Article

Knowing When to Stop: The Brain Mechanisms of Chasing Losses

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  • School of Psychology
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Abstract

Continued gambling to recover previous losses ("loss-chasing") is central to pathological gambling. However, very little is known about the neural mechanisms that mediate this behavior. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine neural activity while healthy adult participants decided to chase losses or decided to quit gambling to prevent further losses. Chasing losses was associated with increased activity in cortical areas linked to incentive-motivation and an expectation of reward. By contrast, quitting was associated with decreased activity in these areas but increased activity in areas associated with anxiety and conflict monitoring. Activity within the anterior cingulate cortex associated with the experience of chasing and then losing predicted decisions to stop chasing losses at the next opportunity. Excessive loss-chasing behavior in pathological gambling might involve a failure to appropriately balance activity within neural systems coding conflicting motivational states. Similar mechanisms might underlie the loss-of-control over appetitive behaviors in other impulse control disorders.

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... Gambling problems are mediated by altered neuromodulation within mesolimbic reinforcement sites and altered neural responses to monetary rewards and gambling-related cues (Zack and Poulos 2004;Chase and Clark 2010;Balodis et al. 2012;Worhunsky et al. 2014). These dysfunctional brain responses may mediate the altered cognitions that promote gambling and, in vulnerable individuals, gambling problems (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al. 2008;Clark et al. 2009;Clark 2010). Current treatments include cognitive and/or behavioural therapies but also a variety of pharmacological options including SSRIs, mood stabilisers, atypical anti-psychotics and opioid antagonists (Grant et al. 2014). ...
... There have been limited previous studies of the pharmacological basis of within-session loss-chasing. Using an experimental model in which human volunteers chose between gambling to recover accumulating (notional) losses by doubling their stakes or 'quitting the chase', Campbell-Meiklejohn and colleagues (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al. 2008, 2011 demonstrated that loss-chasing involves dissociable roles for monoamine systems, with serotonin activity modulating the persistence of chasing behaviour, but dopamine and, in particular, D 2 /D 3 receptor (R) activity modulating the evaluation of losses worth chasing (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al. 2011Rogers 2011). Exploiting the foraging preference of animals to access food promptly (Bateson and Kacelnik 1995;Kacelnik and Bateson 1996), Rogers et al. (2013) using rats modelled within-session loss-chasing as choices between immediate food access versus delayed access to food rewards (timeouts) over successive bad choice outcomes. ...
... Human studies have attempted to parse components of gambling behaviours and there is evidence for the existence of dissociable neural systems and pharmacological substrates underlying, for example, the decision to chase losses or quit (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al. 2008, 2011. However, to our knowledge, there have been no explicit comparisons of the pharmacological mechanisms of initial decisions to gamble/quit and subsequent loss-chasing behaviour in either un-drugged or drug treated subjects. ...
Article
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RationaleProblematic patterns of gambling are characterised by loss of control and persistent gambling often to recover losses. However, little is known about the mechanisms that mediate initial choices to begin gambling and then continue to gamble in the face of losing outcomes.Objectives These experiments first assessed gambling and loss-chasing performance under different win/lose probabilities in C57Bl/6 mice, and then investigated the effects of antagonism of 5-HT2CR with SB242084, 5-HT1AR agonism with 8-OH-DPAT and modafinil, a putative cognitive enhancer.ResultsAs seen in humans and other species, mice demonstrated the expected patterns of behaviour as the odds for winning were altered increasing gambling and loss-chasing when winning was more likely. SB242084 decreased the likelihood to initially gamble, but had no effects on subsequent gambling choices in the face of repeated losses. In contrast, 8-OH-DPAT had no effects on choosing to gamble in the first place, but once started 8-OH-DPAT increased gambling choices in a dose-sensitive manner. Modafinil effects were different to the serotonergic drugs in both decreasing the propensity to initiate gambling and chase losses.Conclusions We present evidence for dissociable effects of systemic drug administration on different aspects of gambling behaviour. These data extend and reinforce the importance of serotonergic mechanisms in mediating discrete components of gambling behaviour. They further demonstrate the ability of modafinil to reduce gambling behaviour. Our work using a novel mouse paradigm may be of utility in modelling the complex psychological and neurobiological underpinnings of gambling problems, including the analysis of genetic and environmental factors.
... The extant literature has shown that chasing represents an important step in the development and maintenance of gambling disorder (Breen & Zuckerman, 1999;Goudriaan, Yücel, & van Holst, 2014;Lesieur, 1984; see also Corless & Dickerson, 1989;Sharpe, 2002; for a review, see Nigro, Ciccarelli, & Cosenza, 2018b), and is one of the few observable signs for disordered gambling (Gainsbury, Suhonen, & Saaststamoinen, 2014), and the only criterion of gambling addiction absent in substance use disorder (Quester & Romanczuk-Seiferth, 2015). Prior research found that chasing is associated, among others, with impulsivity (Breen & Zuckerman, 1999), sensation seeking (Linnet, Røjskjaer, Nygaard, & Maher, 2006), increased activation in brain regions related to reward expectation (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008), low sensitivity to punishment (Kim & Lee, 2011), poor decision-making (Nigro et al., 2018a), disinhibition (Nigro et al., 2018b), alexithymia (Bibby, 2016), and shortened time horizon . ...
... Given the difficulties in reproducing in the laboratory between-session chasing, as defined by Lesieur (1979) and the DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria for disordered gambling, the few behavioral tasks devoted to assessing chasing focused on within-session chasing. With the only exception of Linnet et al. (2006), who measured episodic chasing within the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), some authors have developed or implemented ad hoc procedures for estimating within-session chasing (Bibby, 2016;Breen & Zuckerman, 1999;Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008;Lister et al., 2016;Nigro et al., 2018a;Worhunsky, Potenza, & Rogers, 2017). Although laboratory tasks have assessed chasing in quite different ways, they share the following features at least: (a) the task simulates real-life game situations in which participants are allowed to stop in any moment; (b) the game is apparently chance-based; (c) the outcomes are manipulated; (d) participants win or lose some virtual money; and (e) both the decision to chase and the number of trials played are considered variables of interest. ...
... Although the SOGS has been found to produce inflated pathological gambling estimates, it is still frequently used as a screen in experimental research (James et al., 2016). In this study, the SOGS was chosen to allow comparisons with previous researches on chasing (e.g., Breen & Zuckerman, 1999;Brevers et al., 2013Brevers et al., , 2014Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008;Linnet et al., 2006;Nigro et al., 2018aNigro et al., , 2018b. The questionnaire is composed of 20 scored items and some unscored items. ...
Article
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Background and aims: Chasing is a behavioral marker and a diagnostic criterion for gambling disorder. Although chasing has been recognized to play a central role in gambling disorder, research on this topic is relatively scarce. This study investigated the association between chasing, alcohol consumption, and mentalization among habitual gamblers. Method: A total of 132 adults took part in the study. Participants were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire, and a laboratory task assessing chasing behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions (Control, Loss, and Win). To deeply investigate chasing behavior, participants were requested to indicate the reasons for stopping or continuing playing at the end of the experimental session. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that the choice to stop or continue playing depended on experimental condition and alcohol use. Hierarchical linear regression indicated that chasing propensity was affected by experimental condition, alcohol consumption, and deficit in mentalization. The results of path analysis showed that hypermentalizing predicts chasing not only directly, but also indirectly via alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Overall, these results for the first time showed that hypermentalization plays a key role in chasing behavior over and above gambling severity. Since these findings support the idea that chasers and non-chasers are different subtypes of gamblers, clinical interventions should consider the additive role of chasing in gambling disorder.
... Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008). Decisions to discontinue (or 'quit') chasing losses is associated with activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, striatum and parietal cortices (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008), regions that are commonly associated with networks of executive cognitive functioning (Niendam et al., 2012). ...
... . Decisions to discontinue (or 'quit') chasing losses is associated with activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, striatum and parietal cortices (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008), regions that are commonly associated with networks of executive cognitive functioning (Niendam et al., 2012). By comparison, decisions to chase losses are associated with neural activity in ventral prefrontal regions, consistent with impulsive behavior and impaired decision-making (Fineberg et al., 2010;Hare et al., 2009). ...
... By comparison, decisions to chase losses are associated with neural activity in ventral prefrontal regions, consistent with impulsive behavior and impaired decision-making (Fineberg et al., 2010;Hare et al., 2009). Furthermore, increased activity in the anterior cingulate following losing outcomes is associated with the subsequent decisions to quit loss-chasing (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008), suggesting terminating a chase is associated with increased emotional processing and cognitive conflict in response to loss outcomes (Kim et al., 2010). Similarly, dissociable and complementary contributions of serotonergic and dopaminergic mechanisms influence chasing behavior (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2012;Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2011;Rogers et al., 2011). ...
Article
Background: Continued, persistent gambling to recover accumulating losses, or 'loss-chasing', is a behavioral pattern linked particularly closely to gambling disorder (GD) but may reflect impaired decision-making processes relevant to drug addictions like cocaine-use disorder (CUD). However, little is known regarding the neurocognitive mechanisms of this complex, maladaptive behavior, particularly in individuals with addictive disorders. Methods: Seventy participants (25 GD, 18 CUD, and 27 healthy comparison (HC)) completed a loss-chase task during fMRI. Engagement of functional brain networks in response to losing outcomes and during decision-making periods preceding choices to loss-chase or to quit chasing losses were investigated using independent component analysis (ICA). An exploratory factor analysis was performed to examine patterns of coordinated engagement across identified networks. Results: In GD relative to HC and CUD participants, choices to quit chasing were associated with greater engagement of a medial frontal executive-processing network. By comparison, CUD participants exhibited altered engagement of a striato-amygdala motivational network in response to losing outcomes as compared to HC, and during decision-making as compared to GD. Several other networks were differentially engaged during loss-chase relative to quit-chasing choices, but did not differ across participant groups. Exploratory factor analysis identified a system of coordinated activity across prefrontal executive-control networks that was greater in GD and CUD relative to HC participants and was associated with increased chasing persistence across all participants. Conclusions: Results provide evidence of shared and distinct neurobiological mechanisms in substance and behavioral addictions, and lend insight into potential cognitive interventions targeting loss-chasing behavior in GD.
