Canadian Blood Services to screen for Chagas disease

Canadian Medical Association Journal (Impact Factor: 5.96). 08/2007; 177(3):242. DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.070882
Source: PubMed

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    • "Although it is not the only parameter used in endemic countries, epidemiological screening has been recommended as the first criterion at blood banks in non-endemic countries (Castro 2009), especially North America (O'Brien et al. 2009) and Europe (Garraud et al. 2007) where an expressive flow of immigrants from endemic countries of Latin American is observed (Schmunis 2007). Cases of transfusion-associated Chagas disease and vertical transmission have been documented in non-endemic countries such as the United States (O'Brien et al. 2009), Canada (Comeau 2007), Spain (Piron et al. 2008) and France (Garraud et al. 2007) and were the subject of a workshop sponsored by the World Health Organization in Geneva in July 2007. These facts demonstrate the importance of detailed and systematic clinical-epidemiological screening of blood donors, even in endemic countries with a low prevalence of Chagas disease among donors such as Brazil. "
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological screening combined with serological tests has become an important tool at blood banks for the characterization of donors with or without Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Thus, the objective of the present study was to describe the sociodemographic and epidemiological characteristics of blood donors with non-negative serology for T. cruzito determine possible risk factors associated with serological ineligibility. Sociodemographic and epidemiological data were collected by analysis of patient histories and interviews. The data were analyzed descriptively using absolute and relative frequencies and odds ratio (OR) evaluation. The frequency of serological ineligibility was 0.28%, with a predominance of inconclusive reactions (52%) and seropositivity among first-time donors (OR = 607), donors older than 30 years (OR = 3.7), females (OR = 1.9), donors from risk areas (OR = 4) and subjects living in rural areas (OR = 1.7). The risk of seropositivity was higher among donors who had contact with the triatomine vector (OR = 11.7) and those with a family history of Chagas disease (OR = 4.8). The results demonstrate the value of detailed clinical-epidemiological screening as an auxiliary tool for serological definition that, together with more specific and more sensitive laboratory methods, will guarantee a higher efficacy in the selection of donors at blood centres.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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    • "Approximately 20% of infected recipients are completely asymptomatic, raising no suspicion of diagnosis (Wendel et al., 1992). In fact, in non-endemic areas in industrialized countries, this rate might be somewhat higher than in endemic countries (Kerleguer et al., 2007; Comeau, 2007; Garraud et al., 2007; Leiby et al., 2008), due to lack of medical expertise and awareness. A spontaneous recovery will ensue 6–8 weeks after the acute phase, but may extend for up to 4 months. "
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    ABSTRACT: Transfusion transmitted Chagas disease was recognized as a medical problem more than 50 years ago. However, little attention was paid to it by Transfusion Medicine, medical authorities or regulatory agencies as a major problem and threat (especially after the advent of HIV/AIDS); perhaps because it was mainly restricted to tropical regions, usually in less developed countries. With the intense human migratory movement from developing to developed countries, it became more common and evident. The scope of this review is to cover the main transfusional aspects of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), including the main strategies to prevent it through donor questionnaires, specific serological testing and alternative methods such as leukofiltration and pathogen reduction procedures, in order to increase the blood safety in both developing and developed countries.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Acta tropica
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    Preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Canadian Medical Association Journal
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