RTK localisation.
The majority of samples revealed a VEGFR1 (98%), VEGFR2 (80%), VEGFR3 (67%), PDGFR alpha (82%) and PDGFR beta (82%) expression, whereas only 62% exhibited an EGFR1 expression. 78% of cancers expressed at least four out of six RTKs. While VEGFR1-3 and PDGFR alpha revealed a predominantly cytoplasmatic staining in tumor cells, accompanied by an additional nuclear staining for VEGFR3, EGFR1 was almost exclusively detected on the membrane of tumor cells. PDGFR beta was restricted to stromal pericytes, which also depicted a PDGFR alpha expression.
Our results reveal a high rate of receptor-tyrosine-kinases coexpression in gastric adenocarcinoma and might therefore encourage an application of multiple-target RTK-inhibitors within a combination therapy.

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    • "In our collective almost half of the specimens showed a strong positivity for VEGFR-3 (54%), whereas 36% of all tissue samples proved to be strongly positive for CXCR4 as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Similar findings have been reported previously in esophageal adenocarcinoma [17,33] as well as for adenocarcinoma of the stomach [11,34]. Taking into consideration that the majority of the CXCR4 and VEGFR-3 measurements, according to the literature, have been performed on tumour tissues after curative gastrectomy, we could expect an increase of the expression of these molecules in patients who are treated in a palliative setting. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Combination of fluoropyrimidines and a platinum derivative are currently standards for systemic chemotherapy in advanced adenocarcinoma of the stomach and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). Nevertheless, individual likelihood for response to these therapeutic regimes remains uncertain. Even more, no predictive markers are available to determine which patients may benefit more from oxaliplatin versus cisplatin or vice versa. The new invasion and stem cell markers VEGFR-3 and CXCR4 have been linked prognostically with more aggressive esophagogastric cancer types. Thus, we aimed to assess correlations of VEGFR-3 and CXCR4 expression levels with clinical outcome in a randomized phase III study of patients with oxaliplatin/leucovorin/5-FU (FLO) versus cisplatin/leucovorin/5-FU (FLP). Methods: The patients data examined in this study (n = 72) were from the collective of the FLO vs. FLP phase III AIO trial. Tumour tissues were stained via immunohistochemistry for VEGFR-3 and CXCR4 expression and results were evaluated by two independent, blinded investigators.Outcome parameter: Survival analysis was calculated for patients receiving FLO vs. FLP in relation to VEGFR-3 and CXCR4 expression. Results: 54% and 36% of the examined tumour tissues showed strong positive expression of VEGFR-3 and CXCR4 respectively. No superiority of each regime was detected in terms of overall survival (OS) in the whole population. Patients with strong expression of CXCR4 on their tumour tissues profited more in terms of OS under the treatment of FLP (mOS: 28 vs 15 months, p = 0.05 respectively). Patients with negative VEGFR-3 and CXCR4 expression had a trend to live longer when FLO regime was applied (mOS: 22 vs. 9 months, p = 0.099 and 20 vs. 10 months, p = 0.073 respectively). In an exploratory analysis of patients older than 60 years at diagnosis, we observed a significant benefit in overall survival for VEGFR-3 and CXCR4-positive patients when treated with FLP (p = 0.002, p = 0.021 respectively). Conclusions: CXCR4 positive patients profited in terms of OS from FLP, whereas FLO proved to be more effective in CXCR4 and VEGFR-3 negative patients. Our results suggest, despite the limited size of the study, a predictive value of these biomarkers concerning chemotherapy with FLP or FLO in advanced esophagogastric cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · BMC Cancer
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    • "Blockade of receptors such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) has been shown to inhibit tumor-related angiogenesis and tumor growth [9, 10]. Not only are these receptors expressed in gastric cancers but they are known to have direct effects on the growth and metastasis of this disease [9–14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: This phase I, dose-finding study evaluated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of sunitinib plus S-1/cisplatin in Japanese patients with advanced/metastatic gastric cancer. Patients and methods: Patients received oral sunitinib on a continuous daily dosing (CDD) or 2-weeks-on/2-weeks-off schedule (Schedule 