... From a reinforcement learning perspective, where losses should yield demotivation of gambling behavior, this phenomenon cannot be so easily explained. A study by Campbell-Meiklejohn et al. [139] investigated the neural basis of loss chasing in HC subjects using fMRI. Subjects started with fictive 20,000 British Pounds. ...
... Both good and bad outcomes after chase decisions against decisions to quit (PE in general) were associated with activity in VS, putamen. Checking how negative outcomes after a chase followed by a decision to chase are different from negative outcomes after a chase followed by a decision to quit revealed increased activity in [139]. Left panel: Three different trials are displayed (from left to right). ...
... The correlation highlights the validity of the task. Reprinted from [139], Figure 1. With permission from Elsevier dACC, a known conflict monitoring area, and indicated earlier in being associated with increased propensity to quit. ...
Chapter
This chapter gives an overview on neurobehavioral findings concerning gambling disorder (GD). We classify studies into classical and computational psychiatry studies and into three categories related to different symptom clusters: loss of control, craving, and neglect of other areas in life. Studies using classical analyses are those that set into relationship measured random variables by estimating their respective means, variances, and covariances. Computational psychiatry studies and computational analyses are those that explicitly assume one or several cognitive-computational processes responsible for generating the data. Analyses could involve reinforcement learning models fit to behavioral choice data or neural network models fit to brain data. Computational psychiatry aims at taking a closer look at processes underlying psychological disorders. Note that we will also use a computational psychiatry perspective when reporting on the classical neurobiological GD studies here. This means we will review primary research articles with respect to computationally relevant processes such as cue reactivity, response inhibition, gain and loss processing, uncertainty, and delay processing as well as learning from reward and punishment.
... Previous research found that chasing is associated, among others, with impulsivity (Breen & Zuckerman, 1999), sensation seeking (Linnet, Røjskjaer, Nygaard, & Maher, 2006), increased activation in brain regions related to reward expectation (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008), low sensitivity to punishment (Kim & Lee, 2011), poor decision-making (Nigro, Ciccarelli, & Cosenza, 2018a), disinhibition (Nigro et al., 2018b), alexithymia (Bibby, 2016), deficit in mentalization (Nigro et al., 2019), and heightened levels of craving (Ciccarelli, Cosenza, D'Olimpio, Griffiths, & Nigro, 2019b). Importantly, recent research provided evidences that chasers and nonchasers represent two distinct subgroups of gamblers, over and above gambling severity (Ciccarelli, Cosenza, Griffiths, D'Olimpio, & Nigro,2019aNigro et al., 2018a, 2018b; see also Linnet et al., 2006). ...
... According to Campbell-Meiklejohn et al. (2008), loss chasing shows the expectancy of later positive outcomes and the decision to chase looks similar, at neural level, to a craving for a drug among addicts. As their findings suggest, "the decisions to chase are mediated by activity in systems that code positive incentive-value and powerful appetitive states and that dysfunction in these circuits mediates the excessive urge to chase reported by pathological gamblers" (p. ...
... Cosenza et al., 2019a;Hing, Russell, Tolchard, & Nower, 2016;Nigro et al., 2017;Raylu, Oei, Loo, & Tsai, 2016;Welte, Barnes, Tidwell, Hoffman, & Wieczorek, 2015; for reviews, see Delfabbro, Thomas, & Armstrong, 2018), boys reported significantly higher levels of gambling severity, alcohol consumption, and craving. In line with prior findings, chasing behavior did not vary by gender (Bibby, 2016;Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008;Lister, Nower, & Wohl, 2016;O'Connor & Dickerson, 2003;Worhunsky, Potenza, & Rogers, 2017) or as a function of the experimental condition Lister et al., 2016;Nigro et al., 2018a). Rather, the results of logistic regression analysis suggested that the choice to stop or continue playing depend on both a strong, urgent desire to gamble and the anticipation of immediate positive subjective experiences from gambling, whereas chasing proneness was predicted not only by anticipation and desire to gamble, but also by alcohol consumption. ...
Article
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Chasing, or continuing to gamble to recoup losses, is a behavioral marker and a diagnostic criterion for gambling disorder. Research on chasing has focused mainly on adults, whereas the analysis of chasing behavior among adolescents has not received empirical attention in the gambling literature. The aim of the present study was to first investigate the interplay between chasing behavior, craving, temporal perspective, alcohol use, and gambling severity among Italian adolescents. Three hundred and sixty-four adolescents took part in the study. Participants completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA), the Gambling Craving Scale (GACS), the 14-item Consideration of Future Consequences scale (CFC-14), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and performed a computerized task assessing chasing behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to the control and the loss condition of the computerized task. Results indicated that the choice to continue playing, as well as chasing frequency did not vary as a function of experimental condition. Hierarchical logistic and linear regression analyses revealed that the decision to chase depended mostly on craving, whereas chasing propensity was affected by craving and alcohol misuse. Notably, gambling severity did not predict either the decision to chase, or the chasing persistence. The present study contributes important findings to the gambling literature, highlighting the role of craving alcohol use in facilitating the inability to stop within-sessions gambling among adolescents. These findings may provide evidence that nonchasers and chasers represent two different types of gamblers, and that the difference may be useful for targeting more effective therapies.
... It is argued that extended loss-chasing can precipitate a rapid downward spiral of gambling involvement for the individual, where liabilities increase to such an extent that there are significant negative and deleterious consequences for the individual, including familial, social and occupational costs (Corless and Dickerson 1989;Sharpe 2002). However, despite the centrality of loss-chasing to the development of gambling disorders, very little is understood about the phenomena (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al. 2008). ...
... The chasing of losses during a gambling session by betting larger and varied amounts despite the accumulation of significant losses is a central risk factor for problem gambling, yet loss chasing is not very well understood (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al. 2008). The objective of this study was to begin to understand potential explanatory factors that could account for loss of cognitive control that may precipitate within-session loss-chasing. ...
Article
Loss-chasing is a central feature of problematic gambling, yet it remains a poorly conceived and understood concept. Loss-chasing is believed to stem from an erosion of cognitive control when gambling. The opportunity to gamble at significantly disparate stake sizes on a gambling activity is considered to be a risk factor for loss-chasing. This study investigated the impact of gambling at disparate stake sizes on executive processes integral to maintaining cognitive control when gambling, namely response inhibition and reflection impulsivity. Frequent adult non-problem gamblers (n = 32) participated in a repeated measures experiment; and gambled at three disparate stake sizes (A 20 pound, A 2 pound and no stake per bet) on a simulated gambling task. Participants' response inhibition performance and reflection impulsivity levels after gambling at various stake sizes were compared via a go/no-go task and information sampling task, respectively. Quality of decision-making i.e. the evaluation of available information to make probability judgements was impaired after gambling at higher stakes in comparison to lower stakes, indicating an increase in reflection impulsivity. No effect on response inhibition was observed. Although exploratory, this suggests that the opportunity for participants to substantially increase stake size on a gambling activity may be a risk factor for impaired cognitive performance when gambling, and perhaps create vulnerability for within-session loss-chasing in some players.
... Little is known regarding the neurobiological basis of loss-chasing. An fMRI study has shown that decision to chase or quit involves two different cortical and sub-cortical systems (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008). Another study reported that STN DBS in PD patients decreases loss-chasing behaviour first and then increases it on a second game (Rogers et al., 2011). ...
... One fMRI study carried out during loss chasing performance revealed that the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), associated with the anticipation of positive outcomes and appetitive states, show activity when deciding to chase as compared to deciding to quit (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al. 2008). ...
Article
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is known to play a role in the control of impulsivity of action and in impulsivity of choice under certain conditions. In order to assess its influence on decision‐making under uncertainty, we have tested here the effects of bilateral STN lesions in rats performing a probability discounting task (PDT) and a “loss‐chasing” task, both tasks assessing risky decision under uncertainty, but one in a positive context (probability to obtain a larger reward), the other in a negative context (risk for a larger loss). The PDT measures the choice between a small certain and a large uncertain reward. Conversely, in the “loss‐chasing” task, animals choose between accepting a small certain loss versus risking a larger but uncertain penalty. The results show that STN lesions reduce risk‐taking in both the PDT and the loss‐chasing task, suggesting that STN inactivation could decrease risky decision‐making whatever the nature of the outcome in an ambiguous context. Interestingly, opposite results were found in a small number of animals for which the lesions extended to the area dorsal to the STN (in the zona incerta), such that these animals increased choice of the uncertain option in the PDT. These results confirm the specificity of STN involvement in these processes and may provide explanations for some side‐effects reported in patients when STN manipulations extend to the Zona Incerta. They also support the choice of the STN as a target for the treatment of impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s Disease and in obsessive compulsive disorders.
... Emotion-based theories of decision making propose that emotional states and feelings about expected outcomes influence choice (for reviews, see Coricelli, Dolan, & Sirigu, 2007;Connolly & Zeelenberg, 2002;Mellers & McGraw, 2001). Consistent with this idea, Campbell-Meiklejohn, Woolrich, Passingham, and Rogers (2008) found in a functional MRI study that decisions to quit gambling were associated with increased activation of brain regions associated with the anticipation of negative events. By contrast, loss chasing was associated with activation of brain regions often linked to reward processing, appetitive states, and the experience of urges and cravings (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2011;Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008). ...
... Consistent with this idea, Campbell-Meiklejohn, Woolrich, Passingham, and Rogers (2008) found in a functional MRI study that decisions to quit gambling were associated with increased activation of brain regions associated with the anticipation of negative events. By contrast, loss chasing was associated with activation of brain regions often linked to reward processing, appetitive states, and the experience of urges and cravings (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2011;Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008). Emotion-based theories of decision making could explain why people gamble less after a gambled win than after a nongamble in our task: After a gambled win, people are in a positive affective state, and the anticipatory disappointment and regret associated with a loss may steer them away from gambling again. ...
Article
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In the present study, we examined the effect of wins and losses on impulsive action in gambling (Experiments 1–3) and nongambling tasks (Experiments 4–5). In each experiment, subjects performed a simple task in which they had to win points. On each trial, they had to choose between a gamble and a nongamble. The gamble was always associated with a higher amount but a lower probability of winning than the nongamble. After subjects indicated their choice (i.e., gamble or not), feedback was presented. They had to press a key to start the next trial. Experiments 1–3 showed that, compared to the nongambling baseline, subjects were faster to initiate the next trial after a gambled loss, indicating that losses can induce impulsive actions. In Experiments 4 and 5, subjects alternated between the gambling task and a neutral decision-making task in which they could not win or lose points. Subjects were faster in the neutral decision-making task if they had just lost in the gambling task, suggesting that losses have a general effect on action. Our results challenge the dominant idea that humans become more cautious after suboptimal outcomes. Instead, they indicate that losses in the context of potential rewards are emotional events that increase impulsivity.
