Infant Feeding Patterns in the First 6 Months: An Assessment in Full-term Infants

ArticleinJournal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 45(2):234-9 · September 2007with37 Reads
DOI: 10.1097/MPG.0b013e31803e1706 · Source: PubMed
The infant formula market has grown significantly and offers a wide range of products for the different stages of healthy infant growth. Healthy infants often go through a series of unnecessary changes of formulas. The present study aimed to identify the factors leading to switches to alternative formulas. We studied the feeding patterns in the first 6 months of babies born at term, particularly changes in infant formulas. We also investigated the reasons for choosing the first formula, infant formula changes, the addition of formulas to supplement breast-feeding, and various aspects related to formula thickening. Two hundred parents of babies ages 6 to 18 months were interviewed. The interviews included a detailed questionnaire and were conducted in child and maternal health care centers. Forty-seven percent of these infants underwent changes in their formula in the first 6 months of life, most of which (67%) were to another cow's milk-based formula. The main reasons for switching a formula were regurgitation or vomiting (24%) followed by restlessness (18%). Lower z scores at birth and a higher Deltaz2 (z score at the time of the questionnaire minus z score at birth) were associated with significantly more formula changes. The impact of pediatricians and other health care professionals on the choice of infant nutrition was surprisingly negligible. The most common reason for switching a formula was concern regarding common infantile symptoms or behavior patterns perceived by parents to be related to formula intolerance. The decision to switch formula was usually made by the parents without consulting a health professional.
    • "Psychophysical studies of human milk show that its predominant taste quality is sweetness, and it also provides a myriad of sensory experiences that are dynamic and vary both within and between mothers [106,107] . In contrast, the flavor experience of formula-fed infants is constant and unchanging, as the majority of formula-feeding mothers feed their infants a single type of formula [108]. Despite this constancy, each brand and type of formula has a unique flavor profile [109], ranging from low levels of sweet and sour tastes in cows' milk-based formulas (CMF), to sweet, sour, and bitter tastes in soy protein-based formulas (SPF) to savory, sour, and bitter tastes and unpleasant (to older children and adults) odor volatiles in extensive protein hydrolysate formulas (ePHF) [110]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to perceive flavors begins in utero with the development and early functioning of the gustatory and olfactory systems. Because both amniotic fluid and breast milk contain molecules derived from the mother's diet, learning about flavors in foods begins in the womb and during early infancy. This early experience serves as the foundation for the continuing development of food preferences across the lifespan, and is shaped by the interplay of biological, social, and environmental factors. Shortly after birth, young infants show characteristic taste preferences: sweet and umami elicit positive responses; bitter and sour elicit negative responses. These taste preferences may reflect a biological drive towards foods that are calorie- and protein-dense and an aversion to foods that are poisonous or toxic. Early likes and dislikes are influenced by these innate preferences, but are also modifiable. Repeated exposure to novel or disliked foods that occurs in a positive, supportive environment may promote the acceptance of and eventually a preference for those foods. Alternatively, children who are pressured to eat certain foods may show decreased preference for those foods later on. With increasing age, the influence of a number of factors, such as peers and food availability, continue to mold food preferences and eating behaviors.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013
    • "Overall, breastfed infants that are given CMF have a risk ratio of 1.72 (95% CI 1.30– 2.27) (P=0.0001) of developing CMA. It needs to be explained to mothers that by giving CMF to their breastfed baby not only will it more than likely reduce their milk supply and overall duration of breastfeeding (Nevo et al, 2007) but they are increasing their child's chances of developing CMA, which although is usually shortlived can be associated with the development of "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to discuss the risk of supplementary feeding breastfed babies with cow’s milk formula in the first few weeks of life for cow’s milk allergy. The benefits of breastfeeding in reducing food allergies, the composition of human and cow milk and immunologic development of the infant are all discussed. All known studies investigating the effect of supplementing breastfed infants with cow’s milk formula are examined in this paper. A meta-analysis, of the studies discussed, found a risk ratio of 1.75 (95% 1.30-2.27), p=0.0001, for breastfed infants given cow’s milk formula supplementation in the first few weeks of life against no supplementation given to breastfed infants.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012
    • "Although the types of flavors that breastfed infants experience before their first taste of solid foods reflect the culinary practices of their mothers, which varies from infant to infant[60,87], formula-fed infants are usually exposed to constant flavors after birth and prior to weaning, since most formula-fed infants experience a single type of formula[90]. The absence of a robust experimental paradigm, like that employed for other sensory systems (e.g., vision, audition/language) and other animals, has inhibited progress in understanding whether human flavor programming exhibits age-related changes in functional plasticity, commonly referred to as sensitive periods. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article reviews the development of the senses of taste and smell, which provide information on the flavor of foods, and discusses how innate predispositions interact with early-life feeding experiences to form children's dietary preferences and habits. A basic understanding of the development and functioning of the chemical senses during early childhood may assist in forming evidence-based strategies to improve children's diets, especially for those who experience a discontinuity or disruption in early flavor experiences.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011
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