2/2; 25 mg/day or 37.5 mg/day), plus S-1 (80-120 mg/day)/cisplatin 60 mg/m(2). Results: Twenty-seven patients received treatment, including 26 patients treated per protocol (sunitinib 25 mg/day CDD schedule, n = 4; sunitinib 25 mg/day Schedule 2/2, n = 16 [dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) cohort, n = 6 plus expansion cohort, n = 10]; sunitinib 37.5 mg/day Schedule 2/2, n = 6). One patient erroneously self-administered sunitinib 12.5 mg/day and was excluded from the analyses. The MTD was sunitinib 25 mg/day on Schedule 2/2. DLTs were reported for: 2/4 patients given sunitinib 25 mg/day on the CDD schedule; 1/6 patients administered sunitinib 25 mg/day on Schedule 2/2 (grade [G] 3 neutropenic infection, G4 thrombocytopenia, and S-1 dose interruption ≥5 days), and 3/6 patients given sunitinib 37.5 mg/day on Schedule 2/2. Results below are for the overall MTD cohort (n = 16). The most frequently reported G3/4 adverse events were neutropenia (93.8 %) and leukopenia (75.0 %). The objective response rate was 37.5 %; six additional patients experienced no disease progression for ≥24 weeks. Median progression-free survival was 12.5 months. No pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions were observed between sunitinib/S-1/cisplatin and S-1/cisplatin. Conclusions: The MTD of sunitinib was 25 mg/day on Schedule 2/2 combined with cisplatin/S-1 in patients with advanced/metastatic gastric cancer. This regimen had a manageable safety profile and preliminary antitumor activity.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Investigational New Drugs
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    • "In the present study, IHC analysis showed that PDGFR-β staining had high specificity for recognizing pericytes, compared to NG2 and αSMA. This result was consistent with the result in one recent study showing that PDGFR-β expression was restricted to stromal pericytes [28]. Moreover, in the cases with carcinoma overexpressing PDGF-B, more intense PDGFR-β staining was seen in many pericytes than in those without PDGF-B overexpression. "
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is important in the growth and metastasis of various kinds of solid tumors, including gastric cancers. The angiogenic process is triggered by several key growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B, that are secreted by tumors. Our aim was to define: i) the expression pattern of VEGF-A and PDGF-B in tumor cells and the activation of PDGF receptor (PDGFR)-β tyrosine kinase in stromal cells of human gastric adenocarcinomas; and ii) the relationship between VEGF-A and PDGF-B expression and microvessel density (MVD), to determine if there is a rationale for a new therapeutic strategy. A series of 109 gastric adenocarcinoma cases that had undergone surgical resection was examined immunohistochemically using antibodies against VEGF-A, PDGF-B, and CD34, followed by further examination of PDGFR-β phosphorylation by immunoblotting analysis. MVD was higher in diffuse-type than intestinal-type cancers (p < 0.001). VEGF-A overexpression correlated to PDGF-B overexpression in both the intestinal-type (p < 0.005) and diffuse-type (p < 0.0001) groups, indicating that VEGF-A and PDGF-B are secreted simultaneously in the same tumor, and may thus play important roles together in angiogenesis. However, several differences between intestinal-type and diffuse-type cancers were observed. In the diffuse-type cancer group, higher MVD was related to the PDGF-B proportion (p < 0.05) and VEGF-A overexpression (p < 0.05), but not to PDGF-B overexpression or the VEGF-A proportion. On the other hand, in the intestinal-type cancer group, higher MVD was correlated to overexpression (p < 0.005), intensity (p < 0.05), and proportion (p < 0.05) of PDGF-B, but not of VEGF-A. In addition, phosphorylation of PDGFR-β was correlated with depth of cancer invasion at statistically significant level. Our results indicate that PDGF-B, which is involved in the maintenance of microvessels, plays a more important role in angiogenesis in intestinal-type gastric carcinomas than VEGF-A, which plays a key role mainly in the initiation of new blood vessel formation. In contrast, VEGF-A has a critical role for angiogenesis more in diffuse-type cancers, but less in those of intestinal type. Thus, a therapy targeting the PDGF-B signaling pathway could be effective for intestinal-type gastric carcinoma, whereas targeting VEGF-A or both VEGF-A and PDGF-B signaling pathways could be effective for diffuse-type gastric carcinomas.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · BMC Cancer
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