... People learn from experience and modulate their choices according to previous decision outcomes. Individuals tend to take more risks after losses than after wins (Ayton and Fischer, 2004;Brevers et al., 2017Brevers et al., , 2017Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008;Dong et al., 2014;Losecaat Vermeer et al., 2014;Tversky and Kahneman, 2016;Xue et al., 2011), a pattern resembling the Gambler's fallacy (GF). GF refers to a misconception that a certain random event is less likely to happen after a series of the same event. ...
... GF refers to a misconception that a certain random event is less likely to happen after a series of the same event. It should be noted that the pattern of increased risk-taking following losses and decreased risk-taking following wins is known as "loss chasing" (Brevers et al., 2017;Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008). However, considering that continued risk taking after losses has a similar pattern to the GF and arises from the GF cognitive bias (Dong et al., 2014;Xue et al., 2011), in this study, we termed this behavioral tendency as the "GF-like behavior" (Xue et al., 2011). ...
Article
Recent studies show that people exhibit a reduced decision bias in a foreign language relative to their native language. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) combined with an even-probability gambling task in which gambling feedback was presented in either a native language or a foreign language after each decision, we assessed the neural correlates of language modulated behavioral changes in decision making. In both foreign and native language contexts, participants showed a behavioral pattern resembles the Gambler's fallacy that losing a gamble leads to more betting than winning a gamble. While there was no language difference in gambling, bilateral caudate and amygdala gain signals were exaggerated by foreign language in relative to native language, suggesting that foreign language enhanced neural responses to rewards. Moreover, the individual difference in foreign language-induced Gambler's fallacy-like decision bias was associated with activation in the right amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, as well as functional connectivity between right amygdala and right putamen/right posterior insula. Our results confirm that outcome processing in emotion-related regions may underlie individual differences in foreign language effects in judgment and decision making.
... This type of decision bias also impacts monetary decision-making where choice outcomes are independent from each other, such as during gambling. Indeed, a systematic observation in gambling is that individuals are more prone to take risky choices following a loss, as compared to following a win (Ayton & Fischer 2004;Barkan & Busemeyer, 2003;Campbell-Meiklejohn, Woolrich, Passingham, & Rogers, 2008;Clark, Lawrence, Astley-Jones, & Gray, 2009;Croson & Sundali 2005;Gilovich, Vallone, & Tversky, 1985;Hytönen et al., 2014;Laplace, 1951;Paulus, Rogalsky, Simmons, Feinstein, & Stein, 2003;Rabin, 2002;Tversky & Kahneman, 1992;Xue, Lu, Levin, & Bechara, 2011). This behavioral pattern is commonly referred to as "loss-chasing" (Dickerson, 1984;Kahneman & Tversky, 2000;Tversky & Kahneman, 1981). ...
... Thus, it appears that one's attempt to recover from prior losses involves the engagement of a brain network important for value encoding, the regulation of affect, and the guidance of subsequent choice behavior (Barber & Carter 2005;Bunge, Hazeltine, Scanlon, Rosen, & Gabrieli, 2002;Derrfuss, Brass, Neumann, & von Cramon, 2005;Derrfuss, Brass, & Yves von Cramon, 2004;Hare, Camerer, & Rangel, 2009;Rosenbloom, Schmahmann, & Price, 2012;Xue, Ghahremani, & Poldrack, 2008). By contrast, resisting "loss chasing" has been reported to be associated with increased activation within the anterior cingulate cortex, the insular cortex and the amygdala (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008;Xue et al., 2011), that is, brain regions involved in conflict monitoring and risk aversion (De Martino, Camerer, & Adolphs, 2010;Paulus et al., 2003;Rushworth, Walton, Kennerley, & Bannerman, 2004;Sokol-Hessner, Camerer, & Phelps, 2013;Samanez-Larkin, Hollon, Carstensen, & Knutson, 2008). With regard to risk-taking following a gain, it has been shown that the neural activity in the caudate and ventral striatum is higher when compared to decision-making after loss (Xue et al., 2011). ...
Article
Individuals have a tendency to be more risky in their choices after having experienced a monetary loss, than after a reward. Here, we examined whether prior outcomes influence differently the patterns of neural activity of individuals who are used to taking monetary risk, namely poker players. High-frequency poker players and non-gamblers were scanned while performing a controlled task that allowed measuring the effect of prior outcomes on subsequent decisions. Both non-gamblers and poker players took more risks after losing a gamble than after winning one. Neuroimaging data revealed that non-gamblers exhibited higher brain activation than poker players when pondering a decision after losing, as compared to after winning. The opposite was found in poker players. This differential pattern of activation was observed in brain regions involved in high-order motor processes (the dorsal premotor cortex). These results suggest that gambling habits introduce significant changes in action preparation during decision-making following wins and losses.
... As a condition, a gambling disorder is associated with destroyed careers, broken marriages, financial ruin (Blaszczynski & Nower, 2002), and increased risk of suicide (Newman & Thompson, 2003) . In comparison to the recreational gambler, the pathological gambler displays a different array of behaviors, such as "loss-chasing" (Campbell-Meiklejohn, Woolrich, Passingham, & Rogers, 2008), repeated unsuccessful efforts to stop gambling and frequent lies (Denis, Fats eas, & Auriacombe, 2012). At the same time, gambling serves as a troublefree exciting recreational activity for millions of people and as an industry, provides employment and tax revenues, generating economic contributions that benefit the community (Mawhinney, 2006). ...
Article
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Gambling is a field that harbors both harmless recreational activities and pathological varieties that may be considered an addictive disorder. It is also a field that deserves special interest from a learning theoretical perspective, since pathological gambling represents both a pure behavioral addiction involving no ingestion of substances and behavior that exhibits extreme resistance to extinction. As the field of applied psychology of learning, or behavior analysis, espouses a bottom-up approach, the basis of understanding begins in basic research on behavioral principles. This article provides a narrative review of the field of laboratory experiments conducted to disentangle the learning processes of gambling behavior. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of learning principles in gambling that has been demonstrated under lab conditions and that may be of importance in the development of clinical applications when gambling has become a problem. Several processes, like the importance of delay and probability discounting, reinforcement without actual winning, and rule governed behavior have been experimentally verified. The common denominator appears to be that they impede extinction. Other areas, especially Pavlovian conditioning, are scarce in the literature. Our recommendations for the future would be to study Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning in interaction. Treatment programs should profit from strategies that serve to enhance extinction learning. We also conclude that online gambling should provide a promising environment for controlled research on how to limit excessive gambling, provided that the gambling companies are interested in that.
... Nadir kumar oynayanlarda bilişsel çarpıtmalar nadiren bulunurken, bazı araştırmalar bu çarpıklıkların PKO'lı bireylerde şiddetlendiğini ve sık rastlandığını göstermiştir (89,90). Sağlıklı kontrollerde, ventromedial Prefrontal Korteks (vmPFC) ve dorsal anterior singulat kortekste (DACC) aktivite "kayıpları kovalamayı" seçmekle ilişkili bulunmuştur (91). Farklı bir çalışmada, sık kumar oynayan ve PKO bireyler sağlıklı kontroller ile karşılaştırılmış ve kayıp-takip koşullarında karar vermenin düzenlenmesi ile ilgili olan frontal kortikal bölgelerde ve DACC aktivitenin azaldığı saptanmıştır (89). ...
Article
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Psychopathologically, the concept of addiction in the terminology of psychiatry has gained a different perspective as a result of behavioral research under the influence of behavioral approaches. Neuroimaging, processing of neurobiological data has contributed to this change in the last 10 years, as the data on comorbidity, inheritance, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms and treatment outcomes among addictions show similarities. Gambling addiction was also affected by this change and new perspectives on the etiology, diagnostic criteria and treatment were developed. With the recently published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), gambling addiction was included in the category of addictions and under the heading "Non-substance related disorder" in the category "Drug-Related and Addictive Disorders". This new point of view is likely to be gambling addiction, perhaps leading to the fact that behavioral addictions such as internet use, playing video games, eating and shopping can be evaluated within the context of addiction, and will develop a new perspective on behavioral addictions. The aim of this article is to review gambling disorder within the axis of DSM-5 and assess it from the viewpoint of diagnosis, epidemiology, etiology, comorbidity and treatment.
... In the long run, this illusion could contribute to 'loss chasing' in pathological gambling, where individuals continue gambling to recover previous losses (Clark et al., 2013). Cognitive distortions typical in gambling have been associated with recruitment of the reward circuitry (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008;Clark et al., 2009;Xue et al., 2011). It has been found that individuals with pathological gambling tend to show increased illusion of control in associative learning task where the probability of a desired outcome is pseudorandomly determined independent from the actions taken (Orgaz et al., 2013). ...
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Perceived control can be broadly defined as the belief in one’s ability to exert control over situations or events. It has long been known that perceived control is a major contributor toward mental and physical health as well as a strong predictor of achievements in life. However, one issue that limits a mechanistic understanding of perceived control is the heterogeneity of how the term is defined in models in psychology and neuroscience, and used in experimental settings across a wide spectrum of studies. Here, we propose a framework for studying perceived control by integrating the ideas from traditionally separate work on perceived control. Specifically, we discuss key properties of perceived control from a reward-based framework, including choice opportunity, instrumental contingency, and success/reward rate. We argue that these separate reward-related processes are integral to fostering an enhanced perception of control and influencing an individual’s behavior and well-being. We draw on select studies to elucidate how these reward-related elements are implicated separately and collectively in the investigation of perceived control. We highlight the role of dopamine within corticostriatal pathways shared by reward-related processes and perceived control. Finally, through the lens of this reward-based framework of perceived control, we consider the implications of perceived control in clinical deficits and how these insights could help us better understand psychopathology and treatment options.
