Diagnostic Utility of Endocervical Curettage in Women Undergoing Colposcopy for Equivocal or Low-Grade Cytologic Abnormalities
Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA. Obstetrics and Gynecology
(Impact Factor: 5.18).
09/2007; 110(2 Pt 1):288-95. DOI: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000270154.69879.09
To estimate the diagnostic yield of endocervical curettage (ECC) when performed as part of a colposcopic procedure in the multicenter ASCUS-LSIL Triage Study (ALTS), a randomized trial of management strategies for women with equivocal or mildly abnormal cytology.
A total of 1,119 women in ALTS had colposcopic examinations that included an ECC performed at the discretion of the colposcopist. We compared the results of ECC and concurrent cervical colposcopic evaluation, with or without biopsy, in prediction of final histopathologic diagnosis. This was defined as the worst histopathologic result from that colposcopy or any subsequent procedure during 2 years of follow-up.
Overall, 3.7% of ECCs yielded a diagnostic abnormality of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2+ compared with 21.7% of colposcopically directed biopsies. In women ultimately found to have CIN 2+ in the trial, the overall sensitivity of colposcopically directed biopsy was 72.5%, compared with 12.2% for ECC. In women under 40, the marginal contribution of ECC, independently of biopsy, was only 2.2%. By contrast, among women 40 and older, the sensitivity of biopsy dropped while the sensitivity of ECC improved, resulting in 13.0% increased detection with ECC, independently of biopsy. However, in women 40 and older, the combined sensitivity of ECC and biopsy was only 47.8% for a single colposcopy procedure.
As an ancillary diagnostic technique to colposcopically directed biopsy, ECC is of questionable value in younger women. However, in women aged 40 and older, the sensitivity of colposcopic biopsy decreased and the sensitivity of ECC increased. Thus, ECC may be useful in older women undergoing colposcopy for equivocal or mildly abnormal cytology.
Available from: J. Thomas Cox
- "This may include endocervical sampling such as endocervical curettage (ECC). However, the diagnostic yield of ECC and therefore its utility is somewhat controversial in other settings  . In KPNC data and in other clinical databases known to us the ECC collections are often deemed " unsatisfactory " or " scant " . "
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ABSTRACT: To characterize the cervical cancers diagnosed following a Pap-negative, high risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive (Pap-/HPV+) screen in routine clinical practice.
Using data from Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we investigated the cases of cervical cancer diagnosed between January, 2003 and January, 2009 following Pap-/HPV+ screen. Two cervical specimens were routinely collected for cervical cancer screening, one for conventional cytology and the other for high risk HPV testing using Hybrid Capture 2 (Qiagen).
Forty-four women (median age at diagnosis=44years) were diagnosed with primary invasive cervical cancer with a recent history of one or more Pap-/HPV+ screens. Twenty-six women had one Pap-/HPV+ screen preceding the diagnosis of cancer, 15 had two, and three had three. There were 16 squamous cancers, one small cell cancer, 24 adenocarcinomas, 2 adenosquamous carcinomas, and one case with separate invasive squamous and adenocarcinoma. FIGO Stage was IA in 11 women, IB in 31 women and IIA in 2 women. Treatment included a pelvic node dissection in 30, 2 (6.7%) of whom had positive nodes.
HPV testing contributes to early cervical cancer diagnosis detection in women with negative Pap tests. Most women in this cohort have early stage, node negative, treatable and potentially curable disease. Adenocarcinoma predominated as might be expected because cytology misses these cancers and their precursors. The majority of cancers were diagnosed following a single Pap-/HPV+ screen, suggesting that effective triage to colposcopy of women with a Pap-/HPV+ screen would be preferable to retesting in one year as currently recommended.
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether the use of local Estrogen Replacement Therapy (ERT) affects the adequacy of colposcopic examination; to distinguish abnormal cervical smears secondary to hypoestrogenism from abnormal cervical smears due to true preneoplastic changes; and to suggest an effective management of atypical squamous cells of undeterminated significance (ASCUS) and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (L-SIL) in menopausal women.
Two-hundred fifty-four postmenopausal women with abnormal pap smears (L-SIL or ASCUS) underwent colposcopy and HPV DNA testing. All patients with positive colposcopy underwent punch biopsy, and all patients with positive histological findings underwent surgical treatment. Patients with negative colposcopy, both satisfactory [visible Squamo-Columnar Junction (SCJ)] and unsatisfactory, were treated with local estrogenic replacement therapy (ERT) for 3 months, and repeated colposcopy and pap smears. Patients with negative colposcopy and negative pap smears after ERT were included in a 6 months cytological and colposcopic follow-up. Patients with positive colposcopy underwent punch biopsy, if colposcopy was negative and cytology was positive, patients underwent endocervical curettage.
One-hundred ninety-five had a diagnosis of ASCUS and 59 a diagnosis of L-SIL. At the first colposcopy, 39 patients showed a lesion and had an appropriate treatment. One-hundred eighty-eight in the ASCUS group and 27 in the L-SIL group had a negative colposcopy and were treated with local ERT. At first colposcopic examination, 37 of the 215 negative colposcopies resulted satisfactory and 178 of the 215 resulted unsatisfactory. After local ERT, 130 of the 178 patients had a satisfactory follow-up colposcopy. After ERT, 25 patients of 215 with initial abnormal CVS and negative colposcopy, required appropriate treatment. After ERT, 190 patients of 215 showed negative colposcopy and at cytologic follow-up showed 23 ASCUS and 167 normal CVS.
A correct diagnosis and an efficient treatment seem to be obtained with a short-time ERT followed by a short-time cytological and colposcopic follow-up. With a single course of local ERT it may be possible to distinguish between benign CVS mimicking atrophy and true preneoplastic changes. Estrogen therapy will often cause enough ectropion of the endocervical cells so that the entire SCJ can be visualized. Moreover, it may reduce the number of endocervical curettage or loop excision or cone procedure for women with inadequate colposcopic examination.
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ABSTRACT: Endometriosis, defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, is a challenging condition associated with substantial morbidity. Management of endometriosis must be individualized according to the desired treatment outcome, whether it is relief of pain, improvement of fertility, or the prevention of recurrence. For alleviation of endometriosis-associated pain, medical treatment is generally successful, with no medical agent being more efficacious than another in spite of significantly differing side-effect profiles. Surgical therapy has also been demonstrated to reduce pain scores in comparison with expectant management, although conservative surgery has been frequently associated with recurrence. The efficacy of combination therapies still remains to be clarified. For treatment of endometriosis-associated infertility, suppressive medical treatment has been proven to be detrimental to fertility and should be discouraged, while surgery is probably efficacious for all stages. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with intrauterine insemination is recommended in early-stage and surgically corrected endometriosis. Combined surgery with GnRH analog treatment has been proposed to be first-line therapy, followed by IVF as second-line therapy in advanced cases. More rigorously designed randomized clinical trials focusing on the endocrinological, immunological, and genetic aspects of endometriosis are necessary to refine conclusions regarding the etiopathogenesis and therapeutic innovations of this perplexing disease.
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