Defined reprogramming: A vehicle for changing the differentiated state

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Stowers Medical Institute and Harvard Medical Institute, Harvard University, 7 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
Differentiation (Impact Factor: 3.44). 10/2007; 75(7):577-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1432-0436.2007.00213.x
Source: PubMed

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    • "If they are injected in an undifferentiated state, they cause teratomas, and mice generated from iPS cells show high rates of tumors. This oncogenicity may be due to the transcription factors used for dedifferentiation which are known to be oncogenes, due to the insufficient epigenetic remodeling or due to the oncogenic retroviruses used for transfection [15]. The use of adult stem cells raises less ethical concerns and has proved to be much safer than pluripotent stem cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cell research plays an important role in orthopedic regenerative medicine today. Current literature provides us with promising results from animal research in the fields of bone, tendon, and cartilage repair. While early clinical results are already published for bone and cartilage repair, the data about tendon repair is limited to animal studies. The success of these techniques remains inconsistent in all three mentioned areas. This may be due to different application techniques varying from simple mesenchymal stem cell injection up to complex tissue engineering. However, the ideal carrier for the stem cells still remains controversial. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of current basic research and clinical data concerning stem cell research in bone, tendon, and cartilage repair. Furthermore, a focus is set on different stem cell application techniques in tendon reconstruction, cartilage repair, and filling of bone defects.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012
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    • "The advance of reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) upon introduction of defined genes might provide an alternative source of embryonic-like stem cells that would address the issue of immune rejection reaction (Rodolfa et al., 2007; Amabile and Meissner, 2009). However, generating sufficient amount of cardiomyocytes from iPS differentiation and prevention of the risk of tumor formation remains challenging. "
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    ABSTRACT: An intra-myocardial injection of a cardiogenic factor (cardiogenin) was reported to induce myocardial regeneration of exogenous mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) origin. In this study, replacement of the dangerous intra-myocardial injection with a safe method and whether the endogenous MSCs contribute to the cardiogenin-mediated myocardial regeneration were investigated. Bone marrow transplantation with labeled MSCs was performed in rats, which were subsequently subject to a permanent ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery one week after the transplantation. The rats were then treated with the cardiogenin through oral administration for 2 weeks. We not only demonstrated the substantial therapeutic effects of cardiogenin on myocardial infarction through an oral administration, but also provided direct evidences that the bone marrow derived endogenous MSCs are the major cellular source of the regenerating myocardium. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggested that miR-9 and its target E-cadherin may be required for intercalated disc formation.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Differentiation
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    • "Derived iPS cell lines exhibited the essential characteristics of ES cells including their ability to differentiate into three germ layers. Results from both laboratories are proofs of principle that combination of small number of factors can directly reprogrammed somatic cells to ES cells; however, many questions must be addressed (Rodolfa et al., 2007). Firstly, why is the efficiency so low? "

    Full-text · Article · May 2008 · Differentiation
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