... In addition, adolescents with internet gambling addiction show high fMRI cuneus activity during go/no-go tasks 19 . Furthermore, fMRI activity in the cuneus appears to be higher when subjects chase losses when gambling but is lower when they quit gambling 20 . ...
Article
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During financial decision-making tasks, humans often make “rational” decisions, where they maximize expected reward. However, this rationality may compete with a bias that reflects past outcomes. That is, if one just lost money or won money, this may impact future decisions. It is unclear how past outcomes influence future decisions in humans, and how neural circuits encode present and past information. In this study, six human subjects performed a financial decision-making task while we recorded local field potentials from multiple brain structures. We constructed a model for each subject characterizing bets on each trial as a function of present and past information. The models suggest that some patients are more influenced by previous trial outcomes (i.e., previous return and risk) than others who stick to more fixed decision strategies. In addition, past return and present risk modulated with the activity in the cuneus; while present return and past risk modulated with the activity in the superior temporal gyrus and the angular gyrus, respectively. Our findings suggest that these structures play a role in decision-making beyond their classical functions by incorporating predictions and risks in humans’ decision strategy, and provide new insight into how humans link their internal biases to decisions.
... It has been called the "island of addiction" (Naqvi & Bechara, 2009) due to its fundamental role in connecting stimuli and environmental cues with urges and in activating drug-seeking goals (Droutman, Read, & Bechara, 2015b). The IC may also play an important role in the decision to quit gambling (Campbell-Meiklejohn, Woolrich, Passingham, & Rogers, 2008). Although evidence suggests that the IC is sensitive to erotic stimuli (Gizewski et al., 2006;Safron et al., 2007), its role in sexually motivated response inhibition has not yet been examined. ...
Article
The insula plays an important role in response inhibition. Most relevant here, it has been proposed that the dorsal anterior insular cortex (dAIC) plays a central role in a salience network that is responsible for switching between the default mode network and the executive control network. However, the insula's role in sexually motivated response inhibition has not yet been studied. In this study, eighty-five 18- to 30-year-old sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM) performed an erotic Go/NoGo task while in an MRI scanner. Participants' real-world sexual risk-taking (frequency of condomless anal intercourse over the past 90 days) was then correlated with their neural activity during the task. We found greater activity in bilateral anterior insular cortex (both dorsal and ventral) on contrasts with stronger motivational information (attractive naked male pictures versus pictures of clothed, middle-aged females) and on contrasts requiring greater response inhibition (NoGo versus Go). We also found that activity in the right dAIC was negatively correlated with participants' real-world sexual risk-taking. Our results confirmed the involvement of the insular cortex in motivated response inhibition. Especially, the decreased right dAIC activity may reduce the likelihood that the executive control network will come online when individuals are faced with situations requiring inhibitory control and thus lead them to make more risky choices.
... Tanaka et al. [69] also reported an increasing deactivation in VMPFC in proportion to the amount of goal-based processing during an instrumental reinforcement learning task. fMRI studies of self-control in dieting [70] or addiction [71] have also reported deactivations in this region when implementing a top-down strategy to inhibit prepotent responses. Furthermore, functional connectivity between VMPFC and DLPFC has been reported in other studies [72][73][74]. ...
Article
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Reinforcement learning studies in rodents and primates demonstrate that goal-directed and habitual choice behaviors are mediated through different fronto-striatal systems, but the evidence is less clear in humans. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected whilst participants (n = 20) performed a conditional associative learning task in which blocks of novel conditional stimuli (CS) required a deliberate choice, and blocks of familiar CS required an intuitive choice. Using standard subtraction analysis for fMRI event-related designs, activation shifted from the dorso-fronto-parietal network, which involves dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for deliberate choice of novel CS, to ventro-medial frontal (VMPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex for intuitive choice of familiar CS. Supporting this finding, psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis, using the peak active areas within the PFC for novel and familiar CS as seed regions, showed functional coupling between caudate and DLPFC when processing novel CS and VMPFC when processing familiar CS. These findings demonstrate separable systems for deliberate and intuitive processing, which is in keeping with rodent and primate reinforcement learning studies, although in humans they operate in a dynamic, possibly synergistic, manner particularly at the level of the striatum.
... functions, including attention, decision-making, error monitoring, and impulse control (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008;Kennerley et al., 2006;Weissman et al., 2005;Bush et al., 2000). Moreover, decreased gray matter volume in inferior frontal gyrus is associated with stop-signal task performance in alcohol-dependent patients (Wiers et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Although gray matter (GM) damages caused by long term and excessive alcohol consumption have long been reported, the structural neuroimaging findings on alcohol-use disorders (AUD) are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis, using a novel voxel-based meta-analytic method effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM), to characterize GM changes in AUD patients. Twelve studies including 433 AUD patients and 498 healthy controls (HCs) were retrieved. The AUD group demonstrated significant GM reductions in the corticostriatal-limbic circuits, including bilateral insula, superior temporal gyrus, striatum, dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), precentral gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left thalamus and right hippocampus compared to HCs. GM reduction in the right striatum is significantly negatively related to duration of alcohol dependence, while GM shrinkage of the left superior, middle frontal gyrus, and left thalamus is related to lifetime alcohol consumption. The findings demonstrate that the GM abnormalities caused by AUD are in corticostriatal-limbic circuits whose dysfunctions may involve in craving and observed functional deficits.
... 174,175 In healthy controls, activity in the vmPFC and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex were associated with choosing to chase losses. 176 In another study, frequent gamblers, compared with nongambling controls, had reduced activity in frontal cortical regions, including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, following losses, suggesting a possible decreased regulation of decision making in these loss-chasing conditions. 174 Rodent paradigms have been developed to model the cognitive distortions found in humans; for example, chasing losses has been modeled in rats by allowing rats to make a risky decision to attempt to fastforward through a time-out period, at the cost of potentially doubling the time-out period. ...
Article
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Gambling disorder (GD), previously called pathological gambling and classified as an impulse control disorder in DSM-III and DSM-IV, has recently been reclassified as an addictive disorder in the DSM-5. It is widely recognized as an important public health problem associated with substantial personal and social costs, high rates of psychiatric comorbidity, poor physical health, and elevated suicide rates. A number of risk factors have been identified, including some genetic polymorphisms. Animal models have been developed in order to study the underlying neural basis of GD. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the risk factors, disease course, and pathophysiology. A focus on a phenotype-based dissection of the disorder is included in which known neural correlates from animal and human studies are reviewed. Finally, current treatment approaches are discussed, as well as future directions for GD research.
... One likely possibility for the inconsistency in these studies is that the response to a loss event, or an event which is similar to a loss, like a near miss, is driven by more complex cognitive constructs (such as the degree of counterfactual thinking, see: Henderson and Norris 2013), leading to more varied responses when this and other variables are not accounted for. Other work has also shown that individual differences with response to gambling losses is strongly associated with the expectation of success and the degree to which the game is enjoyable or reinforcing (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al. 2008). Taken as a whole, betting and gambling behaviour appears to be the result of a potentially large number of different factors which vary between players, each of which must be better identified and measured in further studies so that the precise reason for the effect of near misses can more completely and accurately be understood. ...
Article
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Near misses and losses disguised as wins have been of interest to gambling researchers and policymakers for many years (e.g., Griffiths in J Gambl Stud 9(2):101–120, 1993). This systematic literature review describes the behavioural, psychological, and psychobiological effects of near misses and losses disguised as wins (LDWs) in an effort to evaluate their precise influence on the player and to highlight areas requiring further investigation. A systematic search for relevant studies was conducted using Scopus, PubMed, PsycINFO, ProQuest Sociology databases, and the Gambling Research Exchange Ontario Knowledge Repository. A total of 51 (from an initial pool of 802) experimental peer-reviewed studies using human participants were found between 1991 and 2015. The systematic review revealed that near misses motivate continued play, but have varying effects on the emotional state or betting behaviour of the player. Near miss events were also shown to be associated with elevated skin conductance levels and diffuse activity across the brain, most consistently in areas processing reinforcement and reward. Re-examination of the studies of near misses events after classifying the type of game feedback suggested that the effectiveness of near misses is related to the phenomenology of a near miss itself rather than as a response to auditory or visual feedback provided by a slot machine. In contrast to near misses, the presence of LDWs was found to relate to an overestimation of how much a player is actually winning and was consistently viewed as an exciting event. The effect of LDWs appears to be driven by the presence of visuals and sounds most often associated with a true win. Practical implications and directions for future research are also discussed. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10899-017-9688-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... Gambling disorder (GD) shares behavioural and psychobiological features with substance use disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013;Frascella, Potenza, Brown, & Childress, 2010). However, research has also shown that GD is characterized by unique psychological and neurobiological components, such as distinctly altered dopamine release (Boileau et al., 2014;Joutsa et al., 2012), gambling-related cognitive distortions (Cunningham, Hodgins, & Toneatto, 2014;Raylu & Oei, 2004) and loss-chasing behaviours (Campbell-Meiklejohn, Woolrich, Passingham, & Rogers, 2008). ...
Article
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Impulsivity (and related traits reward/punishment sensitivity and tolerance to delayed rewards) and gambling cognitions have been linked to gambling. However, their independent associations with gambling preferences and clinical status have never been dissociated. The current study applied a data-driven strategy to identify gambling preferences, based on gambling frequency in several modalities. The two resulting factors were used to classify gambling disorder patients (GDPs) and non-problem recreational gamblers (RGs) into Type I (preferring cards, casino games and skill-based bets) and Type II (preferring slot machines, lotteries/pools and bingo). Participants were assessed in impulsivity, delay discounting, reward/punishment sensitivity, gambling-related cognitions, gambling severity, gambling frequency and average amount gambled per episode. GDPs scored higher than RGs in positive and negative urgency, delay discounting, reward sensitivity and intensity of gambling-related cognitions, but less in lack of perseverance. Additionally, Type II gamblers had greater difficulties delaying gratification, whereas Type I gamblers showed higher cognitive distortion and reward sensitivity levels. In practical terms, the finding that some characteristics are equally pervasive in disordered gamblers independently of their preferences (affect-driven impulsivity), whereas others (distorted cognitions, reward sensitivity, delay discounting) are more prominent in one type or the other, provides a basis to establish targets' priority in therapy.
... For example, the impossible rescue attempt from the opening paragraph-which involved jumping in a deep-water reservoir without being able to swim-presumably was carried out without careful consideration of the expected costs and the likelihood of success. Furthermore, some studies have also found a similar phenomenon called "loss chasing"-continued gambling to recover previous losses-among pathological gamblers (Campbell-Meiklejohn, Woolrich, Passingham, & Rogers, 2008). Therefore, it is important to discover the factors that contribute to people's irrational risk-taking decisions in the face of losses. ...
Article
Previous research has shown that people are risk-seeking in the face of losses. We propose that this risk-seeking orientation is a palliative approach response to deal with a discrepancy between people's desire to avoid losses versus the possibility of loss. An expectancy violation (which induces behavioral approach responses) would therefore strengthen people's risk-seeking in the context of losses. Two experiments (Study 1 and Study 2) which were conducted in the context of the Asian Disease Problem demonstrated that people high in trait behavioral approach (trait BA) were more risk-seeking following an expectancy violation (state BA) than in a control condition. As expected, this was only the case for decisions framed in terms of losses, but not in terms of gains (Study 1). Taken together, our findings highlight the interacting motivational influences of situation-induced state behavioral approach and trait behavioral approach in understanding risky decision-making in the face of losses.
... Pramipexole a D2 like receptor agonist was associated with an increased perceived value of 'losses chased' (Leeman & Potenza, 2012). The anterior cingulate cortex is involved in inhibiting loss chasing and thus has implications in "risky decision making" (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008). Another significant difference between alcohol dependence and gambling was the reduction of serotonin levels due to tryptophan depletion which in PG results in decreased loss chasing but in alcohol dependent participants resulted in increased alcohol consumption (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2011). ...
... Two participants described that they chased wins, and three participants that they continued to gamble to win back money they lost. The gambling activity itself was also described in relation to emotional events, where placing a bet was associated with excitement, winning with euphoria and a kick, and losing with anxiety and a lust for revenge; ndings that are in line with a functional magnetic resonance imaging study by Campbell-Meiklejohn et al. (54). Chasing, in particular chasing losses, has been proposed as a key symptom of GD (55), although experimental studies investigating this phenomenon seem rare (29). ...
Preprint
Background From a clinical perspective, knowledge of the psychological processes involved in maintaining gambling disorder has been lacking. This qualitative study formulated hypotheses on how gambling disorder is maintained by identifying clinically relevant behaviors at an individual level, as a means to guide the development of new cognitive behavioral interventions. Methods Six individuals from a treatment study, diagnosed with gambling disorder and with diverse symptom profiles of psychiatric comorbidity, were recruited. Participants were interviewed using an in-depth semi-structured functional interview and completed self-report measures assessing gambling behavior. Results Functional analysis was used as a theoretical framework for a thematic analysis, which yielded the following categories: 1) antecedents that may increase or decrease gambling; 2) experiences accompanying gambling; 3) control strategies; 4) consequences of gambling behavior; and 5) events terminating gambling behavior. Few differences were identified in relation to symptom profiles of psychiatric comorbidity, although some gamblers did not report experiencing abstinence when not being able to gamble. Conclusions Gambling is a secluded activity mainly triggered by access to money. Positive and negative emotions could be both antecedents and functions of gambling behavior. Avoidance-based strategies used to control gambling might result in a failure to learn to control gambling behavior. Anticipation, selective attention, and chasing could be important reinforcers, which should be addressed in new developments in cognitive behavioral treatment for gambling disorder.
... Despite its importance in the development of problem gambling, the role of chasing has been largely neglected empirically, apart from a few studies that have observed the existence of a relationship between chasing and irrational beliefs (Campbell-Meiklejohn, Woolrich, Passingham, & Rogers, 2008;Griffiths & Whitty, 2010), impulsivity (e.g., Breen & Zuckerman, 1999), lack of emotional competence (Bibby, 2016), dysfunctional personality traits (Kim & Lee, 2011;Nigro, Ciccarelli, & Cosenza, 2018a), dissociation (Yakovenko, 2017), the motivation to win money (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2012;Gainsbury, Suhonen, & Saastamoinen, 2014;Lister, Nower, & Wohl, 2016), decision-making impairments (Nigro, Ciccarelli, & Cosenza, 2018b), and increasing stake size (Parke, Harris, Parke, & Goddard, 2016). ...
Article
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Background and aims: Chasing refers to continued gambling in an attempt to recoup previous losses and is one of the diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder. However, research on the topic is still in its infancy. This study investigated whether chasing behavior mediates the relationship between time perspective and gambling severity. Methods: Non-problem gamblers (N = 26) and problem gamblers (N = 66) with the same demographic features (age and gender) were compared on the Consideration of Future Consequences and a computerized task assessing chasing. The Italian South Oaks Gambling Screen was used to discriminate participants in terms of gambling severity. Results: Significant correlations were found relating to gambling severity, chasing, and time perspective. More specifically, the results showed that problem gamblers reported more chasing and a foreshortened time horizon. Chasers, compared to non-chasers, were found to be more oriented to the present. Regression analysis showed that male gender, present-oriented time perspective, and chasing were good predictors of gambling severity. Finally, to clarify if present orientation was on the path from chasing to gambling severity or if chasing was the mediator of the impact of present orientation on gambling severity, a path analysis was performed. The results indicated that present orientation had a direct effect on gambling severity and mediated the relationship between chasing and gambling involvement. Conclusion: The findings support the exacerbating role of chasing in gambling disorder and for the first time show the relationship of time perspective, chasing, and gambling severity among adults.
... Enhancing the subjective probability of recouping one's losses by perceiving such an outcome as controllable (and/or perceiving further losses as avoidable) would undermine the negative somatic states which would otherwise arise following a losing outcome. Consistent with this suggestion, decisions to quit are associated with increased AI and IPS activity compared with decisions to chase losses (Campbell-Meiklejohn, Woolrich, Passingham, & Rogers, 2008). Manipulation of reward probabilities, which in an evolutionary environment may be effective in invigorating risk-taking behaviour which could have advantageous consequences, may, in a modern gambling situation, lead to a destructive cycle of mounting losses. ...
Article
In this paper I postulate that the processing of concepts which are deemed controllable is rooted in neurological machinery located in the posterior parietal cortex specialised for the processing of objects which are immediately actionable because they are within reach. This is demonstrated with reference to the near‐miss effect in gambling behaviour, where it is argued that the configurative proximity of the near‐miss outcome to the win outcome creates the impression that the win outcome is ‘almost within reach' or controllable. The perceived realisability of the desired outcome increases subjective reward probability and the associated expected action value, which impacts decision‐making and behaviour. When extended to substance addiction, this novel hypothesis adds fresh insight into understanding the motivational effects associated with cue‐exposure and opportunity for drug‐taking. Moreover, by postulating that a perception of control can be generated to minimise unpleasant affective states, it can also reconcile contrasting models of decision‐making and provide a neurological explanation for the efficacy of mindfulness‐based techniques in treating addictions. With reference to the previously‐hypothesised link between the self and control, these ideas can provide an explanation for the increased subjective value of self‐associated concepts in the ‘endowment effect', as well as a neurological correlate for the concept of the ‘narrative self'. This paper therefore provides an innovative and unifying perspective for the study and treatment of behavioural and substance addictions as well as contributing to our neurological understanding of philosophical approaches to the self. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... In our own work, we did not observe any systematic change in confidence on feedback streaks, but when the response was switched to a monetary bet, participants responded to losing streaks by increasing their bet size (Studer et al. 2015). This was interpreted as loss chasing, an attempt to recoup accumulating debts by increasing one's bet, which is itself a clinical hallmark of disordered gambling (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al. 2008;Temcheff et al. 2016). A study by Ball (2012) described subsets of participants who increased their bet size on losing streaks (either linearly or curvi-linearly), while others responded with increased wagering to winning streaks. ...
Article
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Rationale Gambling and alcohol use are recreational behaviours that share substantial commonalities at a phenomenological, clinical and neurobiological level. Past studies have shown that alcohol can have a disinhibiting effect on gambling behaviour, in terms of bet size and persistence. Objectives This study was conducted in order to characterise how alcohol affects biases in judgment and decision-making that occur during gambling, with a focus on sequential decision-making including the gambler’s fallacy. Methods Sequential biases were elicited via a roulette-based gambling task. Using a standard between-groups alcohol challenge procedure, male participants played the roulette task 20 min after receiving an alcoholic (0.8 g/kg; n = 22) or placebo (n = 16) beverage. The task measured colour choice decisions (red/black) and bet size, in response to varying lengths of colour runs and winning/losing feedback streaks. Results Across both groups, a number of established sequential biases were observed. On colour choice, there was an effect of run length in line with the gambler’s fallacy, which further varied by previous feedback (wins vs losses). Bet size increased with feedback streaks, especially for losing streaks. Compared to placebo, the alcohol group placed higher bets following losses compared to wins. Conclusions Increased bet size after losses following alcohol consumption may reflect increased loss chasing that may amplify gambling harms. Our results do not fit a simple pattern of enhanced gambling distortions or reward sensitivity, but help contextualise the effects of alcohol on gambling to research on decision-making biases.
... A series of imaging and psychopharmacological studies by Rogers and colleagues used a doubleor-quits ('Martingale') task to operationalize chasing decisions more directly. Participants receive an initial loss, and then make a series of choices to either accept that loss or take a gamble to recover the loss, with a risk of doubling its value (55,56). In a proof of principle study in healthy participants, quitting decisions resulted in large cortical activation including anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and parietal cortex (55), while chase decisions yielded a more focal response in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, which typically represent subjective reward value. ...
Article
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Loss-chasing describes the tendency of a gambler to amplify their betting in an effort to recoup prior losses. It is widely regarded as a defining feature of disordered gambling, and a hallmark of the transition from recreational to disordered gambling. We consider the empirical evidence for this central role of loss-chasing in disordered gambling. We highlight multiple behavioural expressions of chasing, including between-session and within-session chasing. From a neurocognitive perspective, loss-chasing could arise from compromised executive functions including inhibitory control, mood-related impulsivity (urgency) and compulsivity, for which there is compelling evidence in disordered gambling. This view is contrasted with a behavioural economic perspective that emphasizes the subjective valuation of outcomes to the gambler, and may better account for nuances in gamblers’ complex response to loss, such as the significance of ‘breaking even’. Neuroimaging and psychopharmacological research on loss-chasing may help to arbitrate between these two perspectives.
... Previous studies (i.e., Challet-Bouju et al., 2020;Perrot et al., 2018) have operationalized chasing losses using the metric of frequent depositing (which was also used in the present study). Chasing losses has been described as an important risk factor for problem gambling in several studies (e.g., Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008;Lesieur, 1979). The present study analyzed the influence of the amount lost before a mandatory play break on the propensity to deposit and wager afterwards. ...
Article
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In recent years, various novel responsible gambling (RG) tools have been implemented to aid harm-minimization. One such RG tool has been the implementation of enforced mandatory play breaks. Despite many responsible gambling operators using mandatory play breaks, only three previous studies have examined their efficacy and the findings were mixed. Therefore, the present investigation was a large-scale real-world study which was designed to see whether a 60-minute mandatory play break influenced subsequent depositing and wagering. The authors were given access to 27 days of player data prior to the introduction of a mandatory play break and 27 days of player data after the mandatory play break was introduced. The study comprised British online gamblers from Skillonnet (a European online gambling operator). Between July 23 and September 15 (2021), 2,021 players deposited at least ten times or more on a calendar day, at least once. The 2,201 players generated 2,994 corresponding events (i.e., the depositing of money at least 10 times in one day). The percentage of players who stopped depositing money as a consequence of the mandatory play break rose from 27% to 68% on the day of a play break. Moreover, the percentage of players who stopped wagering as a consequence of the mandatory play break rose from 0.1% to 45% on the day of a play break. The findings of the present study demonstrated that a 60-minute mandatory play break impacts players' depositing and wagering immediately after the play break. This means that a mandatory hour-long play break in an online casino setting appears to prevent overspending during a short period of time. The effects of a 60-minute mandatory break on the next day's behavior were inconclusive.
... In turn, the previous defeat has a positive and significant impact on subjects voting for conflict in the "50:50" treatment. This indicates loss-chasing, when individuals continue gambling to recover a loss even at the risk of doubling its size ( Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008 ). ...
Article
Understanding how resource scarcity affects violent conflict over resources has been one of the central topics in economics and other social sciences for decades. Yet, we know surprisingly little about how resource scarcity affects individual behaviour that can spur inter-group conflict. To address this gap, we propose the common-pool experiment with renewable resources to study how incentives to engage in conflict change with resource depletion. Moreover, we examine how the possibility of conflict affects extraction. Each round, after harvesting, the players vote on whether to engage in conflict with the opponent group, in which they can annex a part of the opponent group's resource. The probability of winning varies between treatments. In the "50:50" treatment, to which we refer to as a baseline, the probability of winning is exogenous and equal for each party. In the "conflict-by-greed" treatment, the probability is proportional to the difference in resources between groups. Finally, in the "resource wars" treatment, the likelihood of winning depends on the number of tokens invested by each group in conflict. Experimental results show that "conflict-by-greed" promotes resource conservation. Subjects extract less resources compared to the baseline so as to increase chances of winning in war, which supports the parochial altruism hypothesis. Here, resource depletion is conducive to conflict , which distinguishes "conflict-by-greed" from other treatments. In addition, we find that "resource wars" are extremely destructive. Not only is conflict expenditure above the equilibrium, but also investing in conflict makes group members increase their extraction. As a result, the probability of resource exhaustion in the "resource wars" treatment is twice as high as in the baseline. We discuss how differences in uncertainty and the incentive structure between treatments explain these findings.
... Finally, the whether component controls the conscious inhibition of action generation. Here, Brass and Haggard (2007) found evidence of a distinct area in the dorsal fronto-median cortex (dFMC), located in proximity to the RCZ and preSMA, that activates in conjunction with the inhibition of actions, or self-control in gambling situations (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008). They identified further inhibitory activity in the insula, as well as the frontal cortex in general (Walsh et al., 2010). ...
Thesis
The main goal of neuroscience is to bridge the gap from “membrane” to “mind” via empirical research that elucidates the functional processes from neuron to brain, or theoretical models that frame the cognitive flow from thought to action. Yet, in spite of great, technology-enabled advances in our knowledge of basic neural mechanisms, we still struggle to understand how abstract higher-order cognitive functions such as intention formation finally give rise to goal-directed behavior. Likewise, how external stimuli may precipitate subconscious, yet purposeful action remains unclear. The reasons for these difficulties are both methodological and conceptual in nature and might, in both cases, stem from neglect to account for the multiscale organizational elements in the human brain: for instance, connectivity analyses based on functional MRI (fMRI) routinely pre-process data with an arbitrarily selected single spatial filter, thereby obscuring cortical activity at other observation scales; similarly, signal sampling for BCI applications is usually limited to single lower-order processing areas, although neuronal correlates of intention are more likely to be distributed across higher-order association regions. This doctoral thesis investigates the spatial multiscale dimension of neocortical network activity as observed via fMRI recordings and devises an integrative hierarchical model of intention formation informed by neuroscientific evidence and philosophical concepts established in the field of action theory. Multiscale, surface-constrained pre-processing of movement-related data reveals spatiotemporal features of the hemodynamic response previously unknown in spite of the ubiquitous use of fMRI as an investigative tool: the biphasic response function underlying the majority of fMRI studies in the past 20 years is called into question, as the post-stimulus response undershoot is shown as a surround effect absent from higher-order processing areas; these multiscale data sets also lend themselves to the analysis of cortical networks and the scale-dependent variability of interregional network connections, indicating a possible relation to different levels of the processing hierarchy. Finally, the current neuroscientific and philosophical theories on intention formation are contrasted with each other, and suggested to reflect two opposed, yet complementing streams of top-down and bottom-up influences that scale across time and brain regions as they become integrated in a dynamic process before resulting in intentional, goal-directed action.
... Moreover, the differences in processing losses in GD would be explained by decreased activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA 34) involved in chasing losses. This would lead patients with GD to an impaired cognitive control when gambling, and to a deficit in stopping chasing losses at the next gambling opportunity (Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., 2008). Additionally, studies included in our systematic review investigating cue reactivity in GD mainly reported a functional hyperactivation in the areas related to visual processing (medial occipital gyrus) and motivation (anterior cingulate cortex). ...
Article
Previous imaging studies suggested that impairments of prefrontal-striatal and limbic circuits are correlated to excessive gambling. However, the neural underpinnings of gambling disorder (GD) continue to be the topic of debate. The present study aimed to identify structural changes in GD and differentiate the specific brain activity patterns associated with decision-making and reward-processing. We performed a systematic review complemented by Activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses on morphometric and functional studies on neural correlates of GD. The ALE meta-analysis on structural studies revealed that patients with GD showed significant cortical grey-matter thinning in the right ventrolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex compared to healthy subjects. The ALE meta-analyses on functional studies revealed that patients with GD showed a significant hyperactivation in the medial prefrontal cortex and in the right ventral striatum during decision-making and gain processing compared to healthy subjects. These findings suggest that GD is related to an alteration of brain mechanisms underlying top-down control and appraisal of gambling-related stimuli and provided indications to develop new interventions in clinical practice.
... One approach to reducing problem gambling may be to attempt to emphasize losses. This may be difficult to accomplish, however, especially given the human tendency to chase losses (Campbell-Meiklejohn, Woolrich, Passingham, & Rogers, 2008), the tendency to risk more on trying to recoup losses than to obtain gains (prospect theory; Kahneman & Tversky, 1979). ...
Article
Background: Methodological shortcomings of gambling studies relying on self-report or on data sets derived from gambling operators tend to result in biased conclusions. The aim of this study was to analyze online gambling behavior using a novel network database approach. Methods: From October 13 to October 26, 2014, telecommunications network data from a major telecommunications provider in Switzerland were analyzed. Netflows between mobile devices and a poker operator were quantified to measure the gambling duration and session number. Results: Time spent gambling during night and working hours was compared between devices with longest (red group), intermediate (orange group), and shortest gambling time (green group). Online gambling behavior differed depending on overall gambling time, F (2, 3,143). Night and working hours gambling was the highest in the red group (53%), compared to the orange (50.1%) and the green groups (41.5%). Post hoc analyses indicated significant differences between the orange and green groups (p < 0.05). No differences were observed between the red and orange groups (p = 0.850), and the red and green groups (p = 0.053). Conclusions: On mobile devices, distinct gambling patterns were observed depending on the overall gambling time. This methodology could also be used to investigate online gaming, social media use, and online pornography.
Article
Gambling is a harmless, recreational pastime that is ubiquitous across cultures. However, for some, gambling becomes a maladaptive and compulsive, and this syndrome is conceptualized as a behavioural addiction. Laboratory models that capture the key cognitive processes involved in gambling behaviour, and that can be translated across species, have the potential to make an important contribution to both decision neuroscience and the study of addictive disorders. The Iowa gambling task has been widely used to assess human decision-making under uncertainty, and this paradigm can be successfully modelled in rodents. Similar neurobiological processes underpin choice behaviour in humans and rats, and thus, a preference for the disadvantageous "high-risk, high-reward" options may reflect meaningful vulnerability for mental health problems. However, the choice behaviour operationalized by these tasks does not necessarily approximate the vulnerability to gambling disorder (GD) per se. We consider a number of psychological challenges that apply to modelling gambling in a translational way, and evaluate the success of the existing models. Heterogeneity in the structure of gambling games, as well as in the motivations of individuals with GD, is highlighted. The potential issues with extrapolating too directly from established animal models of drug dependency are discussed, as are the inherent difficulties in validating animal models of GD in the absence of any approved treatments for GD. Further advances in modelling the cognitive biases endemic in human decision-making, which appear to be exacerbated in GD, may be a promising line of research.
Chapter
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is undoubtedly one of the most common techniques used in the cognitive neurosciences and neuroeconomics. The methods section of fMRI papers are oftentimes filled with jargon. We hope to clarify this jargon by defining and explaining the most fundamental concepts. The present chapter has been written to target a broad audience of scholars and students and explains the principles of fMRI: The reader will learn what signals are measured in fMRI, how this measure relates to neural activity, and how fMRI data are most commonly analyzed. This includes a brief summary of physical, physiological, and statistical ideas. We further present a comprehensive step by step guide through a typical fMRI data analysis to provide scholars and students with the appropriate knowledge to understand basic fMRI methodology in research papers and to judge whether the presented analysis is meaningful and appropriately protected against the most common pitfalls in the field of neuroimaging.
