How to toilet train healthy children? A review of the literature

Department of Urology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
Neurourology and Urodynamics (Impact Factor: 2.87). 03/2008; 27(3):162-6. DOI: 10.1002/nau.20490
Source: PubMed


To review the literature on toilet training (TT) in healthy children.
Through an extended literature search, all data on developmental signs of readiness for TT, TT methods, definitions of being toilet trained, TT problems, and predictive factors for success were reviewed.
Specific studies on this topic are few. Two main methods for TT have been described so far in the last decades: the gradual child-oriented training and the structured, endpoint-oriented training. In the former method parents mainly respond to the child's signals of toileting "readiness". The latter method consists of actively teaching several independent toileting behaviors. Data are too few to be able to compare the methods. Literature does not give a consensus about the optimal age for starting nor on the expected mean age of completing TT. Recent studies show most children to start training between 24 and 36 months of age with a current trend toward a later completion than in previous generations. The consequence of this can be stress for the parents and more use of diapers, with its negative effect on the environment.
There are as yet little data to be found on this important topic, only few studies have been published in peer-reviewed journals. Standardization of terminology and critical evaluation of the described techniques in large sample sizes is needed. With this approach, general principles of training, evidence based and easy to use in the majority of children, may become available to parents.

Download full-text


Available from: Alexandra Vermandel, Feb 02, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The paper starts with a brief history of the design of anti-lock brakes (ABS). The advantages of ABS are explained. For the analysis and controller design a nonlinear longitudinal car model is derived. It is shown that the dynamics can be separated conveniently into two different linear dynamics dependent on the tyre slip. The analysis of the dynamics show the highest possible braking performance. It is further shown that a continuous feedback law cannot not achieve the maximum braking performance. To achieve the maximum braking performance a sliding mode like controller design approach is suggested. The merits of this controller are shown in an example.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Feb 2002

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2004 · Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Toilet training (TT) is important for every child, but there is no agreement on what is the best training method. We evaluated in a randomized way the comprehensive use of a daytime wetting alarm at home for 5 days in healthy children and compared it with timed potty training. Thirty-nine children, between 20 and 36 months of age, were randomized to wetting alarm diaper training (WAD-T; n = 20) or timed potty training (TP-T; n = 19). Toilet behavior was observed by parents and independent observers before, at the end, and after 2 weeks of training. Late evaluation at 1 month was done by telephone. The WAD-T group did significantly better than the TP-T group at the end training (p = .041), at 14 days (p = .027), and 1 month after training (p = .027). Independent bladder control was achieved in 88.9% of the WAD-T group. The WAD-T method is a structured, child-friendly, highly effective option for TT young healthy children. It offers the parents clear guidelines, a limited time needed to complete TT, a high success rate, and minor emotional conflicts. Results must now be confirmed in a larger sample size.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2008 · Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics
Show more