The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD25 expression in humans: A pilot study
Helfgott Research Institute, National College of Natural Medicine, Portland, OR 97201, USA. Phytotherapy Research
(Impact Factor: 2.66).
11/2007; 21(11):1109-12. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2207
This phase 0, double-blind, repeated within subject, randomized pilot study examined CD25 expression on T cells after ingestion of three commonly used herbs: Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra, administered singly and in combination. CD25 expression on T cells was significantly increased for subjects ingesting Echinacea at 24 h with notable increases in activation from Astragalus and Glycyrrhiza. CD25 expression remains elevated with daily use of Echinacea for at least 7 days.
Available from: Kathryn Niemeyer
- "Research is beginning to address traditional preparations of herbal medicines and individual prescribing practices of WHM practitioners in the treatment of disease. (Brush et al., 2006; Clare et al., 2009; Grant, 2010; Hipps et al., 2009; Picon et al., 2010; Wahl et al., 2008; Zwickey et al., 2007). Likewise, research that investigates patient outcomes with herbalist-prescribed personalized polyherbal formulations, reflective of real life applications of WHM, is emerging (Green et al., 2007; Hamblin et al., 2008). "
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ABSTRACT: Traditional knowledge of Western herbal medicine (WHM) supports experiential approaches to healing that have evolved over time. This is evident in the use of polyherb formulations comprised of crude plant parts, individually tailored to treat the cause of dysfunction and imbalance by addressing the whole person holistically. The challenge for WHM is to integrate science with traditional knowledge that is a foundation of the practice of WHM. The purpose of this paper is to provide a plausible theoretical hypothesis by applying complex systems science to WHM, illustrating how medicinal plants are complex, adaptive, environmentally interactive systems exhibiting synergy and nonlinear healing causality. This paper explores the conceptual congruence between medicinal plants and humans as complex systems coherently coupled through recurrent interaction. Complex systems science provides the theoretical tenets that explain traditional knowledge of medicinal plants while supporting clinical practice and expanding research and documentation of WHM.
Available from: Lifei Hou
- "CD25 is as IL-2 receptor α that expressed on CD4+T cells during an early period of the immune response, and this type of CD25 expression indicates T cell activation16. CD69 is generally thought to be the earliest cell surface activation marker on T cells, which may act as a co-stimulatory molecule for T cell activation and proliferation17,18. To examine activated cell surface marker expression, splenocytes were stimulated with anti-CD3 (5 μg/mL) for 36 h. "
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To investigate the immunomodulating activity of astragalosides, the active compounds from a traditional tonic herb Astragalus membranaceus Bge, and to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions, focusing on CD45 protein tyrosine phosphatase (CD45 PTPase), which plays a critical role in T lymphocyte activation.
Primary splenocytes and T cells were prepared from mice. CD45 PTPase activity was assessed using a colorimetric assay. Cell proliferation was measured using a [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay. Cytokine proteins and mRNAs were examined with ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. Activation markers, including CD25 and CD69, were analyzed using flow cytometry. Activation of LCK (Tyr505) was detected using Western blot analysis. Mice were injected with the immunosuppressant cyclophosphamide (CTX, 80 mg/kg), and administered astragaloside II (50 mg/kg).
Astragaloside I, II, III, and IV concentration-dependently increased the CD45-mediated of pNPP/OMFP hydrolysis with the EC50 values ranged from 3.33 to 10.42 μg/mL. Astragaloside II (10 and 30 nmol/L) significantly enhanced the proliferation of primary splenocytes induced by ConA, alloantigen or anti-CD3. Astragaloside II (30 nmol/L) significantly increased IL-2 and IFN-γ secretion, upregulated the mRNA levels of IFN-γ and T-bet in primary splenocytes, and promoted CD25 and CD69 expression on primary CD4+ T cells upon TCR stimulation. Furthermore, astragaloside II (100 nmol/L) promoted CD45-mediated dephosphorylation of LCK (Tyr505) in primary T cells, which could be blocked by a specific CD45 PTPase inhibitor. In CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice, oral administration of astragaloside II restored the proliferation of splenic T cells and the production of IFN-γ and IL-2. However, astragaloside II had no apparent effects on B cell proliferation.
Astragaloside II enhances T cell activation by regulating the activity of CD45 PTPase, which may explain why Astragalus membranaceus Bge is used as a tonic herb in treating immunosuppressive diseases.
Available from: Karen L Denzler
- "The Journal of the American Medical Association reported that between 1990 and 1997 the prevalence of herbal remedy use increased 380% in the United States . Many animal studies and limited clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of botanical remedies, such as Astragalus membranaceus, related to immunopotentiating effects , , , , , , , , , , , , , . Even with the widespread use and acceptance, a complete understanding of the biochemistry and mechanisms of action regarding herbal remedies has remained largely unknown , . "
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ABSTRACT: Many hundreds of botanicals are used in complementary and alternative medicine for therapeutic use as antimicrobials and immune stimulators. While there exists many centuries of anecdotal evidence and few clinical studies on the activity and efficacy of these botanicals, limited scientific evidence exists on the ability of these botanicals to modulate the immune and inflammatory responses. Using botanogenomics (or herbogenomics), this study provides novel insight into inflammatory genes which are induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells following treatment with immunomodulatory botanical extracts. These results may suggest putative genes involved in the physiological responses thought to occur following administration of these botanical extracts. Using extracts from immunostimulatory herbs (Astragalus membranaceus, Sambucus cerulea, Andrographis paniculata) and an immunosuppressive herb (Urtica dioica), the data presented supports previous cytokine studies on these herbs as well as identifying additional genes which may be involved in immune cell activation and migration and various inflammatory responses, including wound healing, angiogenesis, and blood pressure modulation. Additionally, we report the presence of lipopolysaccharide in medicinally prepared extracts of these herbs which is theorized to be a natural and active component of the immunostimulatory herbal extracts. The data presented provides a more extensive picture on how these herbs may be mediating their biological effects on the immune and inflammatory responses.
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