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In recent years, strategy researchers have sought to combine behavioural theories with traditional economic views of the firm. As the behavioural trend continues, insights from behavioural neuroscience will play an increasing role in strategic management. Powell (2011) coined the term ‘neurostrategy’ to describe research at the intersection of strategic management and behavioural neuroscience. He argued that properly designed research projects in neurostrategy can help researchers to validate strategy constructs, measure variables, test theories and generate new research ideas. He also noted that neurostrategy brings new challenges – for example, interdisciplinary collaborations can be time-consuming and costly, and brain processes are not always the appropriate unit of analysis in strategic management. On balance, neurostrategy can contribute to strategic management if strategy researchers work closely with neuroscientists on targeted research problems for which brain imaging, neuropharmacology and other neuroscientific methods can provide behavioural insights.
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Gambling disorder and problem gambling are characterized by persistent and repetitive problematic gambling behavior. Attentional bias toward gambling-related stimuli such as casino chips, dice, roulette, etc. have been observed in problem gamblers (PGs), but it remains unclear whether stimuli in gambling tasks elicit greater attention and pupillary responses in PGs. To address this issue, we administrated PGs and non-problem gamblers (NPGs) a gambling task accompanied by eye-tracking measurements, in which the participants were required to choose one of the paired pictures to receive monetary rewards and avoid punishments. Concerning attentional allocation, PG showed a greater attentional preference for the right-hand pictures in the decision and feedback phases, and compared to NPGs, PGs’ attention was narrower and more focused on the left-hand pictures in the decision phase. Concerning pupillary dynamics indicative of noradrenergic locus coeruleus activity, pupillary dilation in response to rewards and punishments was observed only in PGs. Studies of unilateral spatial neglect have proposed that asymmetric attention is induced by hemispheric imbalance. Accordingly, asymmetrical allocation of attention by PGs may reflect hemispheric imbalance, and pupillary dynamics may reflect sensitivity to wins and losses.
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This chapter first reviews cognitive decision making in adolescents and adults with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with a focus on executive function in scenarios such as gambling tasks. A second focus is on emotional decision making in adolescents and adults with and without ASD. Alexithymia and interoception have been found to have an important impact on emotional decision making. The third focus is on moral decision making and individual differences in adolescents with ASD and adolescents with alexithymia and psychopathy. Finally, a support program for enhancement of decision making in adolescents and adults with ASD is proposed.
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Many individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) or a diagnosis on the autism spectrum will experience anxiety. Research examining anxiety in these populations has provided understanding of how it presents and how it can be measured more accurately in these individuals. Less is known, however, about the impact that anxiety can have on cognitive tasks or issues. Within neurotypical individuals, anxiety has been shown to impact decision making, both by increasing the likelihood of a “jump-to-conclusion” style of reasoning and also by influencing perceptions of relative risk. The impact of anxiety on the decision making of individuals with IDD or those on the autism spectrum is less well understood. In this chapter we describe the limited research in this area. We then use this to hypothesise about the potential impact it may have across the decision-making process. Given the high prevalence of anxiety (and other mental health challenges) in those with IDD and/or autism, there is a clear need for more work in this area. With this additional knowledge we will be better placed to understand whether anxiety has a positive, negative or neutral effect on decision making in these populations. This knowledge can then be used to support decision making and also reduce any possible negative effects of anxiety on this process.
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Human decisions are susceptible to biases, but establishing causal roles of brain areas has proved to be difficult. Here we studied decision biases in 17 people with unilateral medial prefrontal cortex damage and a rare patient with bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) lesions. Participants learned to choose which of two options was most likely to win, and then bet money on the outcome. Thus, good performance required not only selecting the best option, but also the amount to bet. Healthy people were biased by their previous bet, as well as by the unchosen option’s value. Unilateral medial prefrontal lesions reduced these biases, leading to more rational decisions. Bilateral vmPFC lesions resulted in more strategic betting, again with less bias from the previous trial, paradoxically improving performance overall. Together, the results suggest that vmPFC normally imposes contextual biases, which in healthy people may actually be suboptimal in some situations.
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Chasing, or continuing to gamble to recoup previous losses, is a behavioral marker and a diagnostic criterion for gambling disorder. Even though chasing has been recognized to play a central role in gambling disorder, research on chasing is still relatively scarce. This study first empirically investigated the interplay between cognitive distortions related to gambling, temporal perspective, and chasing behavior in a sample of habitual gamblers. Two hundred and fifty-five adults took part in the study. Participants completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS), the 14-item Consideration of Future Consequences scale (CFC-14), and performed a computerized task assessing chasing behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions (Control, Loss, and Win). Hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that the decision to chase depended on scores on the CFC-14 Immediate scale and the GRCS dimensions Gambling Expectancies and Interpretative Bias. Hierarchical linear regression analysis indicated that, chasing frequency was affected by Loss condition, distortions related to gambling expectancies and predictive control, as well as by myopia for the future. Interestingly, the results of path analysis clearly indicated that some cognitions related to gambling predict chasing frequency not only directly, but also indirectly via shortened time horizon. Notably, gambling severity did not predict either the decision to chase, or the chasing persistence. These findings provide further evidence that nonchasers and chasers seem to belong to two quite distinct subtypes of gamblers. Such a difference could be useful for targeting more effective intervention strategies in gambling disorder treatment.
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Obiettivo del presente lavoro è fornire un’analisi della letteratura circa la multifattorialità eziologica, la complessità fenomenologica, comportamentale e di comorbilità del disturbo da gioco d’azzardo. Come verrà evidenziato, questo disturbo è la risultante dell’intreccio di più variabili: genetiche, bio-temperamentali, psicologico-cognitive, socio-ambientali; e come tale osservato da molteplici prospettive, qui di seguito analizzate, con una attenzione particolare verso l’indagine neurobiologica. Tale prospettiva, come vedremo, osserva e analizza le mutazioni a livello neurotrasmettitoriale che si verificano per mezzo della plasticità neuronale e a livello epigenetico, a causa del comporta-mento di gioco reiterato nel tempo.
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Risky decisions are inherently characterized by the potential to receive gains or incur losses, and these outcomes have distinct effects on subsequent decision-making. One important factor is that individuals engage in loss-chasing, in which the reception of a loss is followed by relatively increased risk-taking. Unfortunately, the mechanisms of loss-chasing are poorly understood, despite the potential importance for understanding pathological choice behavior. The goal of the present experiment was to illuminate the mechanisms governing individual differences in loss-chasing and risky-choice behaviors. Rats chose between a low-uncertainty outcome that always delivered a variable amount of reward and a high-uncertainty outcome that probabilistically delivered reward. Loss-processing and loss-chasing were assessed in the context of losses disguised as wins (LDWs), which are loss outcomes that are presented along with gain-related stimuli. LDWs have been suggested to interfere with adaptive decision-making in humans and thus potentially increase loss-making. Here, the rats presented with LDWs were riskier, in that they made more choices for the high-uncertainty outcome. A series of nonlinear models were fit to individual rats’ data to elucidate the possible psychological mechanisms that best account for individual differences in high-uncertainty choices and loss-chasing behaviors. The models suggested that the rats presented with LDWs were more prone to showing a stay bias following high-uncertainty outcomes compared to rats not presented with LDWs. These results collectively suggest that LDWs acquire conditioned reinforcement properties that encourage continued risk-taking and increase loss-chasing following previous high-risk decisions.
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Pathological gambling (PG), characterized by “recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior that disrupts personal, family, or vocational pursuits,” affects about 0.2–2.0% of the adult population. As PG may affect family members, employers, and society as a whole, PG is important to understand within a public health framework. Similarities have been identified between the pathophysiologies of PG and substance use disorders. This has led to a proposal to conceptualize and categorize PG as a nonsubstance or “behavioral” addiction. Both substance and nonsubstance addictions are associated with alterations in brain structure and function, can be treated with behavioral and pharmacological therapies, and, if left untreated, may lead to devastating consequences.
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'Chasing' behavior, whereby individuals, driven by a desire to break-even, continue a risky activity (RA) despite incurring large losses, is a commonly observed phenomenon. We examine whether the desire to break-even plays a wider role in decisions to stop engaging in financially motivated RA in a naturalistic setting. We test hypotheses, motivated by this research question, using a large dataset: 707,152 transactions of 5,379 individual financial market spread traders between September 2004 and April 2013. The results indicate strong effects of changes in wealth around the break-even point on the decision to cease a RA. An important mediating factor was the individual's historical long-term performance. Those with a more profitable trading history were less affected by a fall in cash-balance below the break-even point compared to those who had been less profitable. We observe that break-even points play an important role in the decision of non-pathological risk-takers to stop RAs. It is possible, therefore, that these non-pathological cognitive processes, when occurring in extrema, may result in pathological gambling behavior such as ‘chasing’. Our dataset focuses on RAs in financial markets and, consequently, we discuss the implications for institutions and regulators in the effective management of risk taking in markets. We also suggest that there may be a need to consider carefully the nature and role of ‘break-even points’ associated with a broader range of non-financially-focussed risk taking activities, such as smoking and substance abuse.
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Psychostimulant drugs, such as cocaine and amphetamines, of the indirect sympathomimetic class have a long history as tonics and other preparations to allay fatigue and sustain performance. These drugs also have a long history of abuse and dependence. Abuse potential varies with the availability of the drug both environmentally and physiologically, with intravenous and smoked forms of both cocaine and amphetamines producing much more severe substance use disorder. Cocaine and amphetamines have a characteristic abuse cycle that involves binge administration, withdrawal dysphoria, paranoia, and psychosis-like symptoms as the cycle continues or intensifies. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms of action of psychomotor stimulant drugs at the behavioral, neuropharmacological, cellular, and molecular levels that can be heuristically framed in the three-stage cycle of addiction:  binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and  preoccupation/anticipation. Eventually, three corresponding domains and neurocircuits coalesced around these three stages: binge/intoxication (incentive salience/pathological habits domain, basal ganglia neurocircuits), withdrawal/negative affect (negative affect domain, extended amygdala), and preoccupation/anticipation (executive function, prefrontal cortex). Thus, the new revised book, Neurobiology of Addiction, is now organized along the three stage/three domain construct while retaining synthesis at the circuit, cellular, and molecular levels of analysis.
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Addictions involve a spectrum of behaviors that encompass features of impulsivity and compulsivity, herein referred to as impulsive-compulsive spectrum disorders (ICSDs). The etiology of ICSDs likely involves a complex interplay among neurobiological, psychological and social risk factors. Neurobiological risk factors include the status of the neuroanatomical circuits that govern ICSDs. These circuits can be altered by disease, as well as exogenous influences such as centrally-acting pharmacologics. The ‘poster child’ for this scenario is Parkinson’s disease (PD) medically managed by pharmacological treatments. PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that involves a gradual loss of dopaminergic neurons largely within nigrostriatal projections. Replacement therapy includes dopamine receptor agonists that directly activate postsynaptic dopamine receptors (bypassing the requirement for functioning presynaptic terminals). Some clinically useful dopamine agonists, e.g., pramipexole and ropinirole, exhibit high affinity for the D2/D3 receptor subtypes. These agonists provide excellent relief from PD motor symptoms, but some patients exhibit debilitating ICSD. Teasing out the neuropsychiatric contribution of PD-associated pathology from the drugs used to treat PD motor symptoms is challenging. In this review, we posit that modern clinical and preclinical research converge on the conclusion that dopamine replacement therapy can mediate addictions in PD and other neurological disorders. We provide five categories of evidences that align with this position: (i) ICSD prevalence is greater with D2/D3 receptor agonist therapy vs PD alone. (ii) Capacity of dopamine replacement therapy to produce addiction-like behaviors is independent of disease for which the therapy is being provided. (iii) ICSD-like behaviors are recapitulated in laboratory rats with and without PD-like pathology. (iv) Behavioral pathology co-varies with drug exposure. (v) ICSD Features of ICSDs are consistent with agonist pharmacology and neuroanatomical substrates of addictions. Considering the underpinnings of ICSDs in PD should not only help therapeutic decision-making in neurological disorders, but also apprise ICSDs in general.
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This study consists of two separate studies. In the first study, the Turkish adaptation of the Beliefs About Emotions Questionnaire (BAEQ; Manser et al., 2012) was carried out. A total of 436 Turkish university students between the ages of 18-29 (M = 23.5, SD = 3.19) participated in the study. The findings showed that the data set confirmed the factor structure suggested for BAEQ with some modifications, and that the 37-item scale is a valid and reliable measurement tool that can be used by emotion regulation researchers and mental health professionals in Turkey. In the second study, a structural equation model was tested in order to better understand the relationships between trait/dispositional mindfulness, beliefs about emotions, adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, and negative and positive mental health. A total of 608 Turkish university students between the ages of 18-29 (M = 23.14, SD = 2.89) participated in the study. The findings revealed that the indirect effect of trait/dispositional mindfulness on adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies as well as on positive and negative mental health through beliefs about emotions and the indirect effect of beliefs about emotions on negative and positive mental health through maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategies were statistically significant. The present findings are discussed in accordance with the relevant literature.
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Presents an analysis of the psychological and sociological aspects of compulsive gambling. Topics include the relation between occupation and gambling, the bookmaker and his business relations, getting money through the gambling setting, and abstinence and relapse cycles among compulsive gamblers. (5 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Instrumental conditioning studies how animals and humans choose actions appropriate to the affective structure of an environment. According to recent reinforcement learning models, two distinct components are involved: a “critic,” which learns to predict future reward, and an “actor,” which maintains information about the rewarding outcomes of actions to enable better ones to be chosen more frequently. We scanned human participants with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they engaged in instrumental conditioning. Our results suggest partly dissociable contributions of the ventral and dorsal striatum, with the former corresponding to the critic and the latter corresponding to the actor.
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The material presented in this report is not intended as an explanation of compulsive gambling. I do not pretend to be refuting the psychoanalytic or the personality theorists. Rather, I describe the changes that take place in the career of the person turned compulsive gambler. Some of what is described here adds to the already existing knowledge of the compulsion.
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Many studies of brain function with positron emission tomography (PET) involve the interpretation of a subtracted PET image, usually the difference between two images under baseline and stimulation conditions. The purpose of these studies is to see which areas of the brain are activated by the stimulation condition. In many cognitive studies, the activation is so slight that the experiment must be repeated on several subjects and the subtracted images are averaged to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The averaged image is then standardized to have unit variance and then searched for local maxima. The main problem facing investigators is which of these local maxima are statistically significant. We describe a simple method for determining an approximate p value for the global maximum based on the theory of Gaussian random fields. The p value is proportional to the volume searched divided by the product of the full widths at half-maximum of the image reconstruction process or number of resolution elements. Rather than working with local maxima, our method focuses on the Euler characteristic of the set of voxels with a value larger than a given threshold. The Euler characteristic depends only on the topology of the regions of high activation, irrespective of their shape. For large threshold values this is approximately the same as the number of isolated regions of activation above the threshold. We can thus not only determine if any activation has taken place, but we can also estimate how many isolated regions of activation are present.
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The South Oaks Gambling Screen is a 20-item questionnaire based on DSM-III criteria for pathological gambling. It may be self-administered or administered by nonprofessional or professional interviewers. A total of 1,616 subjects were involved in its development: 867 patients with diagnoses of substance abuse and pathological gambling, 213 members of Gamblers Anonymous, 384 university students, and 152 hospital employees. Independent validation by family members and counselors was obtained for the calibration sample, and internal consistency and test-retest reliability were established. The instrument correlates well with the criteria of the revised version of DSM-III (DSM-III-R). It offers a convenient means to screen clinical populations of alcoholics and drug abusers, as well as general populations, for pathological gambling.
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We examined the striatal projections from different cytoarchitectonic regions of the insular cortex using anterograde and retrograde techniques. The shell and medial ventral striatum receive inputs primarily from the agranular and ventral dysgranular insula. The central ventral striatum receives inputs primarily from the dorsal agranular and dysgranular insula. Projections to the central ventral striatum originate from more posterior and dorsal insular regions than projections to the medial ventral striatum. The dorsolateral striatum receives projections primarily from the dorsal dysgranular and granular insula. These results show that cytoarchitectonically less differentiated (agranular) insular regions project to the ventromedial "limbic" part of the ventral striatum, whereas more differentiated (granular) insular regions project to the dorsolateral "sensorimotor" part of the striatum. The finding that the ventral "limbic" striatum receives inputs from less differentiated regions of the insula is consistent with the general principle that less differentiated cortical regions project primarily to the "limbic" striatum. Functionally, the ventral striatum receives insular projections primarily related to integrating feeding behavior with rewards and memory, whereas the dorsolateral striatum receives insular inputs related to the somatosensation. Information regarding food acquisition in the insula may be sent to the intermediate area of the striatum.
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We discuss the cognitive and the psy- chophysical determinants of choice in risky and risk- less contexts. The psychophysics of value induce risk aversion in the domain of gains and risk seeking in the domain of losses. The psychophysics of chance induce overweighting of sure things and of improbable events, relative to events of moderate probability. De- cision problems can be described or framed in multiple ways that give rise to different preferences, contrary to the invariance criterion of rational choice. The pro- cess of mental accounting, in which people organize the outcomes of transactions, explains some anomalies of consumer behavior. In particular, the acceptability of an option can depend on whether a negative outcome is evaluated as a cost or as an uncompensated loss. The relation between decision values and experience values is discussed. Making decisions is like speaking prose—people do it all the time, knowingly or unknowingly. It is hardly surprising, then, that the topic of decision making is shared by many disciplines, from mathematics and statistics, through economics and political science, to sociology and psychology. The study of decisions ad- dresses both normative and descriptive questions. The normative analysis is concerned with the nature of rationality and the logic of decision making. The de- scriptive analysis, in contrast, is concerned with peo- ple's beliefs and preferences as they are, not as they should be. The tension between normative and de- scriptive considerations characterizes much of the study of judgment and choice. Analyses of decision making commonly distin- guish risky and riskless choices. The paradigmatic example of decision under risk is the acceptability of a gamble that yields monetary outcomes with specified probabilities. A typical riskless decision concerns the acceptability of a transaction in which a good or a service is exchanged for money or labor. In the first part of this article we present an analysis of the cog- nitive and psychophysical factors that determine the value of risky prospects. In the second part we extend this analysis to transactions and trades. Risky Choice Risky choices, such as whether or not to take an umbrella and whether or not to go to war, are made without advance knowledge of their consequences. Because the consequences of such actions depend on uncertain events such as the weather or the opponent's resolve, the choice of an act may be construed as the acceptance of a gamble that can yield various out- comes with different probabilities. It is therefore nat- ural that the study of decision making under risk has focused on choices between simple gambles with monetary outcomes and specified probabilities, in the hope that these simple problems will reveal basic at- titudes toward risk and value. We shall sketch an approach to risky choice that
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An analysis of the gambling process, a review of gambling research, and a survey of philosophical, phenomenological, and theoretical interpretations of gambling suggest that the motives for gambling are highly complex. However, many similarities were found between anecdotal accounts of gamblers' experiences and the philosophical, phenomenological, and theoretical interpretations of the gambling process. Many of the research studies corroborated both the anecdotal accounts and the interpretations. The most fruitful and veridical findings seem to come from studies that recognized gambling as adult play. The significance of studying gambling as play readily revealed itself, and it is hoped that future research expands on the existential and transpersonal nature of this aspect of gambling. We have come a long way in increasing our knowledge of gambling since Bergler's original interpretation of gambling as psychic masochism. Gambling may be psychic masochism for some, but it is without doubt psychic play pleasure for the vast majority of persons who gamble.
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Discusses the cognitive and the psychophysical determinants of choice in risky and riskless contexts. The psychophysics of value induce risk aversion in the domain of gains and risk seeking in the domain of losses. The psychophysics of chance induce overweighting of sure things and of improbable events, relative to events of moderate probability. Decision problems can be described or framed in multiple ways that give rise to different preferences, contrary to the invariance criterion of rational choice. The process of mental accounting, in which people organize the outcomes of transactions, explains some anomalies of consumer behavior. In particular, the acceptability of an option can depend on whether a negative outcome is evaluated as a cost or as an uncompensated loss. The relationships between decision values and experience values and between hedonic experience and objective states are discussed. (27 